Ecological Archives A024-046-A1

Ralph Grundel, Krystalynn J. Frohnapple, David N. Zaya, Gary A. Glowacki, Chelsea J. Weiskerger, Tamatha A. Patterson, Noel B. Pavlovic. 2014. Geographic coincidence of richness, mass, conservation value, and response to climate of U.S. land birds. Ecological Applications 24:790–811.

Appendix A. Avian community characteristics and possible predictors of those characteristics, along with variable descriptive statistics and data sources.

Table A1. Avian community characteristics and possible predictors of those characteristics, along with variable descriptive statistics and data sources.



Mean ± SE (range)

References/ Data Sources




Total mass of birds kg/BBS route)

49.6 ± 0.7 (4.5–195.4)

(Dunning 2008)


Yearly mean species richness (species/yr/BBS route)

48.3 ± 0.4 (8.8–91.9)

(Hortal et al. 2006, Oksanen et al. 2011)


Mean of 5 highest species' Continental Combined Scores per route

14.0 ± 0.02 (11.6–17.6)

(Panjabi et al. 2005)


Proportion of species' global population ha-1, summed over all species on a route (× 10-5)

2.91 ± 0.2 (0.1–134)

(Panjabi et al. 2005, Grundel and Pavlovic 2008)


Route position along ecological gradient (Ordination score, range 0–1)

0.51 ± 0.01 (0–1)

(De'ath 1999)


Route score along 1st NMS ordination axis

0 ± 0.02 (-1.77–1.48)

(McCune and Mefford 2011)


Route score along 2nd NMS ordination axis

0 ± 0.02 (-1.75–2.16)

(McCune and Mefford 2011)




Mean June temperature (1997–2004) (°C)

20.0 ± 0.12 (8.1–31.1)

(Girvetz et al. 2009, PRISM Climate Group 2011)


Mean June precipitation (1997–2004) (mm)

88.0 ± 1.4 (0.1–274.4)

(Girvetz et al. 2009, PRISM Climate Group 2011)






Mean elevation along route (m)

721 ± 19.4 (-3–3114)

(GLOBE Task Team and others 1999)


Mean slope along route (degrees)

1.5 ± 0.1 (0–12.7)

(GLOBE Task Team and others 1999)






Gross primary productivity (2000–2004) (g C/m²yr)

921 ± 12.6 (88–3013)

(Zhao et al. 2005, Zhao and Running 2010)


Canopy cover (%)

24.5 ± 0.6 (0–88.8)

National Land Cover Database Tree Canopy (






Forest fragmentation due to natural causes (0 (lowest fragmentation) - 100 (highest)

10.5 ± 0.4 (0–67.5)

(Wade et al. 2003, Wade 2006)


Forest fragmentation due to human associated causes (0 (lowest fragmentation) - 100 (highest)

16.9 ± 0.5 (0–70.8)

(Wade et al. 2003, Wade 2006)


NLCD 2001 Class 11: proportion open water

0.01 ± <0.01 (0–0.33)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 21: proportion developed open space

0.06 ± <0.01 (0–0.38)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 31: proportion barren land

0.01 ± <0.01 (0–0.41)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 41: proportion deciduous forest

0.12 ± <0.01 (0–0.85)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 42: proportion evergreen forest

0.13 ± 0.01 (0–0.94)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 43: proportion mixed forest

0.02 ± <0.01 (0–0.52)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 52: proportion scrub/shrub

0.16 ± 0.01 (0–0.99)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 71: proportion grassland/herbaceous

0.12 ± 0.01 (0–0.99)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 81: proportion pasture/hay

0.10 ± <0.01 (0–0.72)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 82: proportion cultivated crops

0.18 ± 0.01 (0–0.91)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 90: proportion woody wetlands

0.04 ± <0.01 (0–0.85)

(Homer et al. 2004)


NLCD 2001 Class 95: proportion emergent herbaceous wetlands

0.01 ± <0.01 (0–0.85)

(Homer et al. 2004)


Human population density (/km²)

29.4 ± 2.1 (0–1275.9)

(U.S. Census Bureau 2006)


Diversity of land cover classes (number of classes )

3.97± 1.77 (1.04–9.73)

From land cover classes using Shannon-Wiener diversity index

Literature Cited

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Colwell, R. K. 2009. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.20.  Available from (accessed 13 August 2009).

