Ecological Archives E081-008-A3

Edward F. Connor, Aaron C. Courtney, and James M. Yoder. 2000. Individuals-area relationships: the relationship between animal population density and area. Ecology 81:734-748.


Appendix C: Metadata descriptors for raw data file in Appendix B

Table C-1. Data codes and explanations for data in data file
Table C-2. Study Codes
Table C-3. Species Codes
Literature Cited

Table C-1.  Data codes and explanations for data in data file

Code Type or Explanation Code
Taxa Codes 1 = insect, 2 = mammal, 3 = bird
Habitat Codes 1 = single plant species, 2 = grassland or field, 3= deciduous forest, 4 = coniferous forest, 5 = tropical forest
Passerine/Non-Passerine Codes 0 = not a bird, 1 = non-passerine, 2 = passerine
Edge/Interior Codes (For studies 20, 26 and 29 only) 0 = in study 20, 26, or 29, or status not determined, 1 = forest interior species, 2 = interior-edge species, 3 = forest edge species
CV - Patch Size coefficient of variation of patch size with mean patch size expressed in the author's original units
mean patch size average patch size in author's original units
mean patch area (ha) patch area in hectares, 0 = indicates value could not be calculated
mean density (number/ha) average population density of patches included in study, 0 = indicates value could not be calculated

Table C- 2. Study Codes

Study* Study Number
Bach (1988) 1
Cromartie (1975) 2
Denno et al (1981) 3
Kindvall and Ahlén (1992) 4
Kareiva (1981) 5
Maguire (1983) 6
Raupp and Denno (1979) 7
Foster and Gaines (1991) 8
Engbring and Ramsey (1989) 10
Engbring et al. (1986) 11
Funderburke et al. (1990) 13
Henderson et al. (1985) 14
Rolstad and Wegge (1987) 15
Geuse et al. (1985) 16
Pokki (1981) 17
Smith (1974) 18
Laurance (1990) 19
Askins et al. (1987) 20
Haila (1981) 21
Haila et al. (1983) 22
Haila (1983) 23
Haila et al. (1987) 24
Vickery et al. (1994) 25
Bond (1957) 26
Matter (1997) 27
Dooley (1993) 28
Blake and Karr (1987) 29
Hanski and Kuitunen (1986) 30
Engbring et al. (1990) 31
Møller (1987) 32
Gottfried (1979) 33
Pahl et al. (1988) 34
Willson et al. (1993) 35
Smith and Vrieze (1979) 36

*See Literature Cited for full references

Table C-3. Species Codes

Species Species Code
   
I. INSECTS  
Acalymma vittatum 1
Amphicephalus simplex 10
Anticarsia gemmatalis 20
Aphelonema simplex 9
Delphacodes detecta 11
Destria bisignata 13
Diabrotica undecimpunctata 3
Diabrotica virgifera 2
Eriococcus sp. 18
Megamelus lobatus 12
Metrioptera bicolor 14
Neomegamelanus dorsalis 16
Odonaspis sp. 17
Phyllotreta cruciferae 4
Phyllotreta striolata 5
Pieris rapae 7
Plutella xylostella 15
Tetraopes tetraophthalmus 255
Tumidagena minuta 8
Tytthus sp. 19
   
II. MAMMALS  
Blarina brevicauda 296
Clethrionomys glareolus 25
Dendrolagus lumhotzi 29
Hemibelideus lemuroides 297
Microtus agrestis 26
Microtus ochrogaster 22
Microtus pennsylvanicus 257
Ochotona princeps 27
Oryzomys palustris 330
Peromyscus gossypinus 331
Peromyscus leucopus 256
Peromyscus maniculatus 23
Pseudocheirus archeri 30
Pseudocheirus herbertensis 31
Reithrodontomys megalotis 21
Sigmodon hispidus 332
Sorex araneus 258
Sorex caecutiens 259
Sorex minutus 260
Tamais striatus 24
Trichosurus vulpecula 28
   
