Ecological Archives A019-056-A1

Jeff W. Higdon and Steven H. Ferguson. 2009. Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century. Ecological Applications 19:1365–1375.

Appendix A. Database of reported killer whale sightings in the Hudson Bay region.

Collection of killer whale sighting reports – data quality

For our analysis we used all the available sighting reports for the Hudson Bay region, regardless of quality (provided that they could be assigned to the correct decade and the correct region). At the time this study was completed we had not yet assigned quality scores to the killer whale sightings database. However this information is now contained in the sightings database. Collection of Arctic killer whale sighting reports started in September 2005 (see main text), and this paralleled a similar effort undertaken by DFO scientists in Newfoundland and Labrador. Both groups were maintaining separate databases, but they have now been combined into one large eastern Canadian database with over 900 sighting records (Hauser 2007).

All records have now been scored on a 5-point scale for spatial quality (i.e., locational accuracy), temporal quality, and identification quality, as follows:

Species ID

5- Confirmed observation: supported by photographic evidence

4- Reliable observation: observations made by trained biologists, naturalists, skilled Inuit hunters or fishermen; or a description that is indicative of killer whales (e.g., large dorsal fin, white belly, white saddle patch)

3- Probable observation: observations made by untrained observers, but with supportive descriptions (e.g., large dorsal fin)

2- Possible observation: observations made by novices, but in a geographic area and time whereby sightings are possible

1- Suspicious observation: description of the observation is inconsistent with a killer whale (e.g., description of a “black back” but no mention of saddle) and located in unusual time and/or place

Spatial reference

5- GPS latitude/longitude or map coordinates from nautical charts provided

4- Location described to within 5km radius, could be based on specific landmarks

3- Location described to within 10-km radius

2- Location described with greater than 10-km radius; town or village provided, but not distance from village to animal location

1- General location, with greater than 10-km radius

Temporal reference

5- Year, month, and date of sighting provided

4- Year and month or season provided

3- Year only provided

2- Qualitative temporal statement, range of years

1- No data

As noted above, all records from the Hudson Bay region were used, regardless of quality. However analysis of the average quality scores will assist readers in interpreting our results. For species identification, quality scores ranged from 1-5, with a median of 2 (mean = 2.3). For temporal range quality was highest, with a range from 2-5 and median = 4 (mean = 4.3). Scores for spatial accuracy were the lowest, again ranging from 1-5 and with a median of 2 (mean = 1.7). Only two records have a spatial quality score of “5” (latitude and longitude provided), and most have a score of “1” or “2”. However, for our purposes, a low score of “1” (general location only) is still sufficient for the purposes of these analysis as we could still confidently assign the sighting to the correct subregion for sea-ice analysis.

The rest of this Electronic Appendix provides the available information for the killer whale sightings used in this study, but we have not included the quality scores. These scores are available from the authors, upon request.

Hauser, D. D. W. 2007. Marine Mammal Sightings Database Design & Merger Project. Report prepared for Fisheries and Oceans Canada under contract no. F2402-070175. Unpublished report available from S. Ferguson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB.


Table of killer whale sighting reports

Record No.

Year

Decade

Month

Day

Location

Region

Latitude

Longitude

Seen

Comments

Source

1

1865

1860

7

14

Off Resolution Island, mouth of Hudson Strait

eastern mouth Hudson Strait

61.12

-64.88

"Shoal"

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

2

1903

1900

8

 

Off Port Burwell

eastern Hudson Strait

60.59

-65.07

+

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

3

1911

1910

8

 

Erik Cove, S shore of W Hudson Strait

central Hudson Strait

62.65

-77.72

2

Chasing white whales.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

4

1928

1920

Early Fall

 

Between Cape Dorset and Salisbury Island

central Hudson Strait

63.79

-76.96

1

Reported by Native walrus hunters.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

5

1930

1930

7

 

Philpot Bay

central Hudson Strait

62.40

-69.92

1

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

6

1935

1930

7

10

Cape Dorset

western Hudson Strait

64.23

-77.97

1

"A small Grampus was seen. . . unable to get a shot."

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

7

1939

1930

   

Just N of Hantzsch River, ca 2 naut. miles from shore, central E coast of Foxe Basin

Foxe Basin

67.73

-73.06

2

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

8

1940

1940

9

29

Cape Dorset

western Hudson Strait

64.23

-77.97

??

