Ecological Archives A025035A6
Heidi Liere, Tania N. Kim, Benjamin P. Werling, Timothy D. Meehan, Douglas A. Landis, Claudio Gratton. 2015. Trophic cascades in agricultural landscapes: indirect effects of landscape composition on crop yield. Ecological Applications 25:652–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/140570.1
Appendix F. Table with the bootstrapped standardized and unstandardized path coefficients for the SEM models.
Table F1. Bootstrapped standardized and unstandardized path coefficients illustrating the direct (A, B) and indirect (C, D) effects of predictor variables (column headings) on response variables (row headings). NE = natural enemy; SBA = soybean aphids; Yield = soybean yield. Numbers in parentheses represent the lower and upper bounds of the 95% confidence intervals, respectively.
(A) Direct (Unstandardized) 
Habitat diversity 
Proportion soybean 
Year 
NE abundances 
SBA effect size 






NE abundances 
80.25 
87.05 
96.96 
0 
0 






SBA effect size 
0 
0 
0 
0.01 
0 






Yield effect size 
0 
0 
0.19 
0 
0.07 
(B) Direct (Standardized) 
Habitat diversity 
Proportion of soybean 
Year 
NE abundance 
SBA effect size 






NE abundance 
0.15 
0.20 
0.88 
0 
0 






SBA effect size 
0 
0 
0 
0.50 
0 






Yield effect size 
0 
0 
0.29 
0 
0.24 
(C) Indirect (Unstandardized) 
Habitat diversity 
Proportion soybean 
Year 
NE abundance 
SBA effect size 






NE abundance 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 






SBA effect size 
0.82 
0.90 
1.00 
0 
0 






Yield effect size 
0.05 
0.07 
0.08 
0.01 
0 
(D) Indirect (Standardized) 
Habitat diversity 
Proportion soybean 
Year 
NE abundance 
SBA effect size 






NE abundance 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 






SBA effect size 
0.08 
0.10 
0.44 
0 
0 






Yield effect size 
0.02 
0.03 
0.12 
0.13 
0 