Ecological Archives A021-113-A1

Paul E. Bartelt, Alisa L. Gallant, Robert W. Klaver, Chris W. Wright, Debra A. Patla, and Charles R. Peterson. 2011. Predicting breeding habitat for amphibians: a spatiotemporal analysis across Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Applications 21:2530–2547.

Appendix A. A table listing all models (a priori and posterior) created and evaluated for building amphibian breeding habitat maps in Yellowstone National Park and an expansion of Fig. 3 showing how we integrated different data sets to produce our different modeling approaches using only GIS data.





FIG. A1. An expansion of Figure 3 that includes details on how we integrated different data sets to produce our different modeling approaches using only GIS data. Each figure shows how we coded and structured the field data so that data from each site were appropriately matched (by year) to the corresponding wetland models and selected either to train or validate the models. In the Maximum Wetland and Maximum Breeding Probability methods, we used derived data layers (rather than raw field data) to build the habitat models.


TABLE A1. All candidate models used and evaluated for predicting amphibian breeding habitats in Yellowstone National Park. Models are organized by modeling approach and then by species.AIC and ROC values are listed for each model. Invalid models (e.g., when quasi-complete separation of data points was detected) are not listed.Because predictive maps could be produced only from models produced with only GIS data, we placed greatest effort in developing these models. Questionable or invalid models (e.g., quasi-complete separation of data points) are not listed.Definitions for most variable abbreviations are found in Table 1. Some of these for categorical GIS layers were converted into binary layers and further defined for each species (e.g., lnd1); definitions for these (by species) are listed at the end of this table.

