Ecological Archives A019-077-A1

Stacy M. Philpott, Oliver Soong, Jacob H. Lowenstein, Astrid Luz Pulido, Diego Tobar Lopez, Dan F. B. Flynn, and Fabrice DeClerck. 2009. Functional richness and ecosystem services: bird predation on arthropods in tropical agroecosystems. Ecological Applications 19:1858–1867.

Appendix A. Functional classification of bird species found in nine exclosure sites. Studies are as follows: RSG001 = Greenberg et al. 1994; RSG003, RSG004, and RSG005 = Greenberg et al. 2000; SAV001 = Van Bael et al. 2007; SMP001 = Philpott et al. 2004; SMP003, SMP004, and SMP006 = Perfecto et al., unpublished manuscript.

Common name
(English)

Scientific name

Size

Foraging
strata††

Diet††

Foraging
strategy

Studies observed

American Redstart

Setophaga ruticila

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Hover & Glean

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005

Baltimore Oriole

Icterus galbula

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003

Band-Backed Wren

Campylorhychus zonatus

Medium

understory

Strict insectivore

Combined

SAV001

Banded Wren

Thryothorus pleurostictus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Combined

SMP004, SMP006

Barred Antshrike

Thamnophilus doliatus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Combined

RSG005

Black-and-White Warbler

Mniotilta varia

Tiny

both

Strict insectivore

Bark Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SAV001, SMP001

Black-Cheeked Woodpecker

Melanerpes pucherani

Large

canopy

Omnivore

Bark Glean

RSG001

Black-faced Grosbreak

Caryothraustes poliogaster

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001

Black-headed Saltator

Saltator atriceps

Large

both

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005

Black-headed Trogon

Trogon melanocephalus

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001

Black-throated Blue Warbler

Dendroica caerulescens

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005

Black-throated Green Warbler

Dendroica virens

Tiny

both

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SMP001

Blue-Black Grosbeak

Volatinia jacarina

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

SAV001

Blue-crowned Motmot

Momotus momota

Extra large

canopy

Omnivore

Ground Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SMP001

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher

Polioptila caerulea

Tiny

canopy

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003

Blue-gray Tanager

Thraupis episcopus

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003

Blue-winged Warbler

Vermivora pinus

Tiny

canopy

Strict insectivore

Combined

RSG003

Boat-billed Flycatcher

Megarhynchus pitangua

Large

canopy

Omnivore

Hover & Glean

RSG001, RSG003

Bright-rumped Attila

Attila spadiceus

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Combined

SAV001

Brown Jay

Cyanocorax morio

Extra large

both

Omnivore

Combined

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005

Brown-crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus tyrannulus

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Hover & Glean

RSG001

Buff-throated Saltator

Saltator maximus

Medium

both

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, SAV001

Bushy-crested Jay

Cyanocorax melanocyaneus

Large

both

Omnivore

Combined

RSG003, RSG005

Chestnut-headed Oropendola

Psarocolius wagleri

Extra large

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Dendroica pensylvanica

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003, RSG004, RSG005, SAV001, SMP001, SMP004

Clay-colored Robin

Turdus grayi

Large

both

Omnivore

Ground Glean

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005, SAV001, SMP001, SMP003, SMP004