III. BIRDS  
Accipiter cooperii 252
Accipiter gentilis 231
Accipiter nisus 155
Acrocephalus palustris 188
Acrocephalus scirpaceus 189
Actitis hypoleucos 219
Aegolius funereus 234
Aerodramus vanikorensis 55
Agelaius phoeniceus 119
Aix sponsa 66
Alauda arvensis 156
Ammodramus savannarum 245
Anairetes parulus 298
Anas platyrhynchos 294
Anous minutus 36
Anous stolidus 35
Anthus pratensis 223
Anthus trivialis 179
Aphrastura spinicauda 299
Aplonis atrifusca 45
Aplonis opacus 56
Aplonis tabuensis 44
Apus apus 174
Archilochus colubris 249
Asio flammeus 173
Baeolophus bicolor 88
Bartramia longicauda 241
Bombycilla cedrorum 295
Bombycilla garrulus 149
Bonasa bonasia 232
Bonasa umbellus 69
Bubo virginianus 253
Buteo buteo 293
Buteo jamaicensis 248
Buteo lagopus 208
Buteo lineatus 67
Buteo platypterus 68
Calidris temminckii 213
Campephilus magellanicus 300
Caprimulgus vociferus 324
Cardinalis cardinalis 124
Cardeulis barbatus 301
Carduelis cannabina 204
Carduelis carduelis 325
Carduelis chloris 134
Carduelis flammea 159
Carduelis spinus 143
Carduelis tristis 127
Carpodacus erythrinus 206
Carpodacus mexicanus 126
Catharus fuscescens 99
Catharus guttatus 98
Certhia americana 90
Certhia familiaris 138
Coccyzus americannus 72
Coccyzus erythropthalmus 73
Colaptes auratus 75
Colaptes pitius 302
Colinus virginianus 70
Collocalia spodiopygia 41
Colorhamphus parvirostris 303
Columba araucana 304
Columba oenas 169
Columba palumbus 170
Contopus virens 84
Corvus brachyrhynchos 86
Corvus corax 148
Corvus corone 202
Corvus monedula 289
Corvus ossifragus 131
Cuculus canorus 171
Curaeus curaeus 305
Cyanocitta cristata 85
Delichon urbica 178
Dendrocopos major 144
Dendrocopus minor 326
Dendroica cerulea 110
Dendroica discolor 112
Dendroica dominica 267
Dendroica pensylvanica 111
Dendroica petechia 108
Dendroica virens 109
Dolichonyx oryzivorus 246
Dryocopus martius 140
Dryocopus pileatus 76
Ducula oceanica 272
Ducula pacifica 40
Dumetella carolinensis 94
Elaenia albiceps 306
Emberiza citrinella 154
Emberiza rustica 239
Emberiza schoeniclus 207
Empidonax minimus 251
Empidonax virescens 83
Enicognathus leptorhynchus 307
Erithacus rubecula 183
Eugralla paradoxa 308
Falco columbarius 209
Ficedula hypoleuca 199
Foulehaio carunculata 43
Fringilla coelebs 160
Fringilla montifringilla 161
Gallicolumbia xanthonura 62
Gallinago gallinago 166
Gallus gallus 269
Garrulus glandarius 201
Geothlypis trichas 115
Gygis alba 37
Halcyon chloris 42
Haliaeetus albicilla 153
Helmitheros vermivorus 106
Hippolais icterina 190
Hirundo rustica 177
Hylocichla mustelina 97
Icteria virens 265
Icterus galbula 120
Ixobrychus sinensis 63
Jynx torquilla 175
Lagopus lagopus 210
Lanius collurio 200
Lanius excubitor 327
Loxia curvirostra 205
Luscinia luscinia 184
Luscinia svecica 225
Lymnocryptes minimus 215
Lyrurus tetrix 135
Megapodius laperouse 64
Melanerpes carolinus 77
Melanerpes erythrocephalus 250
Melospiza melodia 130
Milvago chimango 309
Mimus polyglottos 93
Mniotilta varia 105
Molothrus ater 122
Motacilla alba 181
Motacilla flava 224
Muscicapa striata 198
Myiarchus crinitus 81
Myzomela cardinalis 49
Nucifraga caryocatactes 157
Numenius phaeopus 216
Oenanthe oenanthe 187
Oporornis formosus 264
Otus asio 328
Parula americana 266
Parus ater 147
Parus caeruleas 136
Parus cinctus 228
Parus cristatus 142
Parus major 146
Parus montanus 137
Parus palusons 292
Passer domesticus 152
Passer montanus 323
Passerculus sandwichensis 244
Passerina cyanea 268
Perisoreus infaustus 229
Phaethon lepturus 32
Pheucticus ludovicianus 125
Philomachus pugnax 214
Phoenicurus phoenicurus 185
Phrygilus patagonicus 310
Phylloscopus collybita 238
Phylloscopus sibilatrix 196
Phylloscopus trochilus 197
Pica pica 150
Picoides lignarius 311
Picoides pubescens 79
Picoides tridactylus 236
Picoides villosus 78
Picus canus 6
Pinicola enucleator 230
Pipilo erythrophthalmus 128
Piranga olivacea 123
Plectopenax nivalis 162
Pluvialis apricaria 212
Poecile atricapillus 87
Polioptila caerulea 100
Pooecetes gramineus 243
Porphyrio porphyrio 34
Prunella modularis 182
Pteroptochos tarnii 312
Ptilinopus perousii 38
Ptilinopus porphyraceus 39
Ptilinopus roseicapilla 59
Pygarrhichas albogularis 313
Pyrope pyrope 314
Pyrrhula pyrrhula 139
Quiscalus quiscula 121
Rallus philippensis 33
Regulus regulus 141
Rhipidura rufifrons 53
Saxicola rubetra 186
Sayornis phoebe 82
Scelorchilus rubecula 315
Scolopax rusticola 167
Scytalopus magellanicus 316
Seiurus aurocapillus 113
Seiurus motacilla 114
Sephanoides galeritus 317
Setophaga ruticilla 118
Sialia sialis 132
Sitta canadensis 329
Sitta carolinensis 89
Spizella passerina 129
Spizella pusilla 242
Streptopelia bitorquata 61
Strix nebulosa 221
Strix uralensis 235
Strix varia 74
Sturnella magna 247
Sturnus vulgaris 101
Sylvia atricapilla 195
Sylvia borin 194
Sylvia communis 193
Sylvia curruca 192
Sylvia nisoria 191
Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii 318
Tachycineta leucopyga 319
Tetrao tetrix 233
Tetrao urogallus 211
Thryothorus ludovicianus 92
Toxostoma rufum 95
Tringa glareola 218
Tringa nebularia 217
Tringa ochropus 168
Troglodytes aedon 91
Troglodytes troglodytes 158
Turdus falcklandii 321
Turdus iliacus 227
Turdus merula 151
Turdus migratorius 96
Turdus philomelos 226
Turdus pilaris 133
Turdus tadorna 291
Turdus viscivorus 237
Tyrannus tyrannus 80
Vanellus vanellus 165
Vermivora pinus 107
Vireo flavifrons 103
Vireo griseus 102
Vireo olivaceus 104
Wilsonia citrina 116
Wilsonia canadensis 117
Zenaida macroura 71
Zonotricha capensis 322
Zosterops conspicillatus 50

