Ecological Archvies E082-024-A1

Ecological Archives E082-024-A1

Gary G. Mittelbach, Christopher F. Steiner, Samuel M. Scheiner, Katherine L. Gross, Heather L. Reynolds, Robert B. Waide, Michael R. Willig, Stanley I. Dodson, and Laura Gough. 2001. What is the observed relationship between species richness and productivity? Ecology 82:2381-2396.

Appendix A. The complete list of productivity-species diversity studies (196 papers) and the data extracted from them and used in the study.


        Species Richness Productivity       Scale classification Spatial dimension Final OLS Regression Results Results of OLS Linear Regression Results of OLS Quadratic Regression   OLS-MOS test24 GLIM analysis25 GLIM-MOS test26 Pattern Summary Consensus      
Reference Taxa11 Taxa22 Taxa33 Taxa44 Total5 Range among sites6 Diversity7 Measure Range among sites Energy8 Location System Type Syst. Type 29 Geogr.10 Biotic11 GLD12 Ave. plot size13 Relation p-value r-square lin. std coef14 linear coef15 lin. coef SE16 r-square lin. std coef17 quad std coef18 linear coef19 quad coef20 lin. coef SE quad coef SE r-square n21 Pattern Min p-value22 Max p-value23 quad coef quad p-value linear coef lin p-value Pattern Pattern Min p-value Max p-value OLS OLS-MOS GLIM GLIM-MOS Summary Raw Data Analyzed? n >10 ? Misc. Notes
Abramsky and Rosenzweig 1984a Rodents A V M N.A. N.A. S Annual Rainfall 22.5-648.9 (mm) AV Israel Desert T   1 N.A. N.A. Negative p=0.006 0.51413 -0.71703 -0.00473 0.00139 0.51413 0.66012 -1.40393 0.00435 -0.00001 0.00688 0.00001 0.58863 13       -8.004E-06 0.2491 -1.881E-03 0.0542 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y sandy habitats
Abramsky and Rosenzweig 1984b Rodents A V M N.A. N.A. S Annual Rainfall 10.4-298.6 (mm) AV Israel Desert T   1 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p=0.077 0.40865 -0.22754 -0.00397 0.0049 0.05178 1.6275 -1.94886 0.02838 -0.00011 0.01319 0.00004 0.40865 14 Unimodal 0.06 0.019 -3.101E-05 0.1717 -1.073E-03 0.5997 None       Unimodal Unimodal None   None Y Y rocky habitats
Adams and Woodward 1989a T P P T N.A. N.A. S Production N.A. ASS East Asia   T 4 3 >4000 7.200E+10 Positive p<0.01 0.84 N.A.         N.A.           107                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Adams and Woodward 1989b T P P T N.A. N.A. S Production N.A. ASS Europe   T 4 3 >4000 7.200E+10 Positive p<0.01 0.84 N.A.         N.A.           167                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Adams and Woodward 1989c T P P T N.A. N.A. S Production N.A. ASS North America   T 4 3 >4000 7.200E+10 Positive p<0.01 0.91 N.A.         N.A.           194                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Aiba and Kitayama 1999 T P P T N.A. 4-148 S Est. St. Crop 1.9-54.2 (kg m-2) ASS Borneo Rainforest T 1 1 19.7 4.263E+03 Positive p=0.002 0.811                       8                       Positive         Y N  
Al-Mufti et al. 1977 H P P H N.A. 1-21 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop + Litter Biomass 148-2564 (g m-2) ASS United Kingdom Grassland - Woodland T 2 2 44 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.29825 -0.00397 0.00367 0.08895 0.08253 -0.39499 0.001099 -2E-06 0.01433 0.00001 0.099976 14       -6.275E-07 0.0552 -5.929E-04 0.0066 Unimodal Unimodal 0.0552 0.0552 None   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Alongi and Christofferson 1992 Nematodes A I I 46 14-26 S Infauna Biomass 0.6-2.4 (g m-2) ASS Australia Coastal Lagoon A 2 1 49 2.970E-03 None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Angel 1993a Decapods A I I N.A. 23-55 S Latitude 10-66 (oN) AV Atlantic Ocean   A 4 3 5500 N.A. Negative p=0.018 0.79                       6                       Negative         Y N  
Angel 1993b Euphasiids A I I N.A. 13-33 S Latitude N.A. AV Atlantic Ocean   A 4 3 5500 N.A. Negative p=0.015 0.81                       6                       Negative         Y N  
Angel 1993c Fish A V F N.A. 56-150 S Latitude N.A. AV Atlantic Ocean   A 4 3 5500 N.A. Negative p<0.01 0.85                       6                       Negative         Y N  
Angel 1993d Ostracods A I I N.A. 10-83 S Latitude N.A. AV Atlantic Ocean   A 4 3 5500 N.A. Unimodal p=0.013 0.9                       7 Negative* 0.352 0.019                 Unimodal Negative*       Y N  
August 1983 Mammals A V M N.A. 1-6 S Biomass 28-647 (g ha-1) ASS Venezuela Savanna - Forest T 1 2 8 N.A. Positive p=0.076 0.7                       5                       Positive         Y N  
