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'-@'-@@O*,O*-x-0-*:2^:2(,:2,@M-M-@-:2 : Actuarial Preparation
Advising Handbook
Shippensburg University
College of Arts and Sciences
Mathematics Department
1871 Old Main Drive
Shippensburg, PA 17257
717-477-1431
webspace.ship.edu/math
The purpose of this handbook is to provide information on the various goals you need to achieve while at Shippensburg as you prepare for a career as an actuary. If you have any suggestions for improving this handbook, please forward them to Paul Taylor at pttaylor@ship.edu.
General Outline
Actuaries require a broad base of mathematical knowledge, including statistics, finance and computer programming. The recommended program at Shippensburg is a mathematics major with a statistics concentration and a minor in finance.
You should also aim to have a summer internship after your junior year. Most internships prefer candidates who have passed one actuarial exam, so one should be attempted in mid to late junior year. Another exam should be attempted at the end of senior year.
Course Work
You have several objectives to satisfy in choosing your course schedule. These include:
Courses required for the mathematics major
Courses required for the concentration in statistics
Economics courses to satisfy an actuarial education requirement (VEE)
Courses required for the business minor in finance
Appropriate/additional courses to prepare for actuarial exams
Courses to improve computer programming ability
Courses to prepare you in other ways for an actuarial career
Courses to fulfill the general education requirements
This is a significant list. Luckily numerous courses serve several purposes at once.
Mathematics Major
All mathematics majors must take the core courses. These are:MAT211 Calculus I
MAT212 Calculus II
MAT213 Calculus III
MAT225 Discrete Mathematics
MAT313 Statistics I
MAT318 Elementary Linear Algebra
MAT320 Introduction to Abstract Algebra
MAT441 Real Analysis or MAT430 Complex Analysis
CSC110 Computer Science ISome students may need to take MAT175-Precalculus before entering MAT211. CSC180 Microcomputer Basic can be taken to satisfy the CSC110 requirement but it is not recommended. Note that MAT211, MAT212, MAT213, MAT225, MAT313 and CSC110 are four credit courses.
Mathematics majors also take five MAT electives, which will satisfy the statistics concentration.
Statistics Concentration
In order to complete the statistics concentration, three of your five MAT electives must be:
MAT413 Statistics II
MAT476 Probability
MAT486 Mathematical Statistics
This leaves two MAT electives to further build the skills necessary for an actuary. We will choose these in the sections on computer programming below, as actuaries must be very proficient at solving mathematical and statistical problems with computers.
Economics Courses
Actuaries are business professionals and as such need a thorough grounding in economics. The Society of Actuaries and the Casualty Actuarial Society have educational requirements in economics (VEE Validation by Educational Experience). This requirement is satisfied by taking either ECO113 Principles of Economics (4 credits) or both ECO101 Principles of Macroeconomics and ECO102 Principles of Microeconomics.
So which option do you choose? With ECO 113, you free up an elective to take more finance or computer courses. ECO101/102 offer a broader exposure to economics, but an extra computer or finance course is probably more valuable. You should try to have ECO 113 completed by the end of your third semester, so that you can start on your business courses.
Business Minor
You can officially declare a minor in business once youve passed MAT211 Calculus I and either ECO102 or ECO113. You are allowed to take the first several business courses before being official business minor, however you should declare as soon as possible.
Within the minor there is a business core and two electives. The core is:
ACC200 Fundamentals of Financial Accounting
FIN311 Financial Management
MKT305 Principals of Marketing
MGT305 Organizational Behavior
ACC200 is a prerequisite for FIN311, so ACC200 should be taken first; aim for spring of sophomore year.
For electives, FIN313 Advanced Financial Management, along with FIN311, satisfies the VEE requirement in Corporate Finance. FIN312 Investments is a good choice for your second business elective. FIN311, FIN312 and FIN313 together introduce most of the topics on the actuarial exam in Financial Mathematics.
FIN314 Financial is also highly recommended. This course covers material that actuaries will eventually need to learn anyway. Even though only two electives are required for the business minor, consider adding this course if you have room.