Common Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum cinereum

Tiny

both

Strict insectivore

Combined

RSG001, SAV001

Common Yellowthroat

Geothlypis trichas

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005

Crimson-collared Tanager

Ramphocelus sanguinolentus

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Ground Glean

RSG005

Crimson-fronted Parakeet

Aratinga finschi

Extra large

understory

Omnivore

Combined

SAV001

Dusky-capped Flycatcher

Myiarchus tuberculifer

Small

both

Insectivore

Hover & Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SAV001, SMP001

Eye-ringed Flatbill

Rhynchocyclus brevirostris

Small

understory

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

SMP003

Fan-tailed Warbler

Euthlypis lachrymosa

Small

understory

Insectivore

Combined

SMP003

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

Glaucidium brasilianum

Large

both

Insectivore

Hawks

RSG003, RSG005

Golden-crowned Warbler

Basileuterus culicivorus

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Hawks

SMP003

Golden-fronted Woodpecker

Melanerpes aurifrons

Large

canopy

Omnivore

Bark Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SMP001

Golden-Masked Tanager

Tangara larvata

Small

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001

Golden-olive Woodpecker

Piculus rubiginosus

Medium

canopy

Strict insectivore

Combined

RSG001, RSG003

Golden-winged Warbler

Vermivora chrysoptera

Tiny

understory

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005

Gray Catbird

Dumetella carolinensis

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Combined

RSG004, RSG005

Great-crested Flycatcher

Myiarchus crinitus

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Hawks

RSG001, RSG003

Great-tailed Grackle

Quiscalus mexicanus

Large

understory

Omnivore

Ground Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SMP004

Green Jay

Cyanocorax yncas

Large

both

Omnivore

Combined

RSG001, SMP003

Greenish Elaenia

Myiopagis viridicata

Tiny

canopy

Omnivore

Combined

RSG001, SMP001

Groove-billed Ani

Crotophaga sulcirostris

Large

understory

Insectivore

Combined

RSG004, RSG005

Hooded Warbler

Wilsonia citrina

Tiny

understory

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SMP003

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Ground Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SAV001, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Indigo Bunting

Passerina cyanera

Small

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001

Kentucky Warbler

Oporornis formosus

Small

understory

Insectivore

Ground Glean

RSG004, RSG005

Least Flycatcher

Empidonax minimus

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Hover & Glean

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005, SMP001, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Lineated Woodpecker

Dryocopus lineatus

Extra large

canopy

Insectivore

Bark Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SMP001

Long-billed Gnatwren

Ramphocaenus melanurus

Tiny

understory

Strict insectivore

Combined

SAV001

MacGillivray's Warbler

Oporornis tolmiei

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG005

Magnolia Warbler

Dendroica magnolia

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Hover & Glean

RSG001, RSG004, RSG005, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Melodious Blackbird

Dives dives

Large

both

Omnivore

Ground Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SMP001, SMP004

Nashville Warbler

Vermivora ruficapilla

Tiny

both

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003, RSG004, RSG005, SMP001

Northern Bentbill

Oncostoma cinereigularis

Tiny

both

Strict insectivore

Hawks

RSG001, SAV001

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush

Catharus aurantiirostris

Small

understory

Omnivore

Ground Glean

SMP004

Ovenbird

Seiurus aurocapillus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Ground Glean

RSG005

Philadelphia Vireo

Vireo philadelphicus

Tiny

canopy

Insectivore

Hover & Glean

SMP001

Plain Wren

Thryothorus modestus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SAV001, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Plain Xenops

Xenops minutus

Tiny

understory

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

SAV001

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager

Habia rubica

Large

understory

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

SMP003

Red-throated Ant-Tanager

Habia fuscicauda

Large

understory

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

SAV001

Rufous-and-white Wren

Thryothorus rufalbus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Combined

SMP003

Rufous-breasted Spinetail

Synallaxis erythrothorax

Small

understory

Insectivore

Combined

SMP003, SMP004

Rufous-capped Warbler

Basileuterus rufifrons

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Rufous-Tailed Jacamar

Galbula ruficauda

Small

canopy

Strict insectivore

Hawks

RSG001

Scarlet-rumped Tanager

Ramphocelus passerinni

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

SAV001

Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum sylvia

Tiny

canopy

Strict insectivore

Combined

RSG001

Slate-throated Redstart

Myioborus miniatus

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Hawks

RSG003, RSG005, SMP003

Slaty Spinetail

Synallaxis brachyura

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

SAV001

Social Flycatcher

Myiozetetes similis

Small

canopy

Omnivore

Combined

RSG001, RSG003

Solitary Vireo

Vireo solitarius

Small

canopy

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003, SMP001

Spot-breasted Wren

Thryothorus maculipectus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Squirrel Cuckoo