Literature Cited

1) Bach, C. 1988. Effects of host plant patch size on herbivore den­sity: patterns. Ecology 69: 1090-1102.

2) Cromartie, W.J., Jr. 1975. The effect of stand size and vegeta­tional background on the colonization of cruciferous plants by herbivorous insects. Journal of Applied Ecology 12: 517-533.

3) Denno, R.F., M.J. Raup, and D.W. Tallamy. 1981. Organization of a guild of sap-feeding insects: equilibrium vs. nonequilibrium coexistence, p. 151-181. In, R.F Denno and H. Dingle (eds.) Insect Life History Patterns: Habitat and Geographic Varia­tion. Springer-Verlag: New York.

4) Kindvall, O., and I. Ahlén. 1992. Geometrical factors and metapopulation dynamics of the bush cricket, Metrioptera bicolor philippi (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae.) Conservation Biology 4: 520-529.

5) Kareiva, P.M. 1981. Non-migratory movement and the distribution of herbivorous insects: experiments with plant spacing and the application of diffusion. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

6) Maguire, L. 1983. Influence of collard patch size on population densities of Lepidopteran pests (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Plutellidae.) Environmental Entomology 12: 1415-1419.

7) Raupp, M.J., and R.F. Denno. 1979. The influence of patch size on a guild of sap-feeding insects that inhabit salt marsh grass Spartina patens. Environmental Entomology 8: 412-417.

8) Foster, J., and M.S. Gaines. 1991. The effects of a successional habitat mosaic on a small mammal community. Ecology 72: 1358-1373.

10) Engbring, J., and F.L. Ramsey. 1989. A 1986 Survey of the forest birds of American Samoa.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior.

