Ecological Archives A014-033-A1

Fiorenza Micheli, Benjamin S. Halpern, Louis W. Botsford, and Robert R. Warner. 2004. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. Ecological Applications 14:1709–1723.

Appendix A. Summary table of studies included in the meta-analyses of the effects of protection in marine reserves on fish community structure.

Location and reference

Habitat type

Year established

Years of protection

Reserve size (ha)

No. species

No. transects

Variables

               

Cerbere-Banyuls Marine Reserve, France 1, 5

rocky reef

1974 (1979)

1 and 13

65

35 and 48

8

density (No./600 m2)

French reef, Florida Kays 2

coral reef

1960

20

37

25

40-130

abundance (No./point count, 8-m radius)

Molasses Reef, Florida Kays 2

coral reef

1960

20

32388

25

63-130

abundance (No./point count, 8-m radius)

Glovers reef Marine Reserve, Belize 3

coral reef

1993

2

30784

20

12-13

abundance (no units)

Leigh, New Zealand 4

rocky reef

1975

13

526

10

17-30

density (No./125 m2)

Scandola, France 6

rocky reef

1975

13

72

10

19

density (No./10 m2) and biomass (g/10 m2)

Scandola, France 6

seagrass bed

1975

13

72

17

20-24

density (No./10 m2) and biomass (g/10 m2)

Medes Islands, Spain 7

rocky reef

1983

6

93.2

51

5-10

density (No./250 m2)

Carry-le-Rouet, France 8

rocky reef

1987

8

85

54

24

density (No./500 m2)

Merritt island, FL, USA 9

estuary

1962

25

4000

50

251-402

abundance (No./net set)

MayotteIsland, indian Ocean 10

coral reef

1992

3

220

45

9

density (No./200m2)

Malindi, Watamu and Kisite Marine NationalParks; Kenya11

coral reef

1968–1974

18–23

2500

118

14–20

density (No./500m2)

Mombasa Marine National Park, Kenya 11

coral reef

1990

1

1000

118

19–20

density (No./500m2)

Kisite Marine National Park, Kenya 12

coral reef

1973

22

1000

134

10–20

density (No./500m2)

Chumbe Island Coral Park, Tanzania 12

coral reef

1991

5

1000

134

10–20

density (No./500m2)

Capraia, Italy 13

rocky reef

1989 (1996)

5

400

37

72

abundance (No./point count, 5-m radius)

Giannutri, Italy 13

rocky reef

1989 (1996)

5

400

45

72

abundance (No./point count, 5-m radius)

Big Creek Ecological reserve, CA, USA14

rocky reef

1994

1

1100

10

11–12

density (No./10 m2)

Hopkins Marine Life Refuge, CA, USA 14

rocky reef

1984

11

140

10

12–31

density (No./10 m2)

Point Lobos Ecological Reserve, CA, USA 14

rocky reef

1973

22

780

10

6–15

density (No./10 m2)

Barbados Marine Reserve 15

coral reef

1981

11

66

24

15–24

density (No./240 m2)

Saba Marine Park, NetherlandsAntilles 16

coral reef

1987

4 and 6

120

23

15–23

abundance (No./point count, 5-m radius) and biomass (g/point count)

Ras Mohammed Marine Park, Egypt 17

coral reef

1983

15

17100

11

27

abundance (No./point count, 5-m radius) and biomass (g/point count)

Apo, Philippines 18

coral reef

1982 (1985)

1

11

30

5–6 §

density (No./750m2)

Sumilon, Philippines 18

coral reef

1974

10

12.5

33

6 §

density (No./750m2)

Ustica, Italy 19

rocky reef

1986

10

65

51

8

density (No./250 m2)

New Caledonia (5 islands) 20

coral reef

1989

5

2700

11

32–56§

density (No./m2) and biomass (g/m2)

numbers correspond to references from which data were obtained (listed below)

year of actual implementation is in parentheses

§ surveys were conducted before and after reserve establishment

 

LITERATURE CITED

1) Bell, J. D. 1983. Effects of depth and marine reserve fishing restrictions on the structure of a rocky reef fish assemblage in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 20:357–369.

2) Bohnsack, J. A. 1981. Effects of piscivorous predators removal on coral reef fish community structure. Pages 258-267 in G. M. Cailliet and C. A. Simenstad, editors. Fish food habits studies. Washington Sea Grant Publications, Seattle, Washington, USA.

3) Carter, J., and G. R. Sedberry. 1997. The design, function, and use of marine fishery reserves as tools for the management and conservation of the Belize barrier reef. Proceedings of the Eighth International Coral Reef Symposium 2:1911–1916.

4) Cole, R. G., T. M. Ayling, and R. G. Creese. 1990. Effects of marine reserve protection at Goat island, northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24:197–210.

5) Dufour, V., J. –Y. Jouvenal, and R. Galzin. 1995. Study of a Mediterranean reef fish assemblage: comparisons of population distributions between depths in protected and unprotected areas over a decade. Aquatic Living Resources 8:17–25.

6) Francour, P. 1991. The effect f protection level on a coastal fish community at Scandola, Corsica. Revue Ecologie (Terre Vie) 46:65–81.

7) Garcia-Rubies, A., and M. Zabala. 1990. Effects of total fishing prohibition on the rocky fish assemblages of MedesIslands marine reserves (NW Mediterranean). Scientia Marina 54:317–328.

8) Harmelin, J. –G., F. Bachet, and F. Gracia. 1995. Mediterranean marine reserves: fish indices as tests of protection efficiency. Marine Ecology 16:233–250.

9) Johnson, D. R., N. A. Funicelli, and J. A. Bohnsack. 1999. Effectiveness of an existing estuarine no-take fish sanctuary within the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:436–453.

10) Letourneur, Y. 1996. Reponses des peuplements et populations de poisons aux reserves marines: le cas de l’ile de Mayotte, Ocean Indien occidental. Ecoscience 3:442–450.

11) McClanahan, T. R. 1994. Kenyan coral reef lagoon fish: effects of fishing, substrate complexity, and sea urchins. Coral Reefs 13:231–241.

12) McClanahan, T. R., N. A. Muthiga, A. T. Kamukuru, H. Machano, and R. W. Kiambo. 1999. The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania. Biological Conservation 89:161–182.

13) Micheli, F., L. Benedetti-Cecchi, S. Gambaccini, I. Bertocci, C. Borsini, G. C. Osio, and F. Romano. Submitted. Alternate states, marine protected areas, and the structure of Mediterranean rocky-reef assemblages. Ecological Monographs.

14) Paddack, M. J., and J. A. Estes. 2000. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California. Ecological Applications 10:855–870.

15) Rakitin, A., and D. L. Kramer. 1996. Effect of a marine reserve on the distribution of coral reef fishes in Barbados. Marine Ecology Progress Series 131:97–113.

16) Roberts, C. M. 1995. Rapid build-up of fish biomass in a Caribbean marine reserve. Conservation Biology 9:815–826.

17) Roberts, C. M., and N. V. C. Polunin. 1992. Effects of Marine reserve protection on Northern Red Sea fish populations. Proceedings of the Seventh International Coral Reef Symposium 2:969–977.

18) Russ, G., and A. Alcala. 1989. Effects of intense fishing pressure on an assemblage of coral reef fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 56:13–27.

19) Vacchi, M., S. Bussotti, P. Guidetti, and G. La Mesa. 1998. Study of the coastal fish assemblage in the marine reserve of the UsticaIsland (southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Italian Journal of Zoology 65:281–286.

20) Wantiez, L., P. Thollot, and M. Kulbicki. 1997. Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia. Coral Reefs 16:215–224.



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