"There must be killer whales outside to drive so many white whales into our harbour."

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

9

1940

1940

summer

 

Maluksitaq/Lyon Inlet

western Hudson Strait

66.21

-83.57

2

reported by informant in Inuit bowhead knowledge study (NWMB 2000 pg. 34), two KW were suffocating a bowhead

Hay et al. 2000, pg. 34

10

1945

1940

summer

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.28

-85.75

 

reported by Inuit interviewees from Repulse Bay, first time KW were ever seen in Repulse Bay, they were chasing narwhal and beluga - RB was packed with both beluga and narwhal

Gonzalez 2001 p. 19

11

1947

1940

   

Fury and Hecla Strait

Foxe Basin

69.89

-83.99

1

Drifted ashore dead.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

12

1949

1940

summer

 

near Churchill

western Hudson Bay

58.92

-93.66

 

unconfirmed report to Doan and Douglas, in Doan and Douglas 1953

Doan and Douglas, 1953

13

1956

1950

12

 

Steensby Inlet, N Foxe Basin

Foxe Basin

70.03

-78.51

2 (12?)

Female and young, trapped in ice; killed by hunters in late December. NOTE: Soloman Qanatsiaq reports in fall 1959, 12 killer whales were trapped in developing ice in Grant Suttie Bay (in Foxe Basin, west side of Baffin Island).  2 were harvested by Inuit but they could not haul up any others because the ropes broke and the whales were so quick moving that they were difficult to hit/strike with guns and harpoons.  He suspects that all the animals died in the end.  He noted, though, that killer whales can break through thin layers of ice.  likely the same incident as both are in essentially the same place.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988; Holly Cleator, pers. comm. (unpublished notes from community meeting at Hall Beach, Jan 12, 2006)

14

1960

1960

10

 

N Hudson Strait

central Hudson Strait

62.60

-70.08

"Several"

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

15

1962

1960

8

13

60°32'N,69°28'W, Payne Bay

eastern Hudson Strait

60.53

-69.47

1

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

16

1964

1960

8

17

Near Whale Cove

western Hudson Bay

62.43

-91.67

ca 20

 

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

17

mid 1960s

1960

Summer

 

near Arviat

western Hudson Bay

62.70

-91.79

 

reported to be around beluga herds near Arviat, unconfirmed (Sergeant 1968 - no further details)

Sergeant 1968

18

1966

1960

7

1

E of Cape Dorset, Hudson Strait

central Hudson Strait

63.87

-76.30

?

Large number of narwhals present, thought to have been chased inshore by killer whales.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988; Higgins 1968 in Stewart and Lockhart 2005

19

1967

1960

?

 

Steensby Inlet, Foxe Basin

Foxe Basin

70.03

-78.51

6

killed by Inuit

Brad Parker, pers. comm., February 2006

20

1976

1970

7

22

Off Port Burwell

eastern mouth Hudson Strait

60.75

-64.36

1

Open water.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

21

1977

1970

9

13

Mouth of Hudson Strait, 61 '14'N, 63'48'W

eastern mouth Hudson Strait

61.23

-63.80

1

Open water.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

22

1977

1970

9

25

58°21'N, 67°l0'W, E side of Ungava Bay

eastern Hudson Strait

58.35

-67.17

2

Large.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

23

1977

1970

   

Near Inoucdjouac (Port Harrison)

James Bay-eastern Hudson Bay

58.33

-78.58

1

One found dead on an islet; others sighted in unspecified year.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

24

1978

1970

8

 

Prince River, 10 naut. miles from Baker Lake

western Hudson Bay

63.41

-90.47

1

Large male; shot. Reported as 2 animals by Davis et al. (1980).

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

25

1980

1980

Summer

 

Near Churchill, W Hudson Bay

western Hudson Bay

59.01

-93.99

1

Seen by tourists and reported to Father Volant; "high-finned whale". White whales reportedly disappeared from area at this time.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

26

1981

1980

8

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.19

-85.61

2

Seen and reported by local Inuit. Two killer whales also reported in this area at beginning of August.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

27

1983

1980

7

26

Hudson Strait

central Hudson Strait

61.95

-71.67

1

1 male

Lien et al. 1988

28

1983

1980

   

Repulse Bay, near settlement

western Hudson Bay

66.19

-85.61

1

Seen and reported by Inuit.

