Ecological Archives A019-014-A3

Ralph E. J. Boerner, Jianjun Huang, and Stephen C. Hart. 2009. Impacts of Fire and Fire Surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: a meta-analytical approach. Ecological Applications 19:338–358.

Appendix C. First year posttreatment soil conditions at the Fire and Fire Surrogate Network (FFS) scale and in the 12 individual FFS study sites.

TABLE C1. First year posttreatment soil conditions at the Fire and Fire Surrogate Network (FFS) scale and in the twelve individual FFS study sites. Site abbreviations follow Table 1. Means of n = 3 (n = 4 for OR) per treatment per study site and standard errors of the means are given.

Site

Treatment

Mineral Soil Exposure

 

Bulk Density

 

Soil pH

 

Extractable Ca

 

Extractable K

 
   

%

 

Mg/m3

     

Mg/ha

 

Mg/ha

 
   

mean

SE

mean

SE

mean

SE

mean

SE

mean

SE

FFS

Control

1.50

0.39

0.929

0.039

5.24

0.15

101.7

2.8

30.8

4.7

FFS

Fire

9.22

2.27

0.891

0.045

5.38

0.13

206.4

51.1

89.4

38.1

FFS

Mechanical

2.59

0.93

1.022

0.046

5.09

0.12

71.9

20.4

20.6

4.8

FFS

Mechanical+Fire

5.01

1.73

0.993

0.043

5.28

0.13

90.9

26.0

21.3

4.4

CA-N

Control

2.64

0.45

0.667

0.007

5.2

0.09

340.8

24.0

60.9

3.4

CA-N

Fire

3.94

0.23

0.519

0.036

5.84

0.11

509.7

78.3

87.5

9.6

CA-N

Mechanical

3.74

0.17

0.643

0.050

5.11

0.14

316.7

48.2

69.2

16.5

CA-N

Mechanical+Fire

3.38

0.30

0.633

0.003

5.49

0.06

387.9

53.5

66.0

0.7

CA-C

Control

1.48

0.60

0.855

0.020

5.26

0.09

1.5

0.2

0.2

0.0

CA-C

Fire

6.18

1.13

0.813

0.040

5.78

0.06

1.8

0.1

0.2

0.0

CA-C

Mechanical

1.52

0.43

0.837

0.010

5.31

0.15

1.7

0.4

0.2

0.0

CA-C

Mechanical+Fire

5.25

0.75

0.712

0.065

5.75

0.07

1.9

0.1

0.2

0.0

WA

Control

0.00

0.00

1.029

0.042

6.35

0.1

2.2

0.9

0.5

0.1

WA

Fire

0.00

0.00

0.985

0.055

6.24

0.14

3.9

0.1

0.6

0.3

WA

Mechanical

0.00

0.00

1.081

0.033

6.05

0.14

1.6

1.5

0.4

0.0

WA

Mechanical+Fire

0.00

0.00

1.068

0.061

6.32

0.19

3.2

0.4

0.8

0.0

CA-S

Control

4.36

1.81

0.530

0.049

5.78

0.14

360.4

150.3

nd

nd

CA-S

Fire

20.24

4.01

0.505

0.035

6.14

0.13

688.0

106.5

672.5

133.9

OR

Control

0.73

0.12

1.018

0.018

6.4

0.42

12.7

1.2

11.7

1.5

OR

Fire

1.09

0.11

1.084

0.056

6.16

0.12

15.9

2.5

15.4

4.5

OR

Mechanical

0.69

0.29

1.339

0.110

5.68

0.12

18.8

1.4

11.0

1.1

OR

