Ecological Archives A022-081-A3

Joseph B. Fontaine and Patricia L. Kennedy. 2012. Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal responses to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in U.S. fire-prone forests. Ecological Applications 22:1547–1561 http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-0009.1.

Appendix C. Species-specific effect sizes, with 95% confidence intervals and sample sizes, for the response of birds and small mammals to short-term (0–4 yr) fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in U.S. fire-prone forests.

TABLE C1. Species-specific effect sizes of birds and small mammals from the meta-analysis of wildlife response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments (0–4 yrs post-treatment) in United States fire-prone forests. For each species by treatment combination the effect size, 95% confidence interval, and number of observations are given with bolded values indicating intervals not overlapping zero (empty cells indicate absence of information or N < 2 studies meeting inclusion criteria); see Appendix A for scientific names.

 

TREATMENTS (0–4 yrs)

Taxon

High-severity fire

Low/
moderate-severity fire

Thinning

Thin + low/
moderate severity fire

BIRDS

   

 

 

Northern Bobwhite

 

0.45
(-0.11,1.6) 3

 

 

Wild Turkey

 

-0.25
(-0.73,0.65) 2

 

1.2
(0.84,1.5) 2

Ruffed Grouse

-0.14
(-0.22,-0.05) 2

-0.1
(-0.32,0.03) 5

 

 

American Kestrel

 

-0.19
(-0.57,0.33) 2

 

 

Mourning Dove

0.46
(-0.42,1.08) 4

0.1
(-0.15,0.37) 16

 

 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo

 

-1.09
(-1.62,-0.57) 3

 

 

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

   

0.09
(-0.15,0.29) 2

0.44
(0.27,0.59) 2

Broad-tailed Hummingbird

1.68
(0.75,3.25) 5

0.68
(0.43,1.07) 8

 

 

Calliope Hummingbird

0.04
(-0.23,0.33) 2

0.13
(-0.2,0.43) 4

 

 

Lewis's Woodpecker

-1.09
(-3.82,0.32) 2

 

 

 

Red-headed Woodpecker

 

0.36
(0.13,0.64) 7

 

 

Acorn Woodpecker

-0.47
(-0.95,-0.13) 2

 

 

 

Red-bellied Woodpecker

 

0.3
(-0.06,0.74) 13

0.37
(0.37,0.37) 2

 

Williamson's Sapsucker

-0.14
(-0.22,-0.06) 2

-0.12
(-0.45,0.1) 6

 

 

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

 

-0.06
(-0.73,0.62) 5

-0.18
(-0.74,0.38) 2

 

Red-naped Sapsucker

 

-0.3
(-0.68,0.66) 2

 

 

Downy Woodpecker

 

0.01
(-0.55,0.77) 8

-0.64
(-2.75,0.45) 3

1.6
(0.2,2.84) 2

Hairy Woodpecker

1.23
(0.76,1.69) 10

0.54
(0.33,0.76) 26

0.79
(0.44,1.09) 3

 

Red-cockaded Woodpecker

 

1.13
(0.56,1.94) 11

0.9
(0.81,0.99) 2

 

American Three-toed Woodpecker

 

2.31
(0.31,4.03) 3

 

 

Black-backed Woodpecker

 

2.13
(2,2.3) 2

 

 

Northern Flicker

0.01
(-0.55,0.37) 7

0.06
(-0.29,0.33) 25

 

 

Pileated Woodpecker

 

0.04
(-0.44,0.65) 3

0.43
(-0.29,1.31) 2

0.65
(-0.37,2.02) 2

Eastern Phoebe

 

0.03
(-0.57,0.55) 5

0.1
(-0.33,0.54) 2

 

Olive-sided Flycatcher

0.31
(0,0.65) 5

0.34
(0.05,0.75) 7

 

 

Western Wood-pewee

1.25
(1,1.41) 5

0.47
(0.05,0.84) 12

 

 

Eastern Wood-pewee

 

0.64
(0.4,1.02) 9

0.97
(0.65,1.23) 2

4.6
(1.5,7.39) 2

Acadian Flycatcher

 

-0.67
(-1.34,-0.2) 7

 

 

Hammond's Flycatcher

-0.34
(-1.68,0.25) 4

0.07
(-0.25,0.47) 6

 

 

Dusky Flycatcher

-0.02
(-0.33,0.42) 3

-0.12
(-0.48,0.18) 5

 

 

Cordilleran Flycatcher

-1.14
(-1.72,2.64) 3

-1.2
(-1.7,-0.55) 7

 

 

Eastern Kingbird

 

0.76
(0.67,0.87) 2

 

 

Ash-throated Flycatcher

-2.87
(-4.62,-0.33) 2

-0.01
(-0.33,0.33) 2

 

 

Great Crested Flycatcher

 

-0.4
(-0.68,-0.16) 9

 

 

White-eyed Vireo

 

0.22
(-0.13,0.57) 6

 

 

Yellow-throated Vireo

 

-0.28
(-0.6,0.09) 8

 

 