Bachelet et al. 1996 Benthic Macroinvert. A I I N.A. 1.5-3.6 (D) D Biomass 0.04-30.5 (g m-2) ASS France Marine Subtidal A 1 1 18 6.080E-02 None p>0.10   0.28653 0.01991 0.01719 0.0821 -0.73292 1.04524 -0.05092 0.0025 0.07821 0.00269 0.13534 17       8.085E-04 0.7479 6.584E-03 0.6730 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Balla and Davis 1995 Macroinvertebrates A I I 176 80-110 S Biomass 77.8-531 (g m-2) ASS Australia Wetland A 2 1 58 N.A. Negative p=0.077 0.58                       6                       Negative         Y N  
Barbour and Brown 1974 Fish A V F N.A. 5-245 S Latitude 0.5 (oS)-74.5 (oN) AV Global Lakes A 4 3 >4000 N.A. Positive p=0.013 0.0867 -0.29445 -0.72019 0.28345 0.0867 -0.42129 0.13182 -1.03041 0.0048 1.0474 0.0156 0.08799 70       -2.313E-05 0.6837 -1.664E-02 0.0000 Positive*       Positive*   Positive*   Positive* Y Y  
Barbour and Diaz 1973a H, S P P H, S N.A. 1-16 S Annual Rainfall 75-370 (mm) AV Argentina Desert T 2 1 110 1.536E+03 None p>0.10   0.22928 0.011 0.01295 0.05257 0.67796 -0.45632 0.03253 -0.00005 0.07374 0.00017 0.05948 16       -9.418E-06 0.5376 1.746E-03 0.1640 Positive       None   Positive   Positive Y Y perennials only
Barbour and Diaz 1973b H, S P P H, S N.A. 2-19 S Annual Rainfall 70-275 (mm) AV Arizona Desert T 3 1 267 1.536E+03 Positive p=0.074 0.19677 0.44359 0.02438 0.01272 0.19677 -2.05962 2.52932 -0.11319 0.0004 0.08401 0.00024 0.32814 16       5.488E-05 0.0533 4.203E-03 0.0091 U-shaped U-shaped 0.0533 0.0533 Positive   U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y perennials only
Bass 1990 Fish A V F N.A. 25-52 S Biomass 53-1436 (g per unit effort) ASS Florida Rivers A 3 2 672 N.A. Unimodal p=0.041 0.55046 0.39049 0.00744 0.00584 0.15248 3.64564 -3.31572 0.06942 -0.00004 0.02372 0.00002 0.55046 11 Unimodal 0.019 0.051 -1.003E-06 0.0327     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0327 0.0327 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Bay 1997 H P P H 91 6-36 S Nitrogen 0.05-0.37 (percent) AV Greenland Polar Desert T 2 1 48.9 3.750E+00 Unimodal p=0.041 0.75                       8 Unimodal 0.048 0.016                 Unimodal Unimodal       Y N  
Beadle 1966 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 34-196 S Phosphorous 31.7-206 (ppm) AV Australia Dry/Heath Forest T 3 1 3500 N.A. None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Beadle 1966a H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 34-196 S Phosphorous 31.7-1233 (ppm) AV Australia Rainforest T 3 1 1067 N.A. Positive p=0.013 0.55822 0.74714 0.03752 0.0118 0.55822 -1.50122 2.27153 -0.07538 0.00008 0.07735 0.00005 0.66294 10       1.023E-06 0.0625 5.273E-04 0.0006 U-shaped Inc NAC 0.0625 Positive   U-shaped Inc U-shaped Y Y  
Beadle 1966b H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 56-119 S Phosphorous 206-1233 (ppm) AV Australia Arid - Rainforest T 3 2 3556 N.A. None p>0.10   0.08998 0.00754 0.02024 0.0081 -2.2142 2.34073 -0.18552 0.00015 0.1079 0.00008 0.17786 19       1.979E-06 0.0000     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0000 0.0000 None   U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Beatley 1969 H P P H N.A. 24-83 S Annual Rainfall 48.3-163.7 (mm) AV Nevada Desert T   1 N.A. 4.250E+01 Negative p=0.008 0.713                       8                       Negative         Y N  
Beaver and Crisman 1989 Ciliated Protozoa A I I N.A. 10.8-24.5 S Trophic Status N.A. AV Florida Lakes A   2 N.A. N.A. Positive N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           N.A.                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Blanche and Westoby 1995 Gall Insects A I I N.A. 5-29 S Phosphorous 65-961 (mg P kg-1) AV Australia Forest T   1 N.A. 1.000E+03 Negative p=0.019 0.63                       8                       Negative         Y N  
Blanche and Westoby 1995 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 26-89 S Phosphorous 65-961 (mg P kg-1) AV Australia Forest T   1 N.A. 1.000E+03 None p>0.10                         8                       None         Y N  
Blondel et al. 1988 Birds A V B 51 15-24 S Biomass 1156-3030 (g) ASS France Oak Forest T 3 2 400 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Bond 1983 H, S P P H, S N.A. 4-27 (m-2) S Foliage Area Profile 48-399 ASS South Africa Fynbos T   1 N.A. 1.000E+00 Unimodal p=0.003 0.52984 -0.11806 -0.00671 0.01231 0.01394 3.46897 -3.65824 0.19707 -0.00044 0.04436 0.00009 0.52984 23 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -3.731E-05 0.0002     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0002 0.0002 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Brand and Dunn 1998 Springtails A I I 26 4-18 S Plant Biomass 427.7-1757.4 (g 0.2m-2) AV North America Prairie T 2 1 200 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Brown 1973a Rodents A V M 18 1-9 S Annual Rainfall 52-321 (mm) AV Southwest N. America Desert T 3 1 909 N.A. Unimodal p=0.058 0.44812 0.57031 0.01708 0.00615 0.32526 2.02456 -1.49589 0.06065 -0.00012 0.02452 0.00007 0.44812 18 Positive* 0.017 0.408 -3.728E-05 0.0679 3.557E-03 0.0195 Positive*       Unimodal Positive* Positive*   Positive* Y Y  