Reeves and Mitchell, 1988

29

1980s

1980

   

Arviat

western Hudson Bay

61.1

-94.15

 +

heard about killer whales in Arviat in the 80s and some Inuit hunting those killer whales.

Scott Stinson (pers. comm. to C. Pomerleau)

30

1985

1980

8

23

central Hudson Bay

central Hudson Bay

59.30

-88.95

10

observed by wildlife observations as part of monitoring program for drill sites

Milani, 1986

31

1985

1980

9

12

eastern end of Hudson Strait

eastern Hudson Strait

60.85

-65.13

2

two large (25-28 foot) animals

Milani, 1986

32

1988

1980

summer

 

Arviat

western Hudson Bay

61.1

-94.15

 

narwhal sightings south of normal range (in Arviat) attributed to presence of killer whales

(W. Angalik pers. comm. in Stewart et al. 1991) in Stewart and Lockhart 2005

33

1990

1990

7

16

near Coats Island, Hudson Bay

western Hudson Strait

62.91

-81.71

3

3 observed off Coat's Island, heading east. "Out of 22 summers of field work at Coats Island, where we sit on top of a hill overlooking the sea and from where we see many beluga and walrus, we have only one record of Orcas." Same group in Pattie and Webber?

Tony Gaston, pers. comm.; Gaston and Ouellet, 1997

34

1990

1990

8

2

northern Hudson Bay between Marble Island and Walrus Island

western Hudson Bay

62.61

-91.06

3 or 4

two days after a minke whale observation (first record of Minke in western HB)

Pattie and Webber, 1992

35

early 1990s

1990

summer

 

Sanikiluaq harbour

James Bay-eastern Hudson Bay

56.59

-79.23

1

Inuit hunter stated that one killer whale had been seen in the early 1990s, but his brother said he's never heard of killer whales being seen in the area

J. Ipak and L. Ipak, pers. comm., Sept. 2006

36

around 1995

1990

   

Chesterfield Inlet

western Hudson Bay

63.53

-91.1

"group"

around 1995 a group of killer whales chased beluga into Chesterfield Inlet. One individual of 2.5-3 m (a calf?) got trapped and Inuit from Baker Lake killed it and threw it in the dump.

Mitch Campbell, pers. comm. to Magaly Chambellant.

37

1996

1990

8

 

15 km north of Churchill along the coast

western Hudson Bay

58.82

-93.26

9

pers. comm. to W. Bernhardt, from Jack Batstone. WB talked to him recently and he said he only saw floating muktuk, however Jack originally reported this to WB and Richard Remnant in 1997, and said he saw the whales and reported that their were ca. 9 animals. Also reported in the EIS for Manitoba Hydro's Churchill weir project (1998) as a direct observation of whales

Warren Bernhardt, pers. comm. Oct 25, Nov 7, 2005, Manitoba Hydro EIS

38

1996

1990

summer

 

Churchill, behind the hospital

western Hudson Bay

58.88

-93.71

 +

saw a pod of killer whales close to the shore behind the hospital around 9 pm while walking her dog in the middle of summer a few years ago (she said maybe 10 years ago, 1996?). She even saw one breach.

reported by two local residents (Scott Stinson and someone else) to C. Pomerleau, summer 2006

39

1998

1990

7

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.36

-86.07

 

high narwhal harvest in Repulse Bay in 1998 because KW were causing narwhal to beach themselves near town

Richard, P. 1998. DFO Science Stock Status report E5-44 (1998); Gonzalez 2001 p. 20, Stewart and Lockhart 2005

40

1999

1990

7

3

northern Hudson Bay (north of Southampton Island)

western Hudson Strait

64.47

-81.08

est. 4-5

observed from CCG vessell by Blair Dunn, 10 degrees off starboard bow, 1 male, 1 female and calf, another young one, spotted by bird people at 1709 then observer at 1725

Patt Hall (DFO), pers. comm., Oct. 2005

41

1999

1990

7

3

northern Hudson Bay (north of Southampton Island)

western Hudson Strait

65.07

-81.30

est. 5-8

observed from CCG vessell by Becky Sjare, port side, 1 km from ship, possibly same group as Dunn sighting same day, also cow/calf pair

Patt Hall (DFO), pers. comm., Oct. 2005

42

1999

1990

7

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.28

-85.75

 

Killer whales made narwhal hunting easy in Repulse Bay, "too many narwhal were killed because of killer whales…we exceeded our quota".