Another option is to replace MKT305 and MGT305 with computer courses. You would lose the business minor from your degree but the computer expertise will go a long way in jumpstarting your career.
Courses for exam preparation
The first two actuarial exams are Probability (P/1) and Financial Mathematics (FM/2). Most of the material on the Probability exam is covered in MAT476 Probability, with the remainder covered in MAT486 Mathematical Statistics. Much of the material for the Financial Mathematics exam is lightly covered in FIN311 and FIN312 but extensive individual work is required beyond these courses.
You will want to take either MAT476 or begin studying for FM/2 in fall of junior year if possible, in order to attempt an exam in junior year. A detailed discussion of preparations for these exams appears later in this guide.
Computer skills
While only one computer science course is required in the mathematics major, you will still receive extensive exposure to computers and their value in solving mathematical problems.
For your computer science course, you have a choice between CSC110 Computer Science I and CSC180 Microcomputer Basic. It is very strongly recommended you select CSC110. Computers serve a vital role in actuarial work and you want a solid foundation. CSC110 is a prerequisite for all further computer science courses, should you choose to take more. If you enjoy computer programming and your schedule allows it, taking more CSC courses can only help you in your future career. CSC180 is only intended for general education credit.
In addition to your computer science course, several mathematics courses have a strong computer component. MAT313 Statistics I and MAT413 Statistics II involve extensive use of statistical analysis software such as Minitab.
Do you recall that after fulfilling the statistical concentration requirements there were two remaining MAT electives? We use them here to acquire more experience doing mathematics with computers.
MAT326 Mathematical Modeling should be one of your electives. Much of what actuaries do is build mathematical models. These are computations, often done on the computer, which predict real world phenomena. MAT326 also offers extensive experience with Microsoft Excel, one of the most important pieces of software for actuaries.
MAT410 Numerical Analysis should be your other elective, if it is available (it is not offered every year). Numerical analysis takes mathematical models a step further, gauging the accuracy of the predictions provided by a mathematical model.
Other useful courses
If you find you have room for further electives, the following are courses worth considering.
CSC111 Computer Science II, CSC210 Data Structures and Algorithms, CSC371 Database Management Systems. Additional computer programming experience is always valuable. Actuarial work involves extensive manipulation of data with computers, particularly databases.
ENG238 Technical/Professional Writing I. Actuaries typically work in a corporate environment and an ability to write high quality reports and presentations will be expected.
FIN320 Risk Management and Insurance. After your foundation of skills in mathematics, statistics and financial mathematics has been addressed, the course provides an introduction into the risk analysis techniques used by actuaries in the insurance industry.
General education requirements
Remember that you also need to fulfill your general education requirements. Your mathematics classes will satisfy Category A and your economics class will satisfy 3 credits of Category D. As you are considering a career in business, it would be a good idea to expand your language skill through your Category B courses. After that the choices are up to you.
Actuarial Exams and VEE credit
Numerous benchmarks must be passed in order to achieve the rank of Fellow in the Society of Actuaries (SOA) or the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS). Some of these benchmarks can be achieved while an undergraduate student, namely VEE credit and passing preliminary exams.
Outside of coursework, your goal should be to have passed two actuarial exams and completed an internship by graduation (or shortly following graduation). While these achievements are not strictly necessary to find a position, they would make your application package much more competitive.
Ideally, you should aim to pass one exam during spring semester of your junior year. This would allow you to put the exam on your resume when seeking a summer internship for the summer prior to senior year. If you take MAT476 Probability in fall of junior year, plan to attempt the probability exam. However, MAT476 is currently only offered in odd years. If MAT476 is not offered during your junior year, plan to take the financial mathematics exam instead.
Probability Exam P/1
The probability exam is named exam P by the SOA and exam 1 by the CAS. The exam is 30 multiple choice questions and is administered by computer. You have three hours to complete the exam. You are permitted to use a calculator but it must be from the list of approved calculators (see below).
A syllabus containing the list of topics covered is available at the following web address.