Brown 1973b H, S P P H, S N.A. 1-6 S Annual Rainfall 52-321 (mm) AV Southwest N. America Desert T 3 1 900 N.A. Positive p=0.028 0.26744 0.51714 0.00854 0.00353 0.26744 1.37244 -0.87979 0.02266 -0.00004 0.01511 0.00004 0.30993 18       -1.331E-05 0.5045 2.183E-03 0.1789 None       Positive   None   None Y Y perennials only
Brown and Davidson 1977a Ants A I I N.A. 1-7 S Annual Rainfall 79-280 (mm) AV North America Desert T   1 N.A. N.A. U-shaped p<0.001 0.6708 0.72538 0.02247 0.00517 0.52617 -1.66902 2.42441 -0.0517 0.00021 0.02833 0.00008 0.6708 19 Positive* 0.268 0.001 3.987E-05 0.2739 6.523E-03 0.0035 Positive       U-shaped Positive* Positive   Positive Y Y east-west and north-south gradients
Brown and Davidson 1977b Rodents A V M N.A. 1-6 S Annual Rainfall 52-275 (mm) AV Southwest N. America Desert T   1 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p=0.001 0.62142 0.72524 0.01841 0.00401 0.52598 2.14407 -1.45207 0.05443 -0.00011 0.01731 0.00005 0.62142 21 Positive* 0.002 0.544 -4.828E-05 0.0969 4.998E-03 0.0072 Positive*       Unimodal Positive* Positive*   Positive* Y Y east-west and north-south gradients
Buxton 1981 Termites A I I 7 2-7 S Annual Rainfall 213-496 (mm) AV Kenya Grassland - Woodland T 2 2 35 N.A. U-shaped p=0.022 0.81                       8 U-shaped 0.029 0.007                 U-shaped U-shaped       Y N  
Cabido et al. 1997 H P P H 139 32-53 S Annual Rainfall 680-891 (mm) AV Argentina Grasslands T   1   N.A. None p>0.10                         8                       None         Y N  
Cao and Peters 1997 S, T P P S, T N.A. 16-62 S Annual Rainfall 1400-2550 (mm) AV China Beech Forest T 3 1 1254 1.962E+03 None p>0.10   -0.31318 -0.01269 0.01361 0.09808 3.46928 -3.7933 0.14059 -0.00004 0.18354 0.00005 0.18023 10       -1.363E-06 0.0303     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0303 0.0303 None   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Cartes and Sarda 1992 Decapods A I I 40 13-29 S Biomass 302-1353 (g h-1) ASS Catalan Sea Ocean A 3 2 205 N.A. Positive p=0.009 0.77                       7                       Positive         Y N  
Cavagnaro 1988 H P P H 57 13-34 S Annual Rainfall 164-421 (mm) AV Argentina Shrub - Grassland T 2 2 110-216 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Chambers 1987 Benthic Macrophytes P P H 16 2-7 (0.1 m-2) S Surface PAR 16.9-39 (% P.A.R.) AV Canada Lake A 2 1 35 1.000E-01 Positive p=0.012 0.48466 0.69618 0.10896 0.03553 0.48466 1.95181 -1.26229 0.30549 -0.00347 0.35897 0.00631 0.50144 12       -1.212E-03 0.6677 2.486E-02 0.1324 None       Positive   None   None Y Y  
Clarke and Scruton 1997 Benthic Macroinvert. A I I 43 21-39 S Biomass 73.4-7411.2 (mg m-2) ASS Newfoundland Rivers A 3 2 654 N.A. Positive p=0.012 0.30127 0.54888 0.00174 0.00062 0.30127 0.81279 -0.27966 0.002572 -1.3E-07 0.00193 2.73E-07 3.10E-01 20       -5.725E-09 0.5689 5.899E-05 0.0190 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Cook 1969 Birds A V B N.A. N.A. S Latitude N.A. AV North America   ? 4 3 >4000 N.A. Positive N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           >10                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Cosson-Sarradin et al. 1998 Polycheata A I I 131 0.241-2.623 (D) D Est. Primary Productivity 100-900 (g C m-2 y-1) AV Mauritania Trop. Atlantic Deep Sea A 3 1 1461 2.500E-01 Negative p=0.012 0.42159 -0.6493 -0.00148 0.0005 0.42159 1.05074 -1.7372 0.002393 -4E-06 0.00224 0.000002 0.549317 14       -2.065E-06 0.4890 -7.343E-04 0.2673 None       Negative   None   None Y Y  
Cowling 1990 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 4-33 (0.1 ha-1) S Soil Fertility Index -0.251-0.691 AV South Africa Fynbos Shrubland T   1 N.A. 1.000E+03 None p>0.10   0.08685 2.2038 6.52683 0.00754 0.45867 -0.45892 11.63851 -24.6176 11.0983 23.46267 0.07989 17       -1.573E+00 0.0788 1.353E-01 0.5472 Unimodal Unimodal 0.0788 0.0788 None   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Cowlisha and Hacker 1997a Primates A V M 39 0.0399-9.24 (100000 km-2) S Latitude 0-37 AV Africa Northern Latitudes T 4 3 8000 N.A. U-shaped p<0.001 0.94467 -0.79488 -0.18496 0.02386 0.63184 -2.94919 2.22573 -0.68623 0.01353 0.03735 0.00098 0.94467 37 U-shaped <0.001 <0.001 2.579E-03 0.1353 -1.491E-01 0.0000 Positive*       U-shaped U-shaped Positive*   Positive* Y Y  