Gonzalez 2001 p. 20; also McClusky, 2000; Greer, 2000

43

1999

1990

summer

 

vicinity of Igloolik and Hall Beach

Foxe Basin

69.26

-80.98

 

reported by local hunters, in Oct. 1999 4 dead bowheads (at least three calves) found in vicinity, 2 with evidence of killer whale predation (NWMB 2000 p. 48, Cosens and Blouw (2003)

Hay et al. 2000 p. 48, Cosens and Blouw (2003), Sue Cosens (DFO), pers. comm.

44

2000

2000

7

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.35

-86.13

 

drove narwhal close to shore making hunt easy

Bruce Stewart to S. Ferguson, Oct. 2005

45

2000

2000

7

 

near Coats Island, Hudson Bay

western Hudson Strait

62.8

-81.64

8

group of ca. 8 Killer Whales about 2-3 km north of the Murre Colony at Coats Island. The whales were feeding along the ice edge and a group of belugas were in the cove at the colony.

Uli Steiner, pers. comm.

46

2000

2000

8

11

Coral Harbour

western Hudson Strait

63.46

-80.06

5

Coral Harbour bowhead hunt – August 11, 2000; 5 killer whales sighted from cliff at N63 46.298 W80 06.462

B. Dunn., pers. comm., July 2006

47

2000

2000

8

 

Wager Bay

western Hudson Bay

65.41

-88.57

 +

large number of narwhal driven into Wager Bay by killer whales, reported by Inuit hunter from Repulse Bay

Gonzalez 2001 p. 13, 14

48

2000

2000

summer

 

Churchill

western Hudson Bay

58.88

-93.71

 4-5

4-5 individuals were hunting belugas at the mouth of the Churchill River and were seen 2 days in a row and then they left

C. Pomerleau (pers. comm. from local resident)

49

2000

2000

summer

 

Lyon Inlet

western Hudson Strait

66.6

-84.04

 

Inuit hunters from Hall Beach were getting narwhal in Lyon Inlet because of killer whale presence

Gonzalez 2001 p. 20, Stewart and Lockhart 2005

50

2002

2000

8

30

near Churchill, Hudson Bay

western Hudson Bay

58.92

-94.13

7

pers. comm. to W.Bernhardt, observed by Morris Spence from the Port of Churchill, observed at 1145, in view for ca. 20 minutes, thought there were probably 7 whales but they were approx. 3 km offshore and therefore tough to tell, one whale had a very large dorsal fin (one adult male), WB also informed by local resident a week before actual sighting that he found ragged pieces of beluga muktuk floating offshore of the coast N. of Churchill (two observations of bowheads within several days, reports of KW killing one but no evidence to support, Mike macri searched and found nothing)

Warren Bernhardt, pers. comm. Oct 25, Nov 7, 2005

51

2002

2000

8

31

Churchill (river mouth)

western Hudson Bay

58.88

-93.71

about 7-9

A pod of killer whales, about 7-9 individuals, on August 31st, 2002, on the north shore, east of the river mouth. All the belugas were gone and were hiding in Button Bay.

C. Pomerleau (pers. comm. from local resident)

52

2002

2000

8

 

Churchill

western Hudson Bay

58.88

-93.71

2

August 2002, a couple of individuals going into the river.

C. Pomerleau (pers. comm. from local resident)

53

2003

2000

7 or 8

 

85 miles north of Churchill, Hudson Bay

western Hudson Bay

58.86

-93.22

1

pers. comm. to W. Bernhardt, from Morris Spence, who said that someone from Arviat (Louis Pulacapsii (sp?) found a dead killer whale floating offshore ca. 85 miles N of Churchill, est. whale to be length of boat (20-30 feet) suggesting an adult, he thought it had recently died because there were no signs of damage from birds, etc.. Louis unfortunately drowned on the return trip to Arviat. Also observations of beluga hugging shoreline at Long Point (Hubbard Point on some maps)