HYPERLINK "http://www.casact.org/admissions/syllabus/exam1.pdf" http://www.casact.org/admissions/syllabus/exam1.pdf
Topics include combinatorial rules involving sets, expected value, variance, covariance, moment generating functions and probability distributions, all in single and multiple variables. Most of these topics are covered in MAT476. As such, you should begin studying for the exam as MAT476 concludes (end of fall term). Studying through the winter break, you should attempt the exam in January. This allows time to apply for internships or jobs. If you fail to pass in January, try again in March. Then again in May. Do everything you can to have one exam passed before you enter senior year.
The exam is currently offered in six sittings throughout the year, in January, March, May, July, September and November. The upcoming schedule is available at
HYPERLINK "http://www.beanactuary.org/exams/preliminary/?fa=computer-based-test-schedule" http://www.beanactuary.org/exams/preliminary/?fa=computer-based-test-schedule
For more information, visit the SOA exam P homepage
HYPERLINK "http://www.soa.org/education/exam-req/edu-exam-p-detail.aspx" http://www.soa.org/education/exam-req/edu-exam-p-detail.aspx
Financial Mathematics Exam FM/2
The financial mathematics exam is named exam FM by the SOA and exam 2 by the CAS. The exam is 35 multiple choice questions and is administered by computer. You have three hours to complete the exam. You are permitted to use a calculator but it must be from the list of approved calculators (see below).
A syllabus containing the list of topics covered is available at the following web address.
HYPERLINK "http://www.casact.org/admissions/syllabus/exam2.pdf" http://www.casact.org/admissions/syllabus/exam2.pdf
Topics include theory of interest, bond pricing, loan repayment and derivatives markets. Most of these topics are introduced in FIN311 Financial Management and FIN312 Investments. However, the mathematical difficulty of FM/2 is far beyond that of FIN311/312. Exam FM/2 requires much more individual studying beyond coursework than exam P.
You should plan to start studying for your first exam in fall of your junior year or even in the summer. Aim to attempt the exam near winter break. This will allow time to apply for internships or jobs. If you fail to pass in winter, try again in May.
The exam is currently offered in six sittings throughout the year, in February, April, July, August, October and December. The upcoming schedule is available at
HYPERLINK "http://www.beanactuary.org/exams/preliminary/?fa=computer-based-test-schedule" http://www.beanactuary.org/exams/preliminary/?fa=computer-based-test-schedule
For more information, visit the SOA exam FM homepage
HYPERLINK "http://www.soa.org/education/exam-req/edu-exam-fm-detail.aspx" http://www.soa.org/education/exam-req/edu-exam-fm-detail.aspx
Preparing for the exams
A lot of studying, especially practicing sample exam problems, is required to pass these exams. For many students, speed is the issue. Three hours is not as long as it sounds and familiarity with the problems through studying is the best way to improve your speed. Plan to spend at least 40-60 hours on studying, mostly doing practice problems and practice exams. You should start your studying 8-12 weeks prior to the exam (this does not count math class and 8 is the bare minimum).
There is a variety of useful study materials available. Free sample questions (with solutions) are available online at
HYPERLINK "http://www.beanactuary.org/exams/exam_sample.cfm" http://www.beanactuary.org/exams/exam_sample.cfm
Most students also purchase a study manual. The most popular ones are published by ASM and ACTEX. These cost approximately $90 and are available online bookstores such as HYPERLINK "http://www.actuarialbookstore.com" www.actuarialbookstore.com, HYPERLINK "http://www.actexmadriver.com" www.actexmadriver.com and HYPERLINK "http://www.sliderulebooks.com" www.sliderulebooks.com . These study manuals provide topics summaries, examples and many many practice problems.
Online discussion forums, such as those at HYPERLINK "http://www.actuary.com" www.actuary.com or HYPERLINK "http://www.actuarialoutpost.com" www.actuarialoutpost.com , are another valuable resource. Other current and former students post advice, questions and sympathy.