Cowlisha and Hacker 1997b Primates A V M 29 2.16-34.48 (100000 km-2) S Latitude 0-34.5 AV Africa Southern Latitudes T 4 3 8000 N.A. U-shaped p<0.001 0.93484 -0.78453 -0.20574 0.02831   -2.98843 2.2752 -0.78372 0.01646 0.04765 0.00131 0.93484 35 U-shaped <0.001 <0.001 2.995E-03 0.0034     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0034 0.0034 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Cully and Cully 1989 H, S, T P P H, S, T 20 4-13 (m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 8-59 (g m-2) ASS New Mexico Shrubland - Forest T 1 2 6 1.250E+01 None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Currie 1991a Amphibians A V HP N.A. 0-62 S Primary Production 293-1779 (g m-2 yr-1) AV North America   ? 4 3 7309 5.900E+10 U-shaped p<0.0001 0.74438 0.81339 0.025778 0.00131 0.661607 -0.991325 1.82751 -0.031418 0.000025 0.00727 0.000003 0.744378 199 U-shaped 0.002 <0.001 4.789E-07 0.0001     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0001 0.0001 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y estimated productivity
Currie 1991b Birds A V B N.A. 27-231 S Primary Production 193-1872 (g m-2 yr-1) AV North America   T 4 3 7309 5.900E+10 Unimodal p<0.001 0.34077 0.30956 0.03523 0.00698 0.09583 2.80072 -2.53985 0.31871 -0.00013 0.03067 0.00001 0.34077 242 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -1.033E-06 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y estimated productivity
Currie 1991c Mammals A V M N.A. 8.5-89 S Primary Production 285-1872 (g m-2 yr-1) AV North America   T 4 3 7309 5.900E+10 Unimodal p<0.001 0.21072 0.28322 0.01067 0.00233 0.08021 2.1733 -1.9243 0.08188 -0.00003 0.01153 0.00001 0.21072 242 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -8.469E-07 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y estimated productivity
Currie 1991d Reptiles A V HP N.A. 0-86 S Primary Production 283-1876 (g m-2 yr-1) AV North America   ? 4 3 7309 5.900E+10 U-shaped p<0.0001 0.31727 0.44922 0.02629 0.00364 0.2018 -1.63416 2.11091 -0.09563 0.00005 0.02098 0.00001 0.31727 208 U-shaped <0.001 <0.001 1.385E-06 0.0000     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0000 0.0000 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y estimated productivity
Currie and Paquin 1987 T P P T 620 0-182 S Annual Evapotranspiration 125-1017 (mm) ASS North America   T 4 3 7309 5.900E+10 U-shaped p<0.001 0.67328 0.81053 0.15461 0.00685 0.65696 0.15132 0.67148 0.02886 0.00011 0.03521 0.00003 0.67328 268 U-shaped 0.044 <0.001 -1.017E-06 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 U-shaped U-shaped Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Danin 1976 H P P H N.A. 0-15 (0.1 m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 0-33 (g 0.1 m-2) ASS Israel Desert T 1 1 <5 1.000E-01 None p>0.10   -0.41055 -0.22385 0.01657 0.16855 -2.02569 1.6393 -1.10448 0.02442 0.09777 0.00027 0.2472 11       2.953E-03 0.2003 -2.963E-02 0.0730 Negative       None   Negative   Negative Y Y annuals only
Davidowitz and Rosenzweig 1998 Grasshoppers A I I N.A. 1-91 S Latitude 8-67 AV North America   T 4 3 7467 4.000E+09 Unimodal p<0.001 0.55613 -0.41639 -0.80039 0.24716 0.17338 2.56111 -3.04109 4.92308 -0.07 0.89932 0.01077 0.55613 52 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -2.179E-03 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Day et al. 1988 H, S, T P P H, S, T 58 4-12 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop + Litter Biomass 9.2-230 (g 0.25 m-2) ASS Canada Lakeshore A 2 1 103 N.A. None p>0.10                         8                       None         Y N  
Death 1995 Benthic Invertebrates A I I 25 17-22 S Epilithic Carbon 0.61-8.95 (ug cm-2) AV New Zealand Rivers A 1 2 18 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.14054 -0.08348 0.19604 0.01975 0.88367 -1.05247 0.52491 -0.06757 0.8759 0.09467 0.07844 11       -3.468E-03 0.7681 -4.304E-03 0.8640 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Death and Winterbourn 1995 Benthic Invertebrates A I I 185 7-64 S Total Pigments 0.01-15.1 (ug cm-2) AV New Zealand Rivers A 1 2 18 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.38826 0.48717 1.88424 0.46397 0.23733 1.55734 -1.13851 6.02341 -0.35338 1.22942 0.09866 0.38826 55 Unimodal <0.001 0.016 -8.865E-03 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Diamond and Smeins 1988 H, S P P H, S N.A. 48.8-59.6 S Latitude, Temp., Rainfall (PCA Axis) N.A. AV Central North America Grassland T 3 2 2197 N.A. U-shaped p=0.035 0.97                       5 U-shaped 0.089 0.025                 U-shaped U-shaped       Y N  