Mechanical+Fire

1.55

0.24

1.194

0.099

6.16

0.06

18.3

2.6

13.0

1.1

MT

Control

0.01

0.01

0.930

0.012

5.05

0.1

1.4

0.2

0.4

0.0

MT

Fire

0.26

0.08

0.918

0.014

5.29

0.07

1.3

0.1

0.3

0.0

MT

Mechanical

0.08

0.03

0.965

0.054

5.13

0.12

1.3

0.2

0.3

0.0

MT

Mechanical+Fire

0.36

0.00

0.917

0.040

5.35

0.13

1.3

0.1

0.3

0.0

AZ

Control

nd

nd

0.803

0.057

5.49

0.17

nd

nd

nd

nd

AZ

Fire

nd

nd

0.765

0.008

5.59

0.11

nd

nd

nd

nd

AZ

Mechanical

nd

nd

0.764

0.021

5.4

0.09

nd

nd

nd

nd

AZ

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

0.759

0.022

5.47

0.12

nd

nd

nd

nd

AL

Control

nd

nd

1.249

0.022

4.65

0.13

7.9

3.0

18.5

1.4

AL

Fire

nd

nd

1.215

0.004

4.54

0.07

6.4

1.7

20.3

4.5

AL

Mechanical

nd

nd

1.370

0.028

4.55

0.02

9.0

3.0

15.6

4.5

AL

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

1.391

0.033

4.72

0.02

9.1

4.6

21.3

7.9

OH

Control

1.83

1.17

0.850

0.040

3.6

0.02

105.7

38.7

28.8

3.3

OH

Fire

25.67

8.53

0.930

0.070

3.84

0.09

155.3

11.3

30.7

1.5

OH

Mechanical

10.17

4.00

0.920

0.035

3.72

0.11

168.6

34.7

40.4

6.5

OH

Mechanical+Fire

22.00

7.29

0.887

0.009

3.94

0.12

235.7

40.4

37.6

5.6

SC

Control

nd

nd

0.846

0.029

4.99

0.03

19.6

1.3

4.3

0.3

SC

Fire

nd

nd

0.863

0.020

5.07

0.13

26.9

6.1

5.6

1.2

SC

Mechanical

nd

nd

0.868

0.083

5.19

0.17

23.5

4.1

5.4

1.2

SC

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

0.880

0.059

5.05

0.05

30.9

4.0

4.8

0.3

NC

Control

nd

nd

1.252

0.016

4.53

0.05

194.8

26.5

64.6

10.0

NC

Fire

nd

nd

1.284

0.027

4.6

0.08

169.4

13.4

56.3

10.2

NC

Mechanical

nd

nd

1.247

0.084

4.58

0.08

123.3

17.6

45.6

9.7

NC

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

1.158

0.049

4.61

0.04

124.5

8.4

44.0

7.7

FL

Control

0.56

nd

1.425

n = 1

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

FL

Fire

2.92

0.66

1.300

0.045

4.38

0.1

nd

nd

nd

nd

FL

Mechanical

2.54

nd

1.266

n = 1

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

FL

Mechanical+Fire

2.77

0.42

1.214

0.030

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

                       

Site

Treatment

Extractable Al

 

Extractable P

 

Total Inorganic N

 

N Mineralization

 

Net Nitrification

 
   

Mg/ha

 

kg/ha

 

kg/ha

 

kg ha-1 d-1

 

kg ha-1 d-1

 
   

