Ecological Archives A017-054-A2

Jason E. Bruggeman, Robert A. Garrott, P. J. White, Fred G. R. Watson, and Rick Wallen. 2007. Covariates affecting spatial variability in bison travel behavior in Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Applications 17:1411–1423.

Appendix B. Descriptions of a priori hypothesized effects for each covariate on the log odds response and tables of candidate a priori models for general bison travel analysis, bison long distance travel analysis, and bison road travel analysis.

Description of a priori hypothesized effects for covariates used for general bison travel and bison long distance travel analyses:

First, we hypothesized that the odds of bison travel would be negatively correlated with SL because bison often avoid traveling on steep slopes. Second, we predicted that SLHG and TAN would positively affect the odds of travel since areas of variable topography would be more likely to influence bison choice of travel routes and restrict travel to a corridor. Third, we hypothesized that the odds of travel would be positively correlated with MD and TH habitats as our field observations indicated that bison establish travel networks through these habitats. Similarly, we expected that the odds of travel would be negatively correlated with BF, UF, and OT habitats since bison often avoid traveling in burned areas containing downed trees, heavily forested regions lacking suitable forage, and rocky talus areas. Fourth, we predicted that DST, DBF, and DUF would be negative effects on the odds of travel since bison would develop travel networks along stream corridors and near the edges of burned and unburned forest habitats. Fifth, we hypothesized that PROX would be negatively correlated with the odds of travel because bison travel routes would be less likely farther from foraging areas. For our exploratory modeling exercise, we predicted that DRD would be negatively correlated with the odds of travel since bison are known to use some road corridors as travel routes. However, we hypothesized that DST would be a better predictor of the odds of travel than DRD. We also expected the odds of travel to be negatively correlated with ELEV because higher elevation areas receive more snowfall in winter and are farther from major waterways.

Using the same rationale as with our hypotheses for the GPS data analysis, we predicted that SLHG and TAN would be positively correlated with the amount of bison road travel per segment (ηij) and that SL, DST, DBF, DUF, and PROX would be negatively correlated with ηij. Also, we anticipated YEAR to be a positive effect on ηij since the bison population increased during the study and the number of bison in the MGF has been documented to be positively correlated with the amount of bison road travel (Bruggeman et al. 2006).


TABLE B1. List of 255 candidate models for the general bison travel modeling analysis using GPS vector data. The response variable is the log odds of general bison travel.

Model

Structure

 

Suite 1: Static Topography Variables. Models consist of all combinations of main effects of SL, SLHG, and TAN.

T1

Bo + B1[SL]

T2

Bo + B1[SLHG]

T3

Bo + B1[TAN]

T4

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[SLHG]

T5

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[TAN]

T6

Bo + B1[SLHG] + B2[TAN]

T7

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

   
 

Suite 2: Static Habitat Variables. Models consist of all combinations of main effects of HBT, DST, DBF, DUF, and PROX.

H1

Bo + B1[HBT]

H2

Bo + B1[DST]

H3

Bo + B1[DBF]

H4

Bo + B1[DUF]

H5

Bo + B1[PROX]

H6

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST]

H7

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF]

H8

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF]

H9

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX]

H10

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF]

H11

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF]

H12

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX]

H13

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF]

H14

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX]

H15

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX]

H16

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF]

H17

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF]

H18

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX]

H19

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF]

H20

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX]

H21

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

H22

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF]

H23

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX]

H24

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

H25

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

H26

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF]

H27

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX]

H28

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

H29

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

H30

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

H31

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX]

   
 

Suite 3: Composite Static Topography and Habitat Variables. Models consist of all combinations of main effects of SL, SLHG, TAN, HBT, DST, DBF, DUF, and PROX that were not evaluated in Suites 1 or 2.

HT1

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL]

HT2

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL]

HT3

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL]

HT4

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL]

HT5

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL]

HT6

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL]

HT7

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL]

HT8

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

HT9

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

HT10

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL]

HT11

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

HT12

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

HT13

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

HT14

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

HT15

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

HT16

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL]

HT17

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

HT18

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

HT19

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

HT20

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

HT21

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

HT22

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

HT23

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

HT24

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

HT25

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

HT26

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL]

HT27

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

HT28

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

HT29

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

HT30

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

HT31

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL]

HT32

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SLHG]

HT33

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG]

HT34

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG]

HT35

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG]

HT36

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG]

HT37

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SLHG]

HT38

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG]

HT39

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

HT40

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

HT41

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG]

HT42

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

HT43

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

HT44

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

HT45

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

HT46

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

HT47

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SLHG]

HT48

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

HT49

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

HT50

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

HT51

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

HT52

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

HT53

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

HT54

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

HT55

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

HT56

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

HT57

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SLHG]