Warren Bernhardt, pers. comm. Oct 25, Nov 7, 2005

54

2004

2000

8

1

north of Cape Churchill

western Hudson Bay

58.82

-93.21

6 or 7

observed by beluga aerial survey crew, photos

Courtenay O'Brien-Moran, pers. comm. Nov. 4, 2005; Richard, 2005

55

2005

2000

7

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.36

-86.07

 

four different groups of killer whales visible from town at one time, in mid-July

Jose Tinashlu, pers. comm., August 2006

56

2005

2000

8

12

2 km from Arviat

western Hudson Bay

62.42

-92.03

 

no information on numbers, reported to Patt Hall by Arviat area DFO office

Patt Hall (DFO), pers. comm., Oct. 2005

57

2005

2000

8

12

20 miles offshore of Arviat

western Hudson Bay

61.1

-94.15

20

20 killer whales. One with a big fin and a few young ones. Two were described as really aggressive, coming towards the boat and diving at the last moment and turning around. One Inuit hunter shot video with his digital camera (not seen yet), but the whales were > 100 yards away so the quality is poor.

Mitch Campbell, pers. comm. to Magaly Chambellant.

58

2005

2000

8

20

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.28

-85.75

ca. 18

observed during bowhead hunt, three groups of whales, 18-20 in total, one group of five photographed by DFO staff (including 2 large males)

Patt Hall (DFO), pers. comm., Oct. 2005; Bell, 2005

59

2005

2000

8

 

south of Arviat

western Hudson Bay

61.97

-92.77

9

observed by Arviat hunter Frank Nuturasungnik, who attributed the scarcity of belugas to the presence of KW

Magaly Chambellant (DFO), pers. comm., Oct. 26, 2005

60

2005

2000

8

 

Churchill

western Hudson Bay

58.88

-93.71

 

no information, reported to Patt Hall

Patt Hall (DFO), pers. comm., Oct. 2005

61

2005

2000

summer

 

near Churchill, Hudson Bay

western Hudson Bay

58.93

-93.51

 

pers. comm. to W.Bernhardt, local woman claimed to have seen KW at least twice at Churchill, unable to provide info numbers but was adamant that she had seen them - other people questioned whether she had or not

Warren Bernhardt, pers. comm. Oct 25, Nov 7, 2005

62

2005

2000

summer

 

Arviat, around Century Island

western Hudson Bay

61.1

-94.15

"ca. 100"

Holly – “Paul Pemik of Arviat reported a number of unusual marine mammal sightings for the Arviat area summer 2005, including 100 killer whales.” Stefan Romberg – “I was informed that ~ 100 killer whales were observed in Arviat this past summer around Century Island.” Follow-up with Holly – cumulative observations through the summer, not one-time sighting of 100 whales.

Holly Cleator/Stefan Romberg, pers. comm. December 2005, February 2006

63

2005

2000

summer

 

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.28

-85.75

 

“They [narwhal] were here longer this year [2005] because the ice was late forming. Also there were more killer whales because the ice was late forming.”

Holly Cleator (DFO) notes from meeting with Repulse Bay community, 11 January 2006

64

2005

2000

summer

 

near Rankin Inlet

western Hudson Bay

62.71

-91.81

 

Various sightings reported to Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. (NTI) biologist over the summer, by Inuit hunters. No further details reported.

David Lee, pers. comm.

65

2005

2000

summer

 

Arviat

western Hudson Bay

61.1

-94.15

 8-9

reported by Frank to Magaly (he didn't see them), may be the same whales as the 20 reported previously

Magaly Chambellant, pers. comm., June 2006

66

2005

2000

summer

 

Arviat

western Hudson Bay

61.1

-94.15

 

6-7 harp seals were killed near Arviat

Magaly Chambellant, pers. comm., June 2006

67

2006

2000

7

16

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.36

-86.07

 +

July 16, 2006 narwhal were in Repulse Bay harbor, and Killer Whales where spotted in the area of Repulse Bay. Didn’t know when the Killer Whales arrived in the area. July 13 and 14 had bad weather (strong winds and rain), on July 15th Narwhal were spotted entering the Naujat harbor. (DFO Fisheries Officer Officer Derek Zawadski, Wildlife Officer Joani Kringayark) Stefan noted that this was the third year in a row (2004, 2005, 2006) that killer whales were keeping narwhals close to shore in Repulse Bay (pers. comm. 03 Aug 2006)