Approved calculators
There are only six approved calculators, all manufactured by Texas Instruments. They are:
BA-35, BA II Plus, BA II Plus Professional
TI-30Xa, TI-30X II (IIS or IIB), TI-30XS Multiview (or XB)
The BA models are financial calculators, offering financial functions which are very useful when taking exam FM/2. The TI-30 models are scientific calculators which, unlike the BA calculators, allow you to input detailed formulas (the BA calculators only do one function at a time). As such, the TI-30 models are preferable for exam P/1. You are allowed to bring more than one calculator. If youre not sure which to use, practice with several and bring more than one to the exam.
Registering for an exam
Exams are taken at a computer-based testing center operated by Prometric. There is a fee, currently $200, to take an exam. The exams are offered in several seven-day sittings each year, currently six sittings for P/1 and six sittings for FM/2. Each sitting has a deadline approximately six weeks prior to the sitting. Before the deadline, you must register online at
HYPERLINK "http://www.soa.org/education/exam-req/registration/edu-registration.aspx" http://www.soa.org/education/exam-req/registration/edu-registration.aspx
After registering you need to wait until you receive confirmation that your registration has been activated. This could take anywhere between one and ten days. Once you receive confirmation, schedule your exam at a Prometric exam center. In central Pennsylvania there are testing centers in Harrisburg, York and Lancaster. Note, these exam centers are not large and exam times are first-come first-serve. Register as soon as you are sure you want to take the exam to give yourself some flexibility in this scheduling.
Exam Day
On the day of the exam, make sure you arrive early. To be safe, plan to arrive one hour early, especially if you have a long drive to get to the center. The center will sometimes let you start early if you want to and there is a free computer.
You must have with you a non-expired government issued ID with a photograph and signature; ideally a drivers license or a passport. Your ID and your calculator are all you are allowed to bring into the exam area. You will be provided with scratch paper and pencils by the Prometric staff. Prometric provides lockers where you can put your coat, wallet, keys and other personal effects. Prometric will also take additional security measures such as signature and fingerprint samples.
Once at your computer, there will be a short tutorial to help you familiarize yourself with the system. The tutorial includes basic computer skills such as using the mouse, as well as instructions on how to flag questions you want to review and how to quickly return to skipped questions.
Be sure to eat well and sleep well leading up to the exam and to visit the restroom immediately prior to the beginning of the exam.
VEE - Validation by Educational Experience
The SOA and CAS require members to achieve VEE credit in three topics: Economics, Corporate Finance and Applied Statistical Methods. VEE credit in all three subjects is available at Shippensburg.
To obtain VEE credit in Economics, you need a B- or better in ECO113, or both ECO101 and ECO102. To obtain VEE credit in Corporate Finance, you need a B- or better in both FIN311 and FIN313.
To obtain VEE credit in Applied Statistical Methods, you need a B- or better in MAT413.
Once you have passed the approved courses for VEE credit, you still need to apply to receive the credit. You can only apply to officially receive credit after you have passed two actuarial exams. The form at the following website must be submitted along with official transcripts (one form for each topic).
HYPERLINK "http://www.soa.org/files/pdf/edu-vee-candidate-credit-app.pdf" http://www.soa.org/files/pdf/edu-vee-candidate-credit-app.pdf
Keep your grades up!
With all this talk of exams and VEE, one might be tempted to think grades are less important. Do not make this mistake. Prospective employers want to see passed exams but also good grades. A good GPA will help to set your resume apart from other applicants.
Internships and the Actuarial Community
The search for internships begins nearly a year ahead of time. Early in the fall, there are several internship fairs in the area. Keep an eye out for announcements by email and flyers as school begins. There are also a number of online resources for internships.
HYPERLINK "http://www.soa.org" http://www.soa.org The SOA website has job listings including internships
HYPERLINK "http://www.twc.edu/" http://www.twc.edu/ - The Washington Center arranges internships in the D.C. area. They have a representative serving the Shippensburg campus.
HYPERLINK "http://www.actuary.com/" http://www.actuary.com/ - Actuary.com offers some job listings, articles on job and internship hunting and lots of current actuaries happy to offer advice to aspiring students.