Dix and Smeins 1967 H P P H 293 39-144 S Soil Moisture N.A. AV North Dakota Grassland - Marsh ? 2 2 61 7.500E+01 Negative p=0.085 0.32597 -0.57094 -6.95758 3.53724 0.32597 1.18993 -1.80684 14.50076 -1.95076 14.67616 1.30025 0.48997 10       -2.994E-02 0.0007     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0007 0.0007 Negative   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Dodson 1991 Zooplankton A I I N.A. 4-22 S Phytoplankton Production 0.45-248.4 (mg C m-3 d-1) AV Eurasia Lakes A 4 3 >4000 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.26223 -0.00067 0.00056 0.06876 -0.4451 0.19252 -0.001133 0.000002 0.00185 0.00001 0.072385 22       6.480E-06 0.9426 -2.396E-03 0.7100 None       None   None   None Y Y species-area residuals used
Dodson 1992 Zooplankton A I I N.A. 1-33 S Phytoplankton Production 0.02-431 (mg C m-3 d-1) AV North America Lakes A 4 3 >4000 N.A. Positive p=.098 0.06382 0.25263 0.00032 0.00019 0.06382 0.61414 -0.38343 0.000772 -1E-06 0.00056 0.000001 0.08015 44       -1.099E-06 0.8431 4.115E-04 0.7030 None       Positive   None   None Y Y species-area residuals used
Ehrman and Cocks 1990 H P P H 69 9-51 S Annual Rainfall 150-1200 (mm) AV Syria Steppes - Forest T 3 2 476 2.070E+02 Unimodal p<0.001 0.87358 0.6461 0.02436 0.0091 0.41744 4.00605 -3.42716 0.15106 -0.00009 0.02268 0.00002 0.87358 12 Unimodal <0.001 0.003 -3.083E-06 0.0003     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0003 0.0003 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y annual legumes only
Eloranta 1986 Phytoplankton P P H N.A. 33-152 S Total Nitrogen 210-1400 AV Finland Lakes A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p=0.004 0.25817 0.44647 0.00035 0.0001 0.199336 1.27889 -0.86705 0.001004 -4.4E-07 0.00034 2.21E-07 2.58E-01 54 Positive* 0.002 0.44 -1.212E-06 0.6652 7.169E-04 0.4903 None       Unimodal Positive* None   None Y Y species-area residuals used
Eloranta 1995 Phytoplankton P P H N.A. 12-191 S Biomass 0.12-8.73 (g m-3) ASS Finland Lakes A 3 2 488 N.A. Unimodal p<0.011 0.11843 0.02949 0.00516 0.0174 0.00087 0.80276 -0.84587 0.14047 -0.02166 0.04053 0.00593 0.11843 103 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -7.623E-02 0.3279 1.086E-02 0.9233 None       Unimodal Unimodal None   None Y Y species-area residuals used
Erman and Erman 1975 Macroinvertebrates A I I 20 9-18 S Invertebrate Production 9-59 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS Nevada Fen A 1 1 5 N.A. None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y N  
Farina et al. 1997 Benthic Decapods A I I 40 1-16 S Depth 86-430 (m) AV Spain Continental Shelf A 3 1 238 N.A. Negative p<0.001 0.12104 0.34791 0.01581 0.00238 0.12104 0.41881 -0.07219 0.01904 -0.00001 0.01265 0.00003 0.12123 323       -2.756E-06 0.3231 1.987E-03 0.0000 Negative*       Negative*   Negative*   Negative* Y Y  
Fensham and Streimann 1997 Moss P P H 35 0-27 S Rainfall 638-901 (mm) AV Australia Inland Dry Rainforest T 3 1 974 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Ferrar 1982 Termites A I I 32 11-21 S Annual Rainfall 380-2000 (mm) AV South Africa Savanna T 4 3 6892 8.900E+07 Unimodal p=0.07 0.84                       6 Positive* 0.037 0.162                 Unimodal Positive*       Y N  
Forrest and Smith 1975 H P P H 49 24-35 (625 cm-2) S Ab. Gr. Production 491-907 (g m-2) ASS United Kingdom Bog A 1 1 3 3.100E+00 None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y N  
Freckman and Virginia 1989 Nematodes A I I 7 3-7 S Root Biomass 1792-5279 (g m-2) AV New Mexico Desert T   1 N.A. N.A. Negative p=0.097 0.66                       5                       Negative         Y N  
Ganzhorn et al. 1997 Lemurs A V M N.A. 4-12 S Annual Rainfall 352-3589 (mm) AV Madagascar   T 3 2 1342 N.A. Unimodal p=0.006 0.36795 0.27973 0.0008 0.00065 0.07825 2.54317 -2.32655 0.007269 -2E-06 0.00238 0.000001 0.367951 20 Positive* 0.005 0.390 -1.367E-07 0.1562 2.197E-04 0.0205 Positive       Unimodal Positive* Positive   Positive Y N  
Ganzhorn et al. 1997 T P P T N.A. 5.5-77.4 (0.1 ha-1) S Rainfall 754-3695 (mm) AV Madagascar   T 3 2 1342 1.000E+03 Positive p=0.05 0.443                       9                       Positive         Y Y  