11) Engbring, J., F.L. Ramsey, and V.J. Wildman. 1986.  Micronesian forest bird survey, 1982: Saipan, Tinian, Agiguan, and Rota.  Fish and Wildlife Service.  U.S. Department of the Interior.

13) Funderburke, J.E., A.R. Soffes, R.D. Barnett, D.C. Herzog, and K. Hinson. 1990. Plot size and shape in relation to soybean resistance for velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 2107-2110.

14) Henderson, M.T., G. Merriam, and J. Wegner. 1985. Patchy environ­ments and species survival: chipmunks in an agricultural mosaic. Biological Conservation 31: 95-105.

15) Rolstad, J., and P. Wegge. 1987. Distribution and size of caper­caillie leks in relation to old forest fragmentation. Oecologia 72: 389-394.

16) Geuse, P., V.Bauchau, and E. Le Boulengé. 1985. Distribution and population dynamics of bank voles and wood mice in a patchy woodland habitat in central Belgium. Acta Zoologica Fennica 173: 65-68.

17) Pokki, J. 1981. Distribution, demography and dispersal of the field vole, Microtus agrestis, in the Tvärminne archipelago, Finland. Acta Zoologica Fennica. 164: 1-48.

18) Smith, A.T. 1974. The distribution and dispersal of pikas: con­sequences of insular population structure. Ecology 55: 1112-1119.

19) Laurance, W.F. 1990. Comparative responses of five arboreal mar­supials to tropical forest fragmentation. Journal of Mammalogy 71: 641-653.

20) Askins, R.A., M.J. Philbrick, and D.S. Sugeno. 1987. Relationship between the regional abundance of forest and the composition of forest bird communities. Biological Conservation 39: 129-152.

21) Haila, Y. 1981. Winter bird communities in the Aland archipelago:  an island biogeographic point of view. Holarctic Ecology 4: 174-183.

22) Haila, Y., O. Järvinen, and S. Kuusela. 1983. Colonization of islands by land birds: prevalence functions in a Finnish ar­chipelago. Journal of Biogeography 10: 499-531.

23) Haila, Y.1983. Colonization of islands in a north-boreal Finnish lake by land birds. Annales Zoologici Fennici 20: 179-197.

24) Haila, Y., I.K. Hanski, and S. Raivio. 1987. Breeding bird distribution in fragmented coniferous taiga in southern Finland.  Ornis Fennica 64: 90-106.

25) Vickery, P.D., M.L. Hunter, Jr., and S.M. Melvin. 1994. Effects of habitat area on the distribution of grassland birds in Maine. Conservation Biology 8: 1087-1097.

26) Bond, R.R. 1957. Ecological distribution of breeding birds in the upland forests of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 351-384.

27) Matter, S. 1997. Population density and area: the role of between and within patch processes. Oecologia 110: 533-538.

28) Dooley, J.L. 1993. Patch effects on rodent demography. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Vir­ginia, USA.

29) Blake, J.G., and J.R. Karr. 1987. Breeding birds of isolated woodlots: area and habitat relationships. Ecology 68: 1724-1734.

30) Hanski, I., and J. Kuitunen. 1986. Shrews on small islands: epigenetic variation elucidates population stability. Holarctic Ecology 9: 193-204.

31) Engbring, J., F.L. Ramsey, and V.J. Wildman. 1990. Micronesian forest bird surveys, the Federated States:  Pohnpei, Kosrae, Chuuk, and Yap.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Department of the Interior.

32) Møller, A.P. 1987. Breeding birds in habitat patches:  random distribution of species and individuals? Journal of Biogeography 14: 225-236.

33) Gottfried, B.M. 1979. Small mammal populations in woodlot islands. American Midland Naturalist 102: 105-112.

34) Pahl, L.I., J.W.Winter, and G. Heinsohn. 1988. Variation in responses of arboreal marsupials to fragmentation of tropical rainforest in north eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 46: 71-82.

35) Willson, M.F., T.I. De Santo, C. Sabag, J.J. Armesto. 1994. Avian communities of fragmented south-temperate rainforests in Chile. Conservation Biology 8: 508-520.

36) Smith, A.T. and J.M. Vrieze. 1979. Population structure of Everglades rodents: responses to a patchy environment. Journal of Mammalogy 60: 778-794.


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