mean

SE

mean

SE

mean

SE

mean

SE

mean

SE

FFS

Control

231

94.2

400.2

174.5

5.9

1.21

0.122

0.043

0.04

0.019

FFS

Fire

210.4

89.6

389.2

170.5

11.04

1.56

0.097

0.042

0.051

0.016

FFS

Mechanical

266.9

107.6

432.2

212.8

6.29

1.1

0.094

0.037

0.048

0.028

FFS

Mechanical+Fire

259.1

109.5

503.6

258.1

11.56

1.99

0.107

0.045

0.087

0.027

CA-N

Control

13.4

5.1

49.6

8.1

1.39

0.44

0.034

0.014

0.014

0.006

CA-N

Fire

2.9

1.7

66.8

3.2

5.23

1.07

0.003

0.016

0.007

0.005

CA-N

Mechanical

8.4

1.1

46.4

21.5

1.94

0.01

0.02

0.009

0.007

0.002

CA-N

Mechanical+Fire

6.2

0.9

57.6

18.5

3.8

0.22

0.05

0.022

0.019

0.009

CA-C

Control

nd

nd

2.6

0.3

1.74

0.07

0.065

0.012

0.036

0.019

CA-C

Fire

nd

nd

3.7

0.7

21.95

2.1

0.078

0.001

0.129

0.053

CA-C

Mechanical

nd

nd

2.25

0.3

2.16

0.09

0.124

0.014

0.076

0.026

CA-C

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

2.08

0.3

38.57

5.81

0.172

0.086

0.161

0.022

WA

Control

0

0

3.5

1.1

10.24

5.7

-0.113

0.109

0.124

0.095

WA

Fire

0

0

2.3

0.6

7.71

1.11

-0.115

0.022

0.075

0.022

WA

Mechanical

0

0

1.5

0.4

11.68

5.19

-0.167

0.144

0.071

0.014

WA

Mechanical+Fire

0

0

3.6

0.3

15.71

2.59

-0.179

0.151

0.223

0.183

CA-S

Control

2.6

2.3

399.2

126.8

11.94

1.95

0.173

0.08

0.068

0.013

CA-S

Fire

1.9

1

177

46.8

20.6

2.25

0.084

0.054

0.096

0.026

OR

Control

nd

nd

133.7

36.6

3.59

0.67

0.423

0.06

0.021

0.002

OR

Fire

nd

nd

127.2

14.2

8.37

2.28

-0.018

0.297

0.045

0.026

OR

Mechanical

nd

nd

124.2

29.7

5.58

0.25

0.107

0.224

0.022

0.009

OR

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

157.9

23

8.52

1.82

-0.071

0.233

0.033

0.011

MT

Control

0

0

0.42

0

0.85

0.09

0.059

0.012

0.009

0.005

MT

Fire

0

0

0.46

0

2.12

0.19

0.088

0.022

0.011

0.005

MT

Mechanical

0

0

0.5

0.1

0.81

0.07

0.126

0.074

0.039

0.032

MT

Mechanical+Fire

0

0

0.43

0.1

4.95

0.86

0.195

0.016

0.096

0.024

AZ

Control

nd

nd

nd

nd

1.38

0.51

0.03

0.018

0

0.005

AZ

Fire

nd

nd

nd

nd

4.66

1.53

0.047

0.025

0.023

0.006

AZ

Mechanical

nd

nd

nd

nd

3.36

0.95

0.002

0.001

-0.001

0.001

AZ

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

nd

nd

2.84

1.07

0.006

0.002

0.003

0.002

AL

Control

nd

nd

2840

647.7

6.32

1.9

0.096

0.067

0.011

0.018

AL

Fire

nd

nd

3064.4

456.4

8.3

1.7

0.183

0.047

0.022

0.021

AL

Mechanical

nd

nd

3110.3

661.4

9.4

2.6

0.225

0.062

0.018

0.012

AL

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

3510.7

971.9

11.36

3.04

0.258

0.093

0.062

0.029

OH

Control

279.2

18.2

110

32

6

1.57

0.227

0.055

0.211

0.038

OH

Fire

245.5

34.9

81.3

25.5

5.15

0.23

0.166

0.006

0.177

0.026

OH

Mechanical

275.9

10.7

127.4

13.8

14.36

5.84

0.281

0.008

0.318

0.004

OH

Mechanical+Fire

199.9

37.9

102.3

12.1

8.58

1.01

0.215

0.017

0.255

0.029

SC

Control

88

2.9

nd

nd

0.81

0.31

0.039

0.011

0.001

0.001

SC

Fire

89.8

2.3

nd

nd

0.83

0.1

0.041

0.011

0.007

0.007

SC

Mechanical

86.2

1.1

nd

nd

0.83

0.33

0.112

0.014

0.005

0.003

SC

Mechanical+Fire

83.1

0.9

nd

nd

1.58

0.27

0.033

0.04

0.01

0.002

NC

Control

1233.8

63.5

151.9

11.5

11.75

0.82

0.321

0.083

0.003

0.003

NC

Fire

1271.2

62.9

150.6

13.7

14.11

4.32

0.129

0.084

0.009

0.028

NC

Mechanical

1231.2

65.7

147.5

12.5

13.22

1.96

0.175

0.138

0.04

0.036

NC

Mechanical+Fire

1179.3

115.1

143.1

3.5

11.95

0.44

0.232

0.229

0.079

0.057

FL

Control

nd

nd

nd

nd

34.89

n = 1

0.169

n = 1

0.008

n = 1

FL

Fire

nd

nd

nd

nd

30.01

14.58

0.479

0.007

0.013

0.01

FL

Mechanical

nd

nd

nd

nd

5.59

N = 1

0.028

n = 1

0

n = 1

FL

Mechanical+Fire

nd

nd

nd

nd

26.76

1.27

0.266

0.004

0.014

0.001

                       

Site

 Treatment

 Soil Organic C

 

 Total Soil N

 

 Soil C:N

         
   

 Mg/ha

 

 Mg/ha

 

 ratio

         
   

 mean

SE

 mean

SE

 mean

SE

       

FFS

 Control

 30.84

2.70

 1.28

0.14

 22.41

0.81

       