Garcia et al. 1993 H P P H N.A. 2-26 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 3.2-317 (g 0.25 m-2) ASS Spain Salt Marsh A   1 N.A. 2.500E-01 Unimodal p<0.001 0.21243 -0.12568 -0.00964 0.0028 0.0158 1.31609 -1.50842 0.10093 -0.00039 0.00863 0.00001 0.21243 50 Unimodal 0.006 0.001 -4.835E-05 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Gentry 1988 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 53-265 (0.1 ha-1) S Annual Rainfall 500-9000 (mm) AV Central and South America Tropical and Subtrop. Forest T 4 3 >6000 1.000E+03 Positive p<0.001 0.37602 0.61321 0.02541 0.00468 0.37602 0.78403 -0.18209 0.032494 -1E-06 0.0136 0.00002 0.379999 51       -2.008E-08 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y N  
Gentry 1988a H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 53-199 (0.1 ha-1) S Annual Rainfall 1200-8000 (mm) AV Africa   T 4 3 >5000 1.000E+03 None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y N  
Gentry 1988b H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 20-26 (0.1 ha-1) S Annual Rainfall 900-1060 (mm) AV North America Terrestrial T 3 2 1766 1.000E+03 None p>0.10                         8                       None         Y Y  
Ghilarov and Timonin 1972 Zooplankton A I I N.A. 0.91-3.49 (D) D Biomass 24.07-3576 (mg m-2) ASS Russia Lakes A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p=0.04 0.07472 0.18859 0.000168 0.00008 0.035565 0.72111 -0.5681 0.000642 -1.8E-07 0.000238 8.69E-08 7.47E-02 110 Unimodal 0.008 0.098 -8.491E-08 0.3681 7.301E-05 0.3856 None       Unimodal Unimodal None   None Y Y  
Glaser 1992 H P P H 81 12-50 S Annual Rainfall 497.3-1502.3 (mm) AV North America Bogs A 3 2 3300 N.A. Positive p<0.001 0.59777 0.77316 0.026967 0.00319 0.597771 0.86148 -0.08923 0.030047 -2E-06 0.02265 0.00001 0.597933 50       -6.574E-07 0.0843 1.057E-03 0.0000 Positive*       Positive   Positive*   Positive* Y Y  
Glenn-Lewin (1975) H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 10-57 (0.1 ha-1) S Elevation N.A. AV New York Beech-Maple Forest T   1 N.A. 1.000E+03 Positive N.A. N.A.                                               Positive         N N  
Gough et al. 1994 H, S P P H, S 42 N.A. S St. Crop + Litter Biomass N.A. ASS Louisiana Wetland A 2 2 77 1.000E+00 Unimodal p=0.095 0.13302 -0.21857 -0.000772 0.00059 0.047775 0.89098 -1.14733 0.003146 -1E-06 0.00225 0.000001 0.133018 36 Negative* 0.188 0.044 -2.242E-07 0.0163     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0163 0.0163 Unimodal Negative* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Grace and Pugesek 1997 H P P H 105 1-17 S Biomass 0.02-7 (kg m-2) ASS Louisiana, Mississippi Coastal Wetlands A 1 2 10 1.000E+00 None p>0.10   0.08274 0.18859 0.179 0.00685 0.23948 -0.16515 0.54579 -0.06534 0.56883 0.09874 0.00956 190       -9.224E-03 0.4032 2.576E-02 0.1892 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Guo and Berry 1998 H P P H N.A. 4-16 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 1-98 (g 0.24 m-2) ASS Chihuahan Desert, Arizona Desert T   1 N.A. 2.500E-01 Unimodal p<0.001 0.15444 0.02826 0.00329 0.01077 0.0008 0.99673 -1.04479 0.11614 -0.00153 0.02652 0.00033 0.15444 125 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -2.057E-04 0.0008     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0008 0.0008 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Gutierrez et al. 1998 H, S, T P P H, S, T 69 7-33 S Rainfall 0.2-142 (mm) AV Chile Desert T 2 2 168 2.000E+06 Unimodal p=0.026 0.919                       6 Unimodal 0.011 0.025                 Unimodal Unimodal       Y N  
Harner and Harper 1976 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 25-87 (ha-1) S Annual Rainfall N.A. AV Utah, New Mexico Pinyon-Juniper Forest T   1 N.A. 1.000E+04 Positive p<0.001 0.62107 0.78808 5.06259 0.93207 0.62107 -0.01802 0.82815 -0.11579 0.46613 3.98058 0.34877 0.6571 20       4.512E-03 0.3048 9.953E-02 0.0000 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Heck and Wetstone 1977 Macroinvertebrates A I I 16 2-13 S Plant Biomass 96-6078 (g m-2) AV Panama Seagrass Meadow A   1 N.A. 1.000E+00 Positive p=0.001 0.95                       6                       Positive         Y N  
Heck et al. 1995 Macroinvertebrates A I I N.A. 17-83 S Secondary Production 9.2-139.2 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS Massachusetts Salt Marsh A 1 2 3 1.530E+01 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Heitz and Hietz-Seifert 1995 H P P H 134 21-53 (625 m-2) S Biomass 9-249 (g m-2) ASS Veracruz, Mexico Forest T   2 N.A. 6.250E+02 Positive p=0.035 0.711                       6                       Positive         Y N  