Plumbeous Vireo

 

0.74
(-0.08,2.06) 3

 

 

Cassin's Vireo

-0.52
(-0.89,-0.1) 3

-0.47
(-0.8,-0.2) 5

 

 

Blue-headed Vireo

 

0.02
(-0.34,0.31) 6

0.13
(-0.16,0.73) 3

 

Warbling Vireo

-1.11
(-2.22,-0.23) 6

-0.58
(-0.9,-0.28) 11

 

 

Red-eyed Vireo

 

-0.83
(-1.38,-0.4) 9

-0.73
(-1.79,0.2) 2

-0.73
(-1.42,-0.1) 2

Gray Jay

-0.12
(-0.17,-0.06) 2

-1.52
(-4.05,-0.22) 6

 

 

Blue Jay

 

-0.17
(-0.61,0.21) 10

-0.13
(-0.23,0) 2

-0.36
(-0.49,-0.2) 2

Steller's Jay

-0.36
(-0.7,-0.08) 8

0.44
(0.28,0.63) 12

 

 

Clark's Nutcracker

0.19
(-0.01,0.4) 3

-0.31
(-0.64,0.02) 8

 

 

American Crow

 

0.42
(0,0.61) 2

 

 

Common Raven

-0.34
(-0.55,0.33) 2

-0.07
(-0.62,0.54) 2

 

 

Carolina Chickadee

 

-0.42
(-0.87,-0.01) 13

-0.74
(-1.46,-0.17) 4

-0.05
(-0.1,0.01) 2

Black-capped Chickadee

-0.31
(-0.4,-0.18) 2

0.08
(-0.1,0.26) 5

 

 

Mountain Chickadee

-1.14
(-2.06,-0.4) 9

-0.23
(-0.57,0.1) 18

 

 

Tufted Titmouse

 

-0.95
(-1.79,-0.32) 13

-0.65
(-1.02,-0.44) 4

0.23
(-0.39,1.02) 2

Tree Swallow

 

0.6
(0.32,0.96) 2

 

 

Violet-green Swallow

0.02
(-0.33,0.23) 4

-0.58
(-1.87,0.24) 6

 

 

Golden-crowned Kinglet

-0.54
(-1.03,-0.09) 3

-0.76
(-1.38,-0.39) 7

 

 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

-0.73
(-1.07,-0.19) 3

-0.65
(-1.03,-0.31) 13

-0.65
(-1,-0.3) 2

 

Rock Wren

0.42
(0.35,0.64) 2

 

 

 

Canyon Wren

-0.01
(-0.33,0.33) 2

 

 

 

Bewick's Wren

0.26
(-0.46,0.51) 2

 

 

 

Carolina Wren

 

-0.05
(-0.27,0.2) 9

0.6
(-0.91,1.93) 2

0.56
(-0.11,1.13) 2

Winter Wren

-0.36
(-0.82,-0.04) 3

-0.22
(-0.39,-0.05) 4

 

 

House Wren

0.67
(0.48,0.85) 7

0.33
(0.07,0.62) 17

0.89
(0.42,1.36) 2

 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher

 

-0.62
(-1.18,-0.11) 14

0.14
(-0.34,0.78) 4

1.07
(0.5,1.54) 2

Pygmy Nuthatch

-0.74
(-1.07,-0.5) 4

-0.19
(-0.8,0.33) 9

 

 

Brown-headed Nuthatch

 

1.11
(0.63,1.9) 12

1.65
(1.01,2.29) 2

 

Red-breasted Nuthatch

-0.94
(-2.15,-0.14) 3

0.04
(-0.15,0.3) 7

 

 

White-breasted Nuthatch

0
(-0.27,0.25) 6

0.11
(-0.15,0.39) 14

0.58
(0.16,0.93) 2

1.93
(-0.12,3.81) 2

Brown Creeper

-0.06
(-0.4,0.17) 4

0.59
(0.27,1.17) 8

 

 

Northern Mockingbird

 

0.25
(0,0.46) 2

 

 

Brown Thrasher

 

-0.29
(-0.81,0.76) 2

 

 

Eastern Bluebird

 

0.56
(0.23,0.91) 10

1.7
(0.56,2.88) 2

 

Western Bluebird

0.98
(0.29,1.47) 7

0.69
(0.32,1.08) 13

1.18
(0.95,1.41) 2

1.62
(0.78,2.54) 2

Mountain Bluebird

0.78
(0.38,1.13) 3

0.34
(0.06,0.69) 8

 

 

Townsend's Solitaire

0.61
(0.21,1.03) 4

0
(-0.14,0.18) 7

 

 

Swainson's Thrush

-0.31
(-0.48,-0.13) 2

-0.3
(-0.63,0.07) 6

 

 

Hermit Thrush

-1.89
(-3.39,-0.78) 6

-1.3
(-2.53,-0.39) 14

-1.61
(-1.72,-1.5) 2

 

Wood Thrush

 

-0.76
(-1.13,-0.38) 7

 

 