DFO Fisheries Officer Derek Zawadski, Wildlife Officer Joani Kringayark

68

2006

2000

8

 

north of Igloolik Island

Foxe Basin

69.51

-82.06

 1-2

reported by Inuit hunter

Patt Hall, pers. comm., Feb 23 2007 (reported by Solomon at Igloolik HTO)

69

2006

2000

8

 

north of Igloolik Island

Foxe Basin

69.69

-82.09

 3-4

followed Inuit hunter's boat south from the mouth of Fury and Hecla Strait

Patt Hall, pers. comm., Feb 23 2007 (reported by Solomon at Igloolik HTO)

70

2006

2000

8

5

Marble Island (Rankin Inlet)

western Hudson Bay

62.71

-91.81

5

Saw the whales on the north side of Marble Island. There were four together (in the photo there are 3 but I'm not so good with shutter-finger-timing and trying to stay upright on a boat all at once) and one much larger one nearby but not directly with the other 4. They were all heading north. Photos.

Jason Todd and Lisa Froese, pers. comm. Sept. 2006

71

2006

2000

8

6

Marble Island (Rankin Inlet)

western Hudson Bay

62.71

-91.81

5

Pod of killer whales was spotted off Marble Island August 6th by an Inuit hunter, who counted 5 killer whales.  There was no indication of direction as they were circling the boat.  They did take photographs

David Lee, pers. comm., August 2006

72

2006

2000

8

6

Marble Island (Rankin Inlet)

western Hudson Bay

62.71

-91.81

9

Killer whales were seen heading north past Marble Island “three days ago” (reported on the 9th, so the sighting would have been on August 6th) Luky heard this on the radio and said there were “9 or so” whales. The whales reported over the radio also apparently entered Chesterfield Inlet (Luky Putulik, pers. comm. August 9, 2006). Perhaps two different pods?

Luky Putulik, pers. comm.,  August 2006

73

2006

2000

8

11

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.36

-86.07

 

On the 10th Luky heard on the radio that the narwhals were back in Repulse and staying close to shore, suggesting that killer whales were around again. On the 11th he heard that they were definitely back in Repulse Bay, so it appears as though the whales took 4-5 days to travel between Rankin and Repulse.

Luky Putulik, pers. comm. August 10, 11 2006

74

2006

2000

8

14

Harbour Islands, near Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.4

-86.06

?

Number of narwhals in the vicinity of the Harbour Islands, in shallow water close to shore, suggesting that killer whales were around. (J. Higdon, pers. obs. August 14, 2006)

J. Higdon, pers. obs. August 14, 2006

75

2006

2000

8

17

Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.35

-86.13

 

People were watching killer whales with binoculars right from town. Reported by WO Joani Kringayark, he just heard the report and hasn’t seen the whales himself. The locals are watching them with binoculars and haven’t been able to determine numbers yet. At the time of the sighting there are several hundred narwhals and several belugas hugging the shoreline in town.

Joani Kringayark, pers. comm., August 2006

76

2006

2000

8

29

Marble Island (Rankin Inlet)

western Hudson Bay

62.71

-91.81

7

a pod of 7 killer whales chasing beluga whales near Marble Island

Second hand from Greg Lundie, Sea North Tours, Churchill (reported to him) (Sept. 2006)

77

2006

2000

9

1

Churchill

western Hudson Bay

58.88

-93.71

1

Sept. 01, 2006, 3 PM, approx. 1-2 miles from the hospital – N-E/Churchill, one killer whale, associated with beluga, “I saw it pop up once with beluga whales all around it. About an hour later I started seeing more belugas close to shore”. Evano Kublutsiak, Arviat – circled photo of large dorsal fin (adult male). Reported via sighting form.

Evano Kublutsiak, pers. comm., Sept. 2006

78

2006

2000

9

19

Repulse Bay (ca. 8 miles south)

western Hudson Bay

66.51

-86.26

 +

 “Couple of day ago, a pod of Killer Whales were seen about 8 km south of Repulse Bay, we got whole bunch of narwhals, belugas, at least 8 bowhead whales in Repulse Bay itself”.