Hoyer and Canfield 1994 Birds A V B N.A. 1-30 S Phosphorous 1-1043 (ug l-1) AV Florida Lakes A   2 N.A. N.A. Positive N.A. 0.22 N.A.         N.A.           46                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Hughes et al. 1996 T P P T 788 1-99 S Annual Rainfall 151-2049 (mm) AV Australia Forest T 3 2 3972 N.A. Negative p<0.001 0.56003 -0.74835 -0.03963 0.00828 0.56003 0.17653 -0.94977 0.00935 -0.00002 0.03542 0.00002 0.60669 20       -8.741E-07 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Negative   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Hunter et al. 1986 Macrophytes P P H 22 6-15 S Biomass 14-158 (g m-2) ASS Maine Lakes A 2 2 70 5.000E-01 U-shaped p<0.0001 1                       4 U-shaped 0.003 0.003                 U-shaped U-shaped       Y N  
Huston 1980 T P P T N.A. 1-38 (0.1 ha-1) S St. Crop Biomass N.A. ASS Costa Rica Forest T 3 2 351 3.717E+03 None N.A.   N.A.         N.A.           N.A.                       None       None N Y  
Huston 1985 Corals A I I N.A. 5-27 S Depth 0.5-30 (m) AV Jamaica Coral Reef A   1 N.A.   Unimodal p<0.05 0.85328 0.61718 0.40697 0.17294 0.38091 3.04513 -2.52335 2.00796 -0.04974 0.32786 0.0098 0.85328 11 Unimodal <0.001 0.009 -3.044E-03 0.0087     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0087 0.0087 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Inouye et al. 1987 H P P H N.A. N.A. S Nitrogen 357-870 (mg N kg-1) AV Minnesota Sand Plain T   1 N.A. 5.000E-01 Negative p<0.001 0.07 N.A.         N.A.           2262                       Negative       Negative N Y  
Janzen 1981 Wasps A I I 1717 39-899 S Latitude 27.4-72.5 (oN) AV North America   T 4 3 5225-6200 N.A. Unimodal p<0.0001 0.78458 -0.60285 -12.1958 3.91471 0.36343 4.69843 -5.34086 95.05035 -1.07421 19.31827 0.19206 0.78458 19 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -3.762E-03 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Janzen and Schoener 1968 Insects A I I N.A. 142-545 (106 km-2) S Biomass 2661-5344 (mg per unit effort) ASS Costa Rica Forest T   1 N.A. N.A. None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Jarvinen and Vaisanen 1978 Birds A V B 26 11-19 S Biomass 1-3 (kg km-2) ASS Northern Europe Aquatic A 3 2 2300 N.A. Positive p=0.034 0.34638 0.58854 1.78261 0.73832 0.34638 1.39138 -0.81243 4.21429 -0.64286 4.99311 1.30443 0.36188 13       -5.039E-02 0.7666 1.239E-01 0.2305 None       Positive   None   None Y Y  
Josefson and Rosenberg 1988 Benthic Macroinvert. A I I N.A. 10-33 (0.3 m-2) S Biomass 3-237 (g 0.3 m-2) ASS Sweden Marine A 2 1 29 3.000E-01 None p>0.10                         8                       None         Y N  
Karr 1971 Birds A V B N.A. 31-165 S Biomass 3943-52682 (g 40 ha-1) ASS Panama Grassland - Forest T   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.99                       7 Unimodal <0.001 0.007                 Unimodal Unimodal       Y N  
Kaufman and Willig 1998a Mammals A V M N.A. 15-218 S Latitude 10-70 (oN) AV North America   T 4 3 8433 6.500E+07 Positive p<0.001 0.7 N.A.         N.A.           25                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Kaufman and Willig 1998b Mammals A V M N.A. 26-283 S Latitude 10oN-50oS AV South America   T 4 3 7571 6.500E+07 Positive p<0.001 0.72 N.A.         N.A.           25                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Kautsky and Kautsky 1989 Macro-algae P P H N.A. 1-18 (m-2) S Biomass 4-16000 (g m-2) ASS Sweden Marine Intertidal A 3 1 1006 N.A. Unimodal p=0.018 0.06188 -0.07983 -0.000164 0.00016 0.006372 0.40773 -0.54149 0.000837 -9.2E-08 0.00035 2.87E-08 0.061876 175 Unimodal 0.017 <0.001 -2.952E-08 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Kay et al. 1997a Primates A V M N.A. 0-16 S Annual Rainfall 400-6704 (mm) AV South America Tropical Forest T 4 3 4943 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.36857 0.31243 0.00111 0.00035 0.097615 1.84294 -1.6166 0.006547 -1E-06 0.00091 1.53E-07 0.368566 95 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -2.347E-07 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Kay et al. 1997b T P P T N.A. 40-250 S Annual Rainfall 438-6813 (mm) AV South America Tropical Forest T 4 3 4943 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.6463 0.7586 0.03083 0.00448 0.575469 1.53052 -0.81651 0.062202 -5E-06 0.01272 0.000002 0.6463 37 Positive* <0.001 0.805 -5.223E-08 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Keeley 1992 S, T P P S, T N.A. 4-17 (96 m-2) S Annual Rainfall 430-800 (mm) AV California Chaparral T 3 1 938 9.600E+01 None p>0.10   -0.39659 -0.0148 0.01083 0.15728 2.6643 -3.07183 0.09944 -0.00009 0.12991 0.00011 0.2244 12       -1.135E-05 0.1697 -1.457E-03 0.0730 Negative       None   Negative   None Y Y  
Keever 1973 S, T P P S, T 27 7-24 S Annual Rainfall 35-50 (cm) AV Pennsylvania Deciduous Forest T 2 1 146 N.A. None p>0.10   0.09617 0.09352 0.30609 0.00925 9.33588 -9.25362 9.07865 -0.10774 5.06342 0.06062 0.26662 12       -7.368E-03 0.0748 6.222E-03 0.7072 Unimodal Unimodal 0.0748 0.0748 None   Unimodal Unimodal None Y Y  