HT58

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

HT59

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

HT60

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

HT61

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

HT62

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SLHG]

HT63

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[TAN]

HT64

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[TAN]

HT65

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[TAN]

HT66

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[TAN]

HT67

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[TAN]

HT68

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[TAN]

HT69

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[TAN]

HT70

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

HT71

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

HT72

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[TAN]

HT73

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

HT74

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

HT75

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

HT76

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

HT77

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

HT78

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[TAN]

HT79

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

HT80

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

HT81

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

HT82

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

HT83

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

HT84

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

HT85

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

HT86

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

HT87

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

HT88

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[TAN]

HT89

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

HT90

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

HT91

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

HT92

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

HT93

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[TAN]

HT94

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

HT95

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

HT96

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

HT97

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

HT98

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

HT99

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT100

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT101

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT102

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT103

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT104

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT105

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT106

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT107

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT108

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

HT109

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT110

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT111

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT112

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT113

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT114

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT115

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT116

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT117

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT118

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

HT119

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

HT120

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

HT121

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

HT122

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

HT123

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

HT124

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL] + B7[SLHG]

HT125

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

HT126

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

HT127

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

HT128

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

HT129

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

HT130

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT131

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT132

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT133

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT134

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT135

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT136

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT137

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT138

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT139

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

HT140

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT141

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT142

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT143

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT144

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT145

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT146

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT147

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT148

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT149

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

HT150

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

HT151

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

HT152

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

HT153

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

HT154

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

HT155

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL] + B7[TAN]

HT156

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

HT157

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

HT158

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

HT159

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

HT160

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

HT161

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT162

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT163

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT164

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT165

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT166

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT167

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT168

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT169

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT170

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT171

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT172

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT173

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT174

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT175

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT176

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT177

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT178

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT179

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT180

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT181

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT182

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT183

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT184

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT185

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT186

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

HT187

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT188

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT189

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT190

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT191

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

HT192

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT193

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT194

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT195

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT196

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT197

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT198

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT199

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT200

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT201

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

HT202

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT203

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT204

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT205

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT206

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT207

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT208

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT209

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT210

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT211

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

HT212

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

HT213

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

HT214

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

HT215

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

HT216

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

HT217

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL] + B7[SLHG] + B8[TAN]


 

TABLE B2. List of 255 candidate models for the bison long distance travel modeling analysis using GPS vector data. The response variable is the log odds of bison long distance travel.

Model

Structure

 

Suite 1: Static Topography Variables. Models consist of all combinations of main effects of SL, SLHG, and TAN.

CT1

Bo + B1[SL]

CT2

Bo + B1[SLHG]

CT3

Bo + B1[TAN]

CT4

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[SLHG]

CT5

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[TAN]

CT6

Bo + B1[SLHG] + B2[TAN]

CT7

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

   
 

Suite 2:Static Habitat Variables. Models consist of all combinations of main effects of HBT, DST, DBF, DUF, and PROX.

CH1

Bo + B1[HBT]

CH2

Bo + B1[DST]

CH3

Bo + B1[DBF]

CH4

Bo + B1[DUF]

CH5

Bo + B1[PROX]

CH6

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST]

CH7

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF]

CH8

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF]

CH9

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX]

CH10

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF]

CH11

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF]

CH12

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX]

CH13

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF]

CH14

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX]

CH15

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX]

CH16

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF]

CH17

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF]

CH18

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX]

CH19

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF]

CH20

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX]

CH21

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

CH22

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF]

CH23

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX]

CH24

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

CH25

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

CH26

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF]

CH27

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX]

CH28

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

CH29

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

CH30

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

CH31

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX]

   
 

Suite 3: Composite Static Topography and Habitat Variables. Models consist of all combinations of main effects of SL, SLHG, TAN, HBT, DST, DBF, DUF, and PROX that were not evaluated in Suites 1 or 2.

CHT1

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL]

CHT2

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL]

CHT3

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL]

CHT4

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL]

CHT5

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL]

CHT6

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL]

CHT7

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL]

CHT8

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

CHT9

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

CHT10

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL]

CHT11

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

CHT12

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

CHT13

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

CHT14

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

CHT15

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

CHT16

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL]

CHT17

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

CHT18

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

CHT19

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

CHT20

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

CHT21

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

CHT22

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

CHT23

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

CHT24

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

CHT25

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

CHT26

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL]

CHT27

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

CHT28

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

CHT29

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

CHT30

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

CHT31

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL]

CHT32

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SLHG]

CHT33

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG]

CHT34

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG]

CHT35

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG]

CHT36

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG]