American Robin

0.03
(-0.4,0.41) 8

0.13
(-0.17,0.45) 17

 

 

Pine Siskin

0.17
(-0.06,0.35) 5

0.07
(-0.39,0.45) 9

 

 

American Goldfinch

 

0.19
(-0.15,0.59) 7

0.21
(0,0.39) 2

2.58
(2.46,2.73) 2

Cassin's Finch

0.26
(-0.02,0.52) 4

0.32
(0.22,0.46) 5

 

 

Red Crossbill

0.04
(-0.41,0.22) 4

0.12
(-0.13,0.37) 8

 

 

Evening Grosbeak

 

3.1
(1.81,4.62) 2

 

 

Orange-crowned Warbler

-0.29
(-0.51,0) 3

-0.48
(-1.43,0) 7

 

 

Virginia's Warbler

-1.13
(-1.86,-0.6) 4

0.03
(-0.68,0.42) 8

 

 

Northern Parula

 

0
(-1,0.6) 2

 

 

Yellow-rumped Warbler

-0.9
(-1.85,-0.04) 7

-0.28
(-0.51,-0.04) 18

-1.15
(-1.72,-0.82) 3

 

Townsend's Warbler

-0.37
(-0.64,-0.1) 3

-0.1
(-0.38,0.17) 4

 

 

Yellow-throated Warbler

 

-0.24
(-0.57,0.21) 7

 

 

Grace's Warbler

 

0.45
(-0.76,1.91) 2

 

 

Prairie Warbler

 

0.58
(0.27,0.89) 8

 

 

Pine Warbler

 

0.34
(-0.83,1.33) 13

0.75
(0.09,1.54) 3

 

Palm Warbler

 

1.28
(0.53,2.09) 4

0.65
(0.19,1.11) 2

 

Black-and-white Warbler

 

-1.01
(-1.51,-0.66) 9

-0.88
(-1.48,-0.35) 2

-1.68
(-2.63,-0.77) 2

Worm-eating Warbler

 

-1.02
(-2.54,-0.13) 3

 

 

Ovenbird

 

-1.19
(-1.74,-0.73) 9

-0.38
(-1.25,0.68) 2

-2.41
(-3.85,-0.93) 2

Kentucky Warbler

 

-2.03
(-5.2,0.09) 3

 

 

MacGillivray's Warbler

-0.04
(-0.31,0.26) 3

-0.05
(-0.19,0.1) 4

 

 

Common Yellowthroat

 

0.49
(0.28,0.74) 9

 

 

Hooded Warbler

 

-0.44
(-1.28,-0.04) 7

 

 

Yellow-breasted Chat

 

0.95
(0.78,1.29) 2

 

 

Brown-headed Cowbird

0.02
(-0.07,0.32) 4

-0.03
(-0.3,0.18) 18

0.25
(-0.65,1.04) 2

0.92
(0.21,1.52) 2

Fox Sparrow

0.16
(-0.33,0.32) 2

 

 

 

White-crowned Sparrow

0.66
(0.42,1.46) 2

 

 

 

Dark-eyed Junco

-0.75
(-2.39,0.32) 7

0.27
(-0.09,0.6) 17

-0.09
(-0.31,0.11) 2

 

Chipping Sparrow

-0.29
(-0.67,0.08) 7

0.38
(0.11,0.63) 25

1.54
(0.94,2.59) 3

 

Field Sparrow

 

1.1
(0.99,1.31) 2

 

 

Bachman's Sparrow

 

0.77
(0.51,1.08) 10

 

 

Green-tailed Towhee

0.34
(0.33,0.35) 2

 

 

 

Spotted Towhee

-0.35
(-0.69,0.12) 6

0.61
(0.35,1.01) 7

 

 

Eastern Towhee

 

0.23
(-0.16,0.62) 9

 

 

Summer Tanager

 

-0.15
(-0.4,0.13) 8

 

 

Scarlet Tanager

   

0.22
(-0.23,0.77) 2

0.25
(-0.36,1.04) 2

Western Tanager

-0.24
(-0.57,0.2) 7

0.36
(0.09,0.59) 14

 

 

Black-headed Grosbeak

-0.09
(-0.47,0.39) 5

0.48
(0.21,0.72) 8

 

 

Northern Cardinal

 

-0.4
(-0.83,-0.02) 9

 

 

Indigo Bunting

 

0.43
(-0.02,0.96) 9

 

2.89
(0.88,4.67) 2

Lazuli Bunting

0.75
(0.57,0.95) 4

0.63
(0.41,0.8) 5

 

 

SMALL MAMMALS

   

 

 

Northern short-tailed shrew

 

-0.14
(-0.63,0.45) 5

-0.19
(-0.37,0) 2

-0.59
(-0.74,-0.44) 2

Pygmy shrew

 

0.8
(0.36,1.31) 5

1.27
(1,1.54) 2

-0.48
(-0.65,-0.3) 2

Smoky shrew

 

0.05
(-0.72,1.14) 5

0.27
(0,0.54) 2

0.05
(-0.34,0.46) 2


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