FFS

 Fire

 27.77

1.97

 1.12

0.12

 22.47

0.81

       

FFS

 Mechanical

 29.72

2.69

 1.27

0.12

 28.5

4.59

       

FFS

 Mechanical+Fire

 29.43

2.23

 1.57

0.24

 23.89

1.44

       

CA-N

 Control

 31.93

4.26

 1.19

0.12

 26.89

1.05

       

CA-N

 Fire

 23.76

4.14

 0.94

0.23

 26.63

0.84

       

CA-N

 Mechanical

 33.29

1.76

 1.31

0.16

 25.69

1.87

       

CA-N

 Mechanical+Fire

 32.47

2.10

 1.35

0.08

 24.04

1.01

       

CA-C

 Control

66.39

 5.19

2.95

0.30

22.81

 0.62

       

CA-C

 Fire

55.13

 3.83

2.58

 0.19

21.45

 0.31

       

CA-C

 Mechanical

64.5

 3.88

2.86

 0.28

22.72

 0.82

       

CA-C

 Mechanical+Fire

58.90

1.00

2.78

0.20

21.53

 1.37

       

WA

 Control

25.01

 5.45

1.41

 0.47

21.52

 3.82

       

WA

 Fire

32.76

4.50

1.45

 0.02

22.42

 3.04

       

WA

 Mechanical

21.47

0.70

0.93

 0.07

24.11

 1.28

       

WA

 Mechanical+Fire

38.20

 0.99

1.70

 0.26

24.34

4.40

       

CA-S

 Control

32.58

1.90

0.15

 0.01

21.92

1.00

       

CA-S

 Fire

25.15

1.90

0.13

 0.01

20.21

 0.3

       

OR

Control

11.69

1.59

0.66

0.09

17.60

0.39

       

OR

Fire

14.02

1.31

0.82

0.08

16.98

0.92

       

OR

Mechanical

15.60

2.30

0.80

0.11

20.48

1.59

       

OR

Mechanical+Fire

16.40

0.39

0.90

0.08

18.29

1.66

       

MT

Control

23.09

2.69

1.06

0.10

21.47

0.68

       

MT

Fire

17.70

0.61

0.87

0.03

20.36

0.61

       

MT

Mechanical

18.39

2.25

0.88

0.09

20.52

0.20

       

MT

Mechanical+Fire

19.67

2.48

0.96

0.11

20.40

0.53

       

AZ

Control

29.66

2.96

1.37

0.14

21.70

1.07

       

AZ

Fire

34.87

5.75

1.57

0.28

22.08

0.08

       

AZ

Mechanical

33.61

6.10

1.30

0.12

23.89

0.71

       

AZ

Mechanical+Fire

33.97

4.10

1.42

0.14

23.70

0.47

       

AL

Control

22.43

2.67

0.66

0.04

33.21

2.05

       

AL

Fire

22.51

4.21

0.66

0.14

35.09

2.74

       

AL

Mechanical

20.17

5.23

0.53

0.26

80.82

46.05

       

AL

Mechanical+Fire

21.40

6.92

0.88

0.19

43.91

9.67

       

OH

Control

30.43

2.09

1.70

0.19

18.33

0.87

       

OH

Fire

31.51

5.69

1.79

0.40

18.63

1.25

       

OH

Mechanical

31.69

7.59

1.76

0.58

19.40

1.60

       

OH

Mechanical+Fire

24.38

1.64

1.37

0.18

18.83

1.38

       

SC

Control

20.61

1.08

0.88

0.01

19.45

0.47

       

SC

Fire

19.82

2.30

1.01

0.12

22.59

1.32

       

SC

Mechanical

16.67

2.32

0.87

0.17

23.99

5.95

       

SC

Mechanical+Fire

16.73

1.53

0.99

0.10

16.87

0.67

       

NC

Control

51.79

4.34

2.23

0.21

23.27

1.07

       

NC

Fire

41.02

2.71

1.93

0.19

21.55

0.87

       

NC

Mechanical

45.39

33.25

1.65

0.10

27.71

1.71

       

NC

Mechanical+Fire

41.73

2.21

1.65

0.10

25.37

1.56

       

FL

Control

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

       

FL

Fire

21.94

4.39

0.76

0.07

27.46

3.02

       

FL

Mechanical

31.37

1.87

1.23

0.08

26.03

1.10

       

FL

Mechanical+Fire

27.76

1.01

3.03

1.91

26.64

1.04

       

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