Joani Kringayark, pers. comm., Sept. 2006

79

unspecified

Unk

   

near Repulse Bay

western Hudson Bay

66.36

-86.07

 

Report from Inuit hunter– “I witnessed a bowhead whale trying to defend a young whale obviously its calf…The mother was defending the calf from KW”. Another respondent noted that “killer whales seem to be killing 5 [bowheads] per year”.

Holly Cleator (DFO) notes from meeting with Repulse Bay community, 11 January 2006

80

unspecified

Unk

   

somewhere between Winisk and the Sutton/Brant

southern Hudson Bay

55.59

-83.94

1

Mike Hunter (Peawanuck ) said he saw one once somewhere between Winisk and the Sutton/Brant...I can't recall the year. A very knowledgeable community member in Ft Severn says some people have seen them very occasionally on the Severn River. He mentioned Churchill and York Factory also see them….and stated the rivers were deeper than the Severn.

Chris Chenier, pers. comm.

81

unspecified

Unk

   

Schultz Lake (near Baker Lake)

western Hudson Strait

64.59

-95.23

1 (dead)

Schultz Lake – bones of a whale tail on the ground, it’s a killer whale, one of only two seen by people of Baker Lake in the last 40 years (interview with Roy Avaala of Baker Lake)

Gleeson, 1999

82

unspecified

Unk

   

Baird Peninsula

Foxe Basin

68.75

-76.68

1

Soloman Qanatsiaq (Hall Beach) - a lone dead killer whale had been seen for many years around Baird Peninsula.

Holly Cleator, pers. comm. (unpublished notes from community meeting at Hall Beach, Jan 12, 2006)


References for sighting reports

Bell, J. 2005. It's a good bowhead hunt for Repulse Bay. Nunatsiaq News August 26, 2005. [www.nunatsiaq.com].

Doan, K. H., and C. W. Douglas. 1953. Beluga of the Churchill Region of Hudson Bay. Bulletin of the Fisheries Board of Canada 98.

Hay, K., D. Aglukark, D. Igutsaq, J. Ikkidluak, and M. Mike. 2000. Final report of the Inuit traditional bowhead knowledge study. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit, NU.

Gaston, A. J., and H. Ouellette. 1997. Birds and mammals of Coats Island, N.W.T. Arctic 50:101–118.

Gleeson, R. 1999. Canoeing across cultures. Eight-week canoe trip brings Germans, Dene and Inuit together. Northern News Services online, June 14, 1999. URL:
http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/1999-06/jun14_99canoe.html. Accessed 21 July, 2006.

Gonzalez, N. 2001. Inuit traditional ecological knowledge of the Hudson Bay narwhal (Tuugaalik) population. Prepared for Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Greer, D. 2000. Quota caution: Feds are reviewing information from last year's narwhal hunt. Northern News Services online, July 5, 2000. URL:
http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2000-06/jul5_00nar.html. Accessed 21 July, 2006.

Lien, J., G. B. Stenson, and P.W. Jones. 1988. Killer whales Orcinus orca in waters off Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1978–1986. Rit Fiskideildar 11:194–201.

McClusky, K. 2000. Whale hunt numbers in, year one wraps up on narwhal harvest. Northern News Services online, February 21, 2000. URL:
http://www.nnsl.com/frames/newspapers/2000-02/feb21_00nar.html. Accessed 21 July, 2006.

Milani, D. 1986. Wildlife Observation Program, Hudson Bay 1985. Canterra Energy Ltd, Calgary, AB.

Pattie, D. L., and M. Webber. 1992. First record of a minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in Manitoba waters. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106:266–267.

Reeves, R. R., and E. Mitchell. 1988. Distribution and seasonality of killer whales in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Rit Fiskideildar 11:136–160.

Richard, P. R. 2005. An estimate of the Western Hudson Bay beluga population size in 2004. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Research Document 2005/017.

Richard, P. 1998. Hudson Bay Narwhal: Stock Status Report E5-44. DFO Science, Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, MB.

Sergeant, D. E. 1968. Whales. Pages 388–396 in C.S. Beals and D.A. Shenstone, editors. Science, history and Hudson Bay, Vol. 1. Canada Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, ON.

Stewart, D. B., and W. L. Lockhart. 2005. An Overview of the Hudson Bay Marine Ecosystem. Canadian Technical Report, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 2586.


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