Culbert, P. D., V. C. Radeloff, V. St-Louis, C. H. Flather, C. D. Rittenhouse, T. P. Albright, and A. M. Pidgeon. 2012. Modeling broad-scale patterns of avian species richness across the Midwestern United States with measures of satellite image texture. Remote Sensing of Environment 118:140–150.

De'ath, G. 1999. Principal curves: a new technique for indirect and direct gradient analysis. Ecology 80:2237–2253.

Dunning, J., John B. 2008. CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Girvetz, E. H., C. Zganjar, G. T. Raber, E. P. Maurer, P. Kareiva, and J. J. Lawler. 2009. Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool. PLoS ONE 4:e8320.

GLOBE Task Team and others. 1999. The Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) Digital Elevation Model, Version 1.0. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, Colorado.

Gotelli, N. J., and R. K. Colwell. 2011. Estimating species richness. Pages 39–54  Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment.

Grundel, R. and N. B. Pavlovic. 2008. Using conservation value to assess land restoration and management alternatives across a degraded oak savanna landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:315–324.

Homer, C. C., L. Huang, B. W. Yang, and M. Coan. 2004. Development of a 2001 National Land Cover Database for the United States. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 70:829–840.

Hortal, J., P. A. V. Borges, and C. Gaspar. 2006. Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:274–287.

McCune, B., and M. J. Mefford. 2011. PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 6.08. MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, U.S.A.

Oksanen, J., F. G. Blanchet, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, R. B. O'Hara, G. L. Simpson, P. Solymos, M. H. H. Stevens, and H. Wagner. 2011. vegan: Community Ecology Package, R package version 1.17-12. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Panjabi, A. O., E. H. Dunn, P. J. Blancher, W. C. Hunter, B. Altman, J. Bart, C. J. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, G. S. Butcher, S. K. Davis, D. W. Demarest, R. Dettmers, W. Easton, H. G. d. S. Garza, E. E. Iñigo-Elias, D. N. Pashley, C. J. Ralph, T. D. Rich, K. V. Rosenberg, C. M. Rustay, J. M. Ruth, J. S. Wendt, and T. C. Will. 2005. The Partners in Flight handbook on species assessment. Version 2005. Partners in Flight Technical Series No. 3.

PRISM Climate Group. 2011. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model. Oregon State University.

Reese, G. C. 2012. Simulating species assemblages and evaluating species richness estimators. Colorado State University, Colorado Springs, CO.

Rittenhouse, C. D., A. M. Pidgeon, T. P. Albright, P. D. Culbert, M. K. Clayton, C. H. Flather, J. G. Masek, and V. C. Radeloff. 2012. Land-Cover Change and Avian Diversity in the Conterminous United States. Conservation Biology 26:821–829.

Rosenberg, K. V., and P. J. Blancher. 2005. Setting numerical population objectives for priority landbird species. Pages 57–67 in C. J. Ralph and T. D. Rich, editors. Bird Conservation Implementation and Integration in the Americas: Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, General Technical Report.

Sauer, J. R., and W. A. Link. 2011. Analysis of the North American Breeding Bird Survey using hierarchical models. Auk 128:87–98.

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U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. U.S. Census Database, 2000: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, USA <>.

Wade, T. 2006. Causes of Forest Fragmentation in the United States – 1 Kilometer Resolution: National Atlas of the United States, Reston, VA <>.

Wade, T. G., K. H. Riitters, J. D. Wickham, and K. B. Jones. 2003. Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology 7:7.

Zhao, M., F. A. Heinsch, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running. 2005. Improvements of the MODIS terrestrial gross and net primary production global data set. Remote Sensing of Environment 95:164–176.

Zhao, M., and S. W. Running. 2010. Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science 329:940–943.

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