CHT37

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SLHG]

CHT38

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG]

CHT39

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

CHT40

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

CHT41

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG]

CHT42

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

CHT43

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

CHT44

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

CHT45

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

CHT46

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

CHT47

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SLHG]

CHT48

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

CHT49

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

CHT50

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

CHT51

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

CHT52

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

CHT53

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

CHT54

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

CHT55

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

CHT56

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

CHT57

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SLHG]

CHT58

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

CHT59

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

CHT60

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

CHT61

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

CHT62

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SLHG]

CHT63

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[TAN]

CHT64

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[TAN]

CHT65

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[TAN]

CHT66

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[TAN]

CHT67

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[TAN]

CHT68

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[TAN]

CHT69

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[TAN]

CHT70

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

CHT71

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

CHT72

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[TAN]

CHT73

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

CHT74

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

CHT75

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

CHT76

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

CHT77

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

CHT78

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[TAN]

CHT79

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

CHT80

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

CHT81

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

CHT82

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

CHT83

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

CHT84

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

CHT85

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

CHT86

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

CHT87

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

CHT88

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[TAN]

CHT89

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

CHT90

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

CHT91

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

CHT92

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

CHT93

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[TAN]

CHT94

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

CHT95

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

CHT96

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

CHT97

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

CHT98

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

CHT99

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT100

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT101

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT102

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT103

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT104

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT105

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT106

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT107

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT108

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

CHT109

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT110

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT111

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT112

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT113

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT114

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT115

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT116

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT117

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT118

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

CHT119

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

CHT120

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

CHT121

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

CHT122

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

CHT123

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

CHT124

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL] + B7[SLHG]

CHT125

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

CHT126

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

CHT127

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

CHT128

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

CHT129

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[TAN]

CHT130

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT131

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT132

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT133

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT134

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT135

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT136

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT137

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT138

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT139

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[TAN]

CHT140

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT141

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT142

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT143

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT144

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT145

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT146

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT147

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT148

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT149

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[TAN]

CHT150

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

CHT151

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

CHT152

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

CHT153

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

CHT154

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[TAN]

CHT155

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL] + B7[TAN]

CHT156

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

CHT157

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

CHT158

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

CHT159

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

CHT160

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

CHT161

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT162

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT163

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT164

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT165

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT166

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT167

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT168

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT169

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT170

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT171

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT172

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT173

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT174

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT175

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT176

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT177

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT178

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT179

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT180

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT181

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT182

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT183

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT184

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT185

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT186

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

CHT187

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT188

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT189

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT190

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT191

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

CHT192

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT193

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT194

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT195

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT196

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT197

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT198

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT199

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT200

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT201

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

CHT202

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT203

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT204

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT205

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT206

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT207

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT208

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT209

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT210

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT211

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

CHT212

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

CHT213

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

CHT214

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

CHT215

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

CHT216

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[TAN]

CHT217

Bo + B1[HBT] + B2[DST] + B3[DBF] + B4[DUF] + B5[PROX] + B6[SL] + B7[SLHG] + B8[TAN]


 

TABLE B3. List of 190 candidate models for the bison road travel modeling analysis using data from bison road use surveys. The response variable is the η, the amount of bison travel per road segment.

Model

Structure

 

Suite 1: Static Topography Variables and Year Effect. Models consist of combinations of SL, SLHG, TAN, and YEAR main effects.

RT1

Bo + B1[SL]

RT2

Bo + B1[SLHG]

RT3

Bo + B1[TAN]

RT4

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[SLHG]

RT5

Bo + B1[SLHG] + B2[TAN]

RT6

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[YEAR]

RT7

Bo + B1[SLHG] + B2[YEAR]

RT8

Bo + B1[TAN] + B2[YEAR]

RT9

Bo + B1[SL] + B2[SLHG] + B3[YEAR]

RT10

Bo + B1[SLHG] + B2[TAN] + B3[YEAR]

   
 

Suite 2: Static Habitat Variables and Year Effect. Models consist of combinations of DST, DBF, DUF, PROX, and YEAR main effects.

RH1

Bo + B1[DST]

RH2

Bo + B1[DBF]

RH3

Bo + B1[DUF]

RH4

Bo + B1[PROX]

RH5

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF]

RH6

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF]

RH7

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX]

RH8

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF]

RH9

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX]

HR10

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX]

RH11

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF]

RH12

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX]

RH13

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

RH14

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX]

RH15

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX]

RH16

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[YEAR]

RH17

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[YEAR]

RH18

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[YEAR]

RH19

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[YEAR]

RH20

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[YEAR]

RH21

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[YEAR]

RH22

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[YEAR]

RH23

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[YEAR]

RH24

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[YEAR]

RH25

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[YEAR]

RH26

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[YEAR]

RH27

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[YEAR]

RH28

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[YEAR]

RH29

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[YEAR]

RH30

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[YEAR]

   
 

Suite 3: Composite Static Topography and Habitat Variables. Models consist of combinations of SL, SLHG, TAN, DST, DBF, DUF, PROX, and YEAR main effects that were not considered in Suites 1 or 2.