Site Data Only
Tiger Salamander AIC ROC
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + %eveg + abundveg + subveg 111.14 0.831
conduct + connect + % < 50cm + %eveg + abundeveg + submergveg 142.79 0.776
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + abundveg + subveg 211.52 0.79
Boreal Chorus Frog    
conduct + connect + perm 711.11 0.724
conduct + length + l:w + connect + perm + %eveg + abundveg 721.75 0.737
Columbia Spotted Frog    
conduct + length + l:w + connect + perm +abundveg + dist 723.98 0.67
conduct + length + l:w + connect + perm2 +abundveg + dist 743.77 0.651
connect + abundveg + dist 777.83 0.624
Site Data + GIS Data
Tiger Salamander    
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + %eveg + abundveg + covden + cti +lnd + cov + nonfor + nwi1 165.4 0.853
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + %eveg + abundveg + covden + cti + wet + forest + shrub 139.12 0.86
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + subveg + covden + cti + forest + shrub 195.67 0.821
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + % < 50cm + subveg + cti + forest + shrub 145.26 0.866
Boreal Chorus Frog    
conduct + connect + perm + snow + subveg + %eveg + nwi1 + shrub 269.45 0.869
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + %eveg + abundveg + lnd + nwi1 + eveg + forest + shrub 257.79 0.88
conduct + length + l:w + dist + connect + perm + % < 50cm + %eveg + abundveg + lnd + ppt + nwi1 + eveg + forest + shrub 259.68 0.876
conduct + l:w + perm + %eveg + % < 50cm + ppt + nwi30 291.31 0.837
Columbia Spotted Frog    
conduct + length + l:w + connect + perm + abundeveg + dist + lnd + nwi1 + nwi2 + ppt + cov + nonfor + covden + cti + eveg + forest + shrub 517.48 0.708
conduct + length + l:w + connect + perm + abundeveg + dist + lnd + nwi1 + nwi2 + ppt + cov + nonfor + covden + cti 513.9 0.698
connect + abundveg + nwi1 + ppt + nonfor 532.7 0.657
conduct + length + l:w + connect + perm + abundveg + dist + lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi2 + covden + cti + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 539.8 0.678
GIS Data Only - Multiyear Variation Models (models in italics are posterior models)
Tiger Salamander    
lnd1 + lnd2 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1665.11 0.721
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi30 + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1715.91 0.621
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1558.73 0.772
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi30 1489.5 0.792
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi30 + ppt 1817.55 0.733
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi30 + shrub 1844.25 0.722
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + wet + shrub 1808.36 0.747
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + covden + wet + shrub 1808.11 0.748
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi30 + wet + shrub 1796.12 0.756
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi30 + covden + wet + shrub 1754.87 0.763
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1401.33 0.822
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + nwi1 + covden + ppt + wet + forest + shrub 1590.7 0.77
nwi1 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1667.4 0.733
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd3 + covden + ppt+ wet+ forest + shrub 1751.11 0.781
lnd1 + lnd2 + cov1 + cov5 + snow + mayppt + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed 1533.95 0.804
lnd1 + lnd2 + cov1 + cov5 + snow + mayppt + eveg + forest + shrub 1541.21 0.802
lnd1 + lnd2 + cov1 + cov5 + snow + mayppt + forest + aquabed + shrub 1524.04 0.808
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi30 + covden + snow + mayppt + eveg + forest + shrub 1519.96 0.81
Western Toad    
cov1 + cov2 + shrub 1764.4 0.586
cov1 + cov2 + covden + shrub 1761.16 0.6
cti + covden + wet + aquabed + shrub 1581.08 0.682
ppt + covden + wet + shrub + aquabed + unshore 1573.11 0.712
ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub + aquabed + unshore 1726.26 0.675
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + eveg + aquabed 1593.11 0.706
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + wet + aquabed 1593.47 0.717
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1612.82 0.705
cov1 + cov2 + ppt + covden + eveg + forest + aquabed 1712.36 0.693
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + eveg + forest + shrub 1705.62 0.695
cov1 + cov2 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + shrub 1693.92 0.696
cov1 + cov2 + ppt + covden + eveg + forest + aquabed 1655.02 0.709
cov1 + cov2 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + aquabed 1672.41 0.71
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + eveg + forest + shrub + unshore 1715.86 0.677
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + forest + aquabed 1609.26 0.754
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + eveg + forest + aquabed 1686.56 0.701
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + wet + forest + aquabed 1681.48 0.706
cov1 + cov2 + nwi30 + ppt + covden + forest + shrub 1678.61 0.715
Boreal Chorus Frog    
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + eveg 3021.91 0.707
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + ppt + wet + eveg 2988.31 0.716
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + ppt + eveg + shrub 2926.2 0.736
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + ppt + nwi30 + wet + eveg 2948.72 0.738
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + ppt + wet + eveg + shrub 2972.86 0.719
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + nwi1 + nwi30 + eveg + forest + shrub 2904.63 0.744
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + eveg + forest + shrub 2410.53 0.759
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + eveg + forest 2411.65 0.76
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 2413.63 0.758
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + wet + eveg 2905.62 0.744
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + eveg 2947.42 0.726
snow + nwi30 + ppt + forest + shrub + aquabed 2500.12 0.708
nwi30 + combcov + snow + forest + aquabed 2502.39 0.709
cov1 + cov5 + nwi30 + nwi31 + snow + eveg + forest 2498.36 0.713
cov1 + cov5 + nwi30 + nwi31 + snow + forest + aquabed 2502.39 0.709
cov1 + cov5 + nwi30 + nwi31 + snow + forest + eveg + aquabed 2477.78 0.714
cov1 + cov5 + nwi30 + nwi31 + snow + forest + eveg + shrub + aquabed 2476.05 0.714
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + eveg + forest + shrub 2904.63 0.744
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + ppt + nwi30 + wet + eveg + shrub 2919.17 0.739
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + nwi30 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 2905.79 0.744
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd7 + nwi30 + ppt + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 2907.32 0.745
Columbia Spotted Frog    
covden + ppt + wet + shrub + aquabed + unshore 4316.98 0.632
nwi2 + nwi31 + snow + eveg + forest + aquabed 3878.74 0.625
nwi2 + nwi31 + snow + maytotppt + covden + eveg + forest + aquabed 3962.03 0.641
lnd1 + lnd2 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 4009.77 0.642
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi2 + ppt + wet + eveg + shrub 3944.78 0.652
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi2 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 3917.62 0.66
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + nwi1 + nwi2 + ppt + wet + eveg + shrub 3856.87 0.669
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + nwi1 + nwi2 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed 3873.99 0.653
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + ppt + eveg + shrub 4052.03 0.596
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + covden + eveg 4067.36 0.586
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + covden + ppt + eveg + aquabed 4058.96 0.594
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + nwi + covden + ppt + eveg + shrub 3958.41 0.616
cti + cov0 + cov1 + wet + eveg + aquabed 5088.41 0.578
cov0 + cov1 + ppt + covden + wet + shrub + aquabed + unshore 5467.88 0.52
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + cov0 + cov1 + nwi1 + nwi2 4628.33 0.569
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + cov0 + cov1 + eveg 4066.74 0.589
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + cov0 + cov1 + nwi2 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 3967.77 0.608
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + ppt + wet + eveg + shrub 4052.03 0.596
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + ppt + eveg + aquabed 4059.31 0.594
lnd1 + lnd2 + lnd4 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 4060.56 0.595

