Ecological Archives A016-053-A1

Jason E. Bruggeman, Robert A. Garrott, Daniel D. Bjornlie, P. J. White, Fred G. R. Watson, and John Borkowski. 2006. Temporal variability in winter travel patterns of Yellowstone bison: the effects of road grooming. Ecological Applications 16:1539–1554.

Appendix A. Candidate lists of a priori models for bison road travel and bison off-road travel modeling exercises.

TABLE A1. Candidate list of bison road travel a priori models.


Model

Model Structure

 

Suite 1:  Biotic + Abiotic Factors


r1.1

[BISON]

r1.2

[SWE]

r1.3

[TEMP]

r1.4

[SWE] + [BISON]

r1.5

[SWE] + [BISON] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r1.6

[TEMP] + [BISON]

r1.7

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r1.8

[SWE] + [TEMP]

r1.9

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP]

r1.10

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r1.11

[BISON] + [MELT]

r1.12

[BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.13

[SWE] + [MELT]

r1.14

[SWE] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r1.15

[TEMP] + [MELT]

r1.16

[TEMP] + [MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

r1.17

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT]

r1.18

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r1.19

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.20

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r1.21

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r1.22

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.23

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r1.24

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT]

r1.25

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r1.26

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.27

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.28

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

r1.29

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT]

r1.30

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r1.31

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r1.32

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.33

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

r1.34

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r1.35

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r1.36

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

r1.37

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

   
   
 

Suite 2:  Composite Factors (Biotic + Abiotic + Anthropogenic)

r2.1

[BISON] + [GROOM]

r2.2

[BISON] + [GROOM] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.3

[SWE] + [GROOM]

r2.4

[SWE] + [GROOM] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.5

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM]

r2.6

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.7

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.8

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.9

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.10

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [GROOM]*[BISON] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.11

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r2.12

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r2.13

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.14

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.15

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.16

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r2.17

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[TEMP]

r2.18

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.19

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.20

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.21

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP]

r2.22

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r2.23

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r2.24

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.25

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.26

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r2.27

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.28

[TRAFFIC]

r2.29

[BISON] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.30

[BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TRAFFIC]*[BISON]

r2.31

[SWE] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.32

[SWE] + [TRAFFIC] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.33

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.34

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TRAFFIC]*[BISON]

r2.35

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.36

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.37

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [TRAFFIC]*[BISON]

r2.39

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r2.40

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r2.41

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TRAFFIC]*[BISON]

r2.42

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.43

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.44

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TEMP] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r2.45

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[TEMP]

r2.46

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC]*[BISON]

r2.47

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.48

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.49

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP]

r2.50

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r2.51

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r2.52

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC]*[BISON]

r2.53

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.54

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r2.55

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.56

[TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]

r2.57

[BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.58

[BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.59

[SWE] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.60

[SWE] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.61

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.62

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.64

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.65

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.66

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.67

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.68

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [GROOM]*[BISON] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.69

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r2.70

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r2.71

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.73

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.74

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.75

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TRAFFIC] + [MELT] + [TRAFFIC]*[SWE]

r2.76

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r2.77

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[TEMP]

r2.78

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.79

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.80

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[SWE]

r2.81

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC]

r2.82

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [BISON]*[MELT]

r2.83

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[MELT]

r2.84

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[BISON]

r2.85

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [SWE]*[BISON]

r2.86

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

r2.87

[SWE] + [BISON] + [GROOM] + [MELT] + [TEMP] + [TRAFFIC] + [GROOM]*[SWE]


 

TABLE A2.  Candidate list of bison off-road travel a priori models.


Model

Model Structure


o1.1

[BISON]

o1.2

[SWE]

o1.3

[TEMP]

o1.4

[SWE] + [BISON]

o1.5

[SWE] + [BISON] + [SWE]*[BISON]

o1.6

[TEMP] + [BISON]

o1.7

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

o1.8

[SWE] + [TEMP]

o1.9

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP]

o1.10

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

o1.11

[BISON] + [MELT]

o1.12

[BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.13

[SWE] + [MELT]

o1.14

[SWE] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

o1.15

[TEMP] + [MELT]

o1.16

[TEMP] + [MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

o1.17

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT]

o1.18

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

o1.19

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.20

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

o1.21

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [SWE]*[MELT]

o1.22

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.23

[SWE] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[MELT] + [SWE]*[MELT]

o1.24

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT]

o1.25

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

o1.26

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.27

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.28

[TEMP] + [BISON] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

o1.29

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT]

o1.30

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON]

o1.31

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

o1.32

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.33

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

o1.34

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP]

o1.35

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[MELT]

o1.36

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [TEMP]*[MELT]

o1.37

[SWE] + [BISON] + [TEMP] + [MELT] + [SWE]*[BISON] + [BISON]*[TEMP] + [BISON]*[MELT] + [TEMP]*[MELT]




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