RHT1

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL]

RHT2

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL]

RHT3

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL]

RHT4

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL]

RHT5

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL]

RHT6

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

RHT7

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

RHT8

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL]

RHT9

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

RHT10

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL]

RHT11

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL]

RHT12

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

RHT13

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

RHT14

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL]

RHT15

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL]

RHT16

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG]

RHT17

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG]

RHT18

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG]

RHT19

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG]

RHT20

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG]

RHT21

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

RHT22

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

RHT23

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG]

RHT24

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

RHT25

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG]

RHT26

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG]

RHT27

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

RHT28

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

RHT29

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG]

RHT30

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG]

RHT31

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[TAN]

RHT32

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[TAN]

RHT33

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[TAN]

RHT34

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[TAN]

RHT35

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[TAN]

RHT36

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

RHT37

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

RHT38

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN]

RHT39

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

RHT40

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN]

RHT41

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN]

RHT42

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

RHT43

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

RHT44

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN]

RHT45

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN]

RHT46

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

RHT47

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

RHT48

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

RHT49

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG]

RHT50

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

RHT51

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

RHT52

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

RHT53

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

RHT54

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

RHT55

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG]

RHT56

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

RHT57

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

RHT58

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

RHT59

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG]

RHT60

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG]

RHT61

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

RHT62

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

RHT63

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

RHT64

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN]

RHT65

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

RHT66

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

RHT67

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

RHT68

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

RHT69

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

RHT70

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN]

RHT71

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

RHT72

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

RHT73

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

RHT74

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN]

RHT75

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN]

RHT76

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[YEAR]

RHT77

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[YEAR]

RHT78

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[YEAR]

RHT79

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[YEAR]

RHT80

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[YEAR]

RHT81

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[YEAR]

RHT82

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[YEAR]

RHT83

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[YEAR]

RHT84

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[YEAR]

RHT85

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[YEAR]

RHT86

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[YEAR]

RHT87

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[YEAR]

RHT88

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[YEAR]

RHT89

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[YEAR]

RHT90

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[YEAR]

RHT91

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG] + B3[YEAR]

RHT92

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[YEAR]

RHT93

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[YEAR]

RHT94

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG] + B3[YEAR]

RHT95

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT96

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT97

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT98

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT99

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT100

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT101

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT102

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT103

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT104

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT105

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[YEAR]

RHT106

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[TAN] + B3[YEAR]

RHT107

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[TAN] + B3[YEAR]

RHT108

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[TAN] + B3[YEAR]

RHT109

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[TAN] + B3[YEAR]

RHT110

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT111

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT112

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT113

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT114

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT115

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT116

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT117

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT118

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT119

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT120

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[TAN] + B6[YEAR]

RHT121

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT122

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT123

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT124

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SL] + B3[SLHG] + B4[YEAR]

RHT125

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT126

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT127

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT128

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT129

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT130

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SL] + B4[SLHG] + B5[YEAR]

RHT131

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[YEAR]

RHT132

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[YEAR]

RHT133

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[YEAR]

RHT134

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SL] + B5[SLHG] + B6[YEAR]

RHT135

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SL] + B6[SLHG] + B7[YEAR]

RHT136

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT137

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT138

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT139

Bo + B1[PROX] + B2[SLHG] + B3[TAN] + B4[YEAR]

RHT140

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT141

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT142

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT143

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT144

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT145

Bo + B1[DUF] + B2[PROX] + B3[SLHG] + B4[TAN] + B5[YEAR]

RHT146

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN] + B6[YEAR]

RHT147

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN] + B6[YEAR]

RHT148

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN] + B6[YEAR]

RHT149

Bo + B1[DBF] + B2[DUF] + B3[PROX] + B4[SLHG] + B5[TAN] + B6[YEAR]

RHT150

Bo + B1[DST] + B2[DBF] + B3[DUF] + B4[PROX] + B5[SLHG] + B6[TAN] + B7[YEAR]


 

LITERATURE CITED

Bruggeman, J. E., R. A. Garrott, D. D. Bjornlie, P. J. White, F.G. R. Watson, and J. J. Borkowski. 2006. Temporal variability in winter travel patterns of Yellowstone bison: the effects of road grooming. Ecological Applications 16:1539–1554.



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