HYPERLINK "http://www.goasny.org" http://www.goasny.org The Actuarial Society of Greater New York has an annual Actuarial Career Fair in early January. Keep an eye on the website and plan to register before Christmas.Suggested Timeline
By the end of year 1:
Consult with academic advisor each semester to schedule required courses
Maintain strong academic standing
By the end of year 2:
Consult with academic advisor each semester to schedule required courses
Officially declare a minor in business (requires passing MAT211 and ECO102 or ECO113)
Maintain strong academic standing
By the end of year 3:
Consult with academic advisor each semester to schedule required courses
Attempt an actuarial exam during winter break. Pass one exam by summer if at all possible.
Attend internship fairs, apply for summer internships
Maintain strong academic standing
By the end of year 4:
Consult with academic advisor each semester to schedule required courses
Continue to attempt actuarial exams, aiming to pass two exams by July
Apply for graduation
Maintain strong academic standing
Suggested Schedule (Starting in Fall of an Even Year)
FallSpringFirst Year
HCS100 - Human Comm
HIS105 World History I
MAT211 Calculus I
2 Gen Ed ElectivesENG106 Writing Seminar
HIS106 World History II
MAT212 Calculus II
MAT225 Discrete Mathematics
ECO113 Principles of EconomicsSecond YearMAT213 Calculus III
MAT318 Elem. Linear Algebra
CSC110 Computer Science I
ACC200 Fund. of Financial Accounting
Gen Ed ElectiveMAT320 Intro to Abstract Algebra
MAT313 Statistics I
FIN311 Financial Management
2 Gen Ed ElectivesThird YearMAT413 Statistics II
FIN312 Investments
MKT305 Principals of Marketing
2 Gen Ed Electives
Attempt Exam FM/2 (December)MAT441 Real Analysis
FIN313 Adv. Fin. Management
MGT305 Organizational Behavior
2 Gen Ed Electives
Fourth YearMAT476 Probability
FIN314 Fin. Institutions
One of MAT4xx Elective*
Or Gen Ed Elective
2 Gen Ed Electives
Attempt Exam P/1 (January)MAT486 Math. Statistics
MAT326 Mathematical Modeling
One of MAT4xx Elective*
Or Gen Ed Elective
Gen Ed Elective
Elective
* Recommended electives are MAT410 Numerical Analysis or other applied mathematics elective.
For a program with extra computer programming instead of the business minor, replace ACC200, MKT305 and MGT305 with CSC111, CSC210 and CSC371.
Suggested Schedule (Starting in Fall of an Odd Year)
FallSpringFirst Year
HCS100 - Human Comm
HIS105 World History I
MAT211 Calculus I
2 Gen Ed ElectivesENG106 Writing Seminar
HIS106 World History II
MAT212 Calculus II
MAT225 Discrete Mathematics
ECO113 Principles of EconomicsSecond YearMAT213 Calculus III
MAT318 Elem. Linear Algebra
CSC110 Computer Science I
ACC200 Fund. of Financial Accounting
Gen Ed ElectiveMAT320 Intro to Abstract Algebra
MAT313 Statistics I
FIN311 Financial Management
2 Gen Ed ElectivesThird YearMAT476 Probability
FIN312 Investments
MKT305 Principals of Marketing
2 Gen Ed Electives
Attempt Exam P/1 (January)MAT486 Math. Statistics
MAT441 Real Analysis
MGT305 Organizational Behavior
2 Gen Ed ElectivesFourth YearMAT413 Statistics II
FIN314 Fin. Institutions
One of MAT4xx Elective*
Or Gen Ed Elective
2 Gen Ed Electives
Attempt Exam FM/2 (December)FIN313 Adv. Fin. Management
MAT326 Mathematical Modeling
One of MAT4xx Elective*
Or Gen Ed Elective
Gen Ed Elective
Elective
* Recommended electives are MAT410 Numerical Analysis or other applied mathematics elective.
For a program with extra computer programming instead of the business minor, replace ACC200, MKT305 and MGT305 with CSC111, CSC210 and CSC371.
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