Annual Variation Models (* = questionable or invalid model)
  AIC ROC
Boreal Chorus Frog 2000 2001 2002 2000 2001 2002
lnd1 + nwi30 + shrub + eveg + forest 533.87 1902.97 * 0.701 0.64 *
nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + eveg + forest + shrub 512.08 1796.43 1231.31 0.774 0.726 0.731
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + eveg + forest + shrub * 1774.32 * * 0.735 *
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + wet + eveg + forest + shrub * 1784.34 * * 0.734 *
nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + nonfor + nonfor1 + nonfor3 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub * * 1272.51 * * 0.724
wet + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed + unshore 595.19 1863.2 1324.59 0.613 0.687 0.702
nwi1 + nwi30 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed + unshore 583.69 1839.32 1291.27 0.649 0.69 0.721
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + wet + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed + unshore * 1792.8 * * 0.736 *
Columbia Spotted Frog            
nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + eveg + forest + shrub 531.52 3051.52 1118.66 0.756 0.655 0.672
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + eveg + forest + shrub 527.88 2998.81 1078.81 0.751 0.698 0.734
lnd1 + lnd2 + ppt + eveg + forest + shrub 553.37 2999.86 1105.64 0.711 0.697 0.693
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + wet + eveg + forest + shrub 491.42 2969.93 1003.28 0.808 0.702 0.75
lnd1 + lnd2 + nwi1 + nwi30 + nonfor + nonfor1 + nonfor3 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub * * 1058.37 * * 0.74
nwi1 + nwi30 + ppt + nonfor + nonfor1 + nonfor3 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub * * 1097.68 * * 0.718
wet + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed + unshore 510.57 3075.27 1163.75 0.796 0.653 0.625
nwi1 + nwi30 + wet + eveg + forest + shrub + aquabed + unshore 481.71 3070.46 1128.93 0.809 0.653 0.665
lnd1 + lnd2 + ppt + wet + eveg + shrub + aquabed + unshore 459.53 2944.2 1055.1 0.816 0.709 0.743

Definition of species-specific, classified, binary variables
Variable Definition
Tiger Salamander
lnd1 alluvium, glacial troughs and cirques, mass wasting
lnd2 fluvial uplands, glaciofluvial deposits
lnd3 glacial uplands, hydrothermal
cov0 water
cov1 closed canopy
cov2 open canopy, regenerated (post-fire) forest, krumholtz
cov5 nonforested, brush
nwi1 riverine, lacustrine, emergent vegetation, forested, shrub, unconsolidated shore
nwi30 aquatic bed
Western Toad
lnd1 alluvium, glacialfluvial
lnd2 fluvial uplands, glacial troughs and cirques, mass wasting
lnd4 glacial uplands, hydrothermal
cov1 water, closed canopy, open canopy
cov2 regenerated (post-fire) forest, non-forested moist, krumholtz
nwi1 riverine
nwi2 lacustrine, forested
nwi30 shrub, aquatic bed, unconsolidated shore
nwi31 emergent vegetation
Boreal Chorus Frog
lnd1 alluvium, glaciofluvial
lnd2 fluvial uplands, glacial troughs and cirques, glacial uplands
lnd7 mass wasting, hydrothermal
cov1 water
cov2 closed forest, open forest, regenerated (post-fire) forest, krumholtz
cov5 nonforested
nwi1 riverine
nwi2 lacustrine
nwi30 aquabed
nwi31 emergent vegetation
Columbia Spotted Frog
lnd1 alluvium
lnd2 fluvial uplands, glacial troughs and cirques, glaciofluvial
lnd4 glacial uplands
lnd7 mass wasting, hydrothermal
cov0 water, open canopy, regenerated (post-fire) forest
cov1 closed canopy, krumholtz
cov5 nonforested
nwi1 riverine
nwi2 lacustrine
nwi30 aquatic bed
nwi31 emergent vegetation
nwi32 forested, shrub, unconsolidated shore

[Back to A021-113]