Piaya cayana

Large

canopy

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003

Streak-backed Oriole

Icterus sclarteri

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003

Streak-headed Woodcreeper

Lepidocolaptes souleyetii

Small

both

Strict insectivore

Bark Glean

RSG001, SAV001

Summer Tanager

Piranga rubra

Small

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SMP001

Swainson's Thrush

Catharus ustulatus

Medium

both

Omnivore

Combined

SMP001, SMP003, SMP004

Tennessee Warbler

Vermivora peregrina

Tiny

both

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005, SAV001, SMP001, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus

Medium

canopy

Insectivore

Hawks

RSG001, RSG003

Tropical Pewee

Contopus cinereus

Tiny

canopy

Strict insectivore

Hawks

RSG001, SMP001

Tufted Flycatcher

Mitrephanes phaeocercus

Tiny

both

Strict insectivore

Hawks

RSG003, RSG005

Warbling Vireo

Vireo gilvus

Tiny

canopy

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

SMP001

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper

Gliphorhyncus spirurus

Small

understory

Strict insectivore

Bark Glean

SAV001

Western Tanager

Piranga ludoviciana

Small

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003, SMP001

White-breasted Wood-Wren

Henicorhina leucosticta

Small

understory

Insectivore

Combined

SMP003

White-eyed Vireo

Vireo griseus

Tiny

canopy

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001

White-lined Tanager

Tachyphonus rufous

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Combined

SAV001

White-throated Magpie-Jay

Calocitta formosa

Extra large

both

Omnivore

Combined

SMP001, SMP004, SMP006

White-winged Tanager

Piranga leucoptera

Small

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

SMP001

Wilson's Warbler

Wilsonia pusilla

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SMP003, SMP004, SMP006

Wood Thrush

Hylocichla mustelina

Medium

understory

Omnivore

Ground Glean

RSG004, RSG005

Yellow Warbler

Dendroica petechia

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003, SAV001

Yellow-backed Oriole

Icterus chrysater

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Combined

RSG003

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Empidonax flaviventris

Tiny

both

Insectivore

Hawks

RSG001, RSG003, RSG005

Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet

Ornithion semiflavum

Tiny

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001

Yellow-billed Cacique

Amblycercus holosericeus

Large

understory

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004

Yellow-breated Chat

Icteria virens

Small

understory

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG004, RSG005, SMP003

Yellowish Flycatcher

Empidonax flavescens

Tiny

understory

Insectivore

Combined

SMP003, SMP004

Yellow-olive Flycatcher

Tolmomyias sulphurescens

Small

both

Insectivore

Combined

RSG001, RSG003, RSG004, RSG005, SMP001

Yellow-tailed Oriole

Icterus mesomelas

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Foliage Glean

RSG001, RSG003

Yellow-throated Vireo

Vireo flavifrons

Small

canopy

Insectivore

Foliage Glean

RSG003

Yellow-winged Tanager

Thraupis abbas

Medium

canopy

Omnivore

Combined

RSG001, RSG003

Size categories are tiny (<15 g), small (15 to <30 g), medium (30 to <60 g), large (60 to <120 g), and extra large (≥120 g).

††Diets of strict insectivores consist entirely of arthropods, insectivores get between 25–30% of their diet from non-arthropod sources, and omnivores get >30% of their diet from non-arthropod sources.

Combined foraging strategy birds commonly use two or more of the other strategies to forage for food.

 

LITERATURE CITED

Greenberg, R., and J. S. Ortiz. 1994. Interspecific defense of pasture trees by wintering Yellow Warblers. Auk 111:672–682.

Greenberg, R., P. Bichier, A. C. Angon, C. MacVean, R. Perez, and E. Cano. 2000. The impact of avian insectivory on arthropods and leaf damage in some Guatemalan coffee plantations. Ecology 81:1750–1755.

Philpott, S. M., R. Greenberg, P. Bichier, and I. Perfecto. 2004. Impacts of major predators on tropical agroforest arthropods: comparisons within and across taxa. Oecologia 140:140–149.

Van Bael, S. A., P. Bichier, and R. Greenberg. 2007. Bird predation on insects reduces damage to the foliage of cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao) in western Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23:715–719.


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