Kirkman et al. 1998 H, S, T P P H, S, T 308 18.3-43.1 (3 m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 106.5-157 (g m-2) ASS Southeast N. America Wetland - Forest T   3 N.A. 3.000E+00 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Kirkpatrick and Bridle 1998 H, S P P H, S 166 20-77 S Nitrate 2-12 (ppm) AV Australia Alpine T 3 1 897 2.450E+02 Unimodal p=0.022 0.48852 -0.07565 -0.39411 1.34125 0.00572 3.27519 -3.42212 17.06234 -1.27237 4.90419 0.35001 0.48852 17 Unimodal 0.004 0.003 -2.562E-02 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Klinkhamer and de Jong 1985 H, S P P H, S N.A. N.A. S St. Crop + Litter Biomass N.A. ASS Netherlands Coastal Dune T   1 N.A. 2.000E-02 Unimodal N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           44 N.A.                     Unimodal N.A.     Unimodal N Y  
Kuramoto and Bliss 1970 H, S P P H, S 64 14-25 S Root + Shoot Biomass 1193-3615 (g m-2) ASS Washington Subalpine Meadow T 2 1 75-100 3.640E+02 None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Kutiel and Danin 1987 H, S P P H, S N.A. N.A. S St. Crop Biomass 5-450 (g m-2) ASS Israel Sand Dune T 1 1 <13 9.000E-02 Unimodal p<0.001 0.3106 0.43446 0.02023 0.00407 0.18876 1.46253 -1.08571 0.06811 -0.00013 0.01174 0.00003 0.3106 138 Unimodal <0.001 0.004 -1.462E-05 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Kutiel et al. 1995 H, S P P H, S N.A. 46-137 (1000 m-2) S Annual Rainfall 110-620 (mm) AV Israel Shrubland - Desert T 2 2 35 2.000E+03 Positive p=0.081 0.84                       4                       Positive         Y N  
Kuzmin 1976 Nematodes A I I 162 16-62 S Biomass 33-7763 (mg m-2) ASS Russia Tundra T   1 N.A. N.A. Positive p=0.046 0.51                       8                       Positive         Y N  
Laan 1979 H, S P P H, S N.A. 29-37 S Nitrogen 0.057-0.151 (%) AV Netherlands Dunes T 1 1 0.14 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.03495 -344.41842 2969.61476 0.00122 -2.58277 2.5692 -25453.53 1.24E+07 22832.02 1.12E+07 0.1106 13       3.764E+05 0.6069 -1.048E+01 0.9562 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Lamberti and Resh 1985 Benthic Macroinvert. A I I N.A. 0-15 (0.03 m-2) S Biomass 0-26 (mg 0.006 m-2) ASS California Stream A 1 1 0.4 3.000E-02 None p>0.10                         9                       None         Y N  
LaRoi and Hnatiuk 1980 H, S, T P P H, S, T 75 21-46 S Moisture Index N.A. AV Canada Pine Forest T 3 1 263 2.400E+04 None p>0.10   0.09423 2.29259 5.70936 0.00888 8.04801 -7.9639 195.81614 -36.6771 106.6909 20.19464 0.16994 20       -1.163E+00 0.0862 6.899E-02 0.6736 Unimodal Unimodal 0.0862 0.0862 None   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Latham and Ricklefs 1993 T P P T N.A. 13-226 S Actual Evapotranspiration 366-1091 (mm) ASS Global   T 4 3 >4000 N.A. Unimodal p=0.008 0.42381 0.50779 0.17657 0.06115 0.25785 3.04129 -2.56604 1.05753 -0.00063 0.34668 0.00025 0.42381 26 Positive* 0.003 0.122 -1.001E-05 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Leibold 1998a Zooplankton A I I N.A. N.A. S Phosphorous N.A. AV Michigan Ponds A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           31 Unimodal 0.02 0.01                 Unimodal Unimodal     Unimodal N Y  
Leibold 1998b Phytoplankton P P H N.A. N.A. S Phosphorous N.A. AV Michigan Ponds A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           31 Unimodal 0.05 0.03                 Unimodal Unimodal     Unimodal N Y  
Linzey and Kesner 1997 Mammals A V M 14 1.3-3.3 S Biomass 187.2-1803.2 (g ha-1) ASS Zimbabwe Woodland Savannah T   1 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p=0.084 0.912                       5 Unimodal 0.045 0.056                 Unimodal Unimodal       Y N  
Livingston 1984 Benthic Macrophytes P P H N.A. 7-22 S Biomass 0.16-738.12 (g m-2) ASS Florida Estuary A 1 1 15 N.A. None p>0.10   0.33269 0.00625 0.00512 0.11068 1.69097 -1.42496 0.03178 -0.00004 0.01572 0.00002 0.29627 14       -2.214E-06 0.1250 3.455E-04 0.2161 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Loucks 1962 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 15.1-51.4 S Soil Nutrient Index N.A. AV Canada Deciduous Forest T   1 N.A. 4.047E+02 Unimodal p<0.05 0.93673 0.85635 5.84462 1.24608 0.73333 3.14146 -2.32919 21.44065 -1.49173 3.35097 0.31445 0.93673 10 Unimodal <0.001 0.064 -4.972E-02 0.0228     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0228 0.0228 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Loya 1972 Corals A I I N.A. 12-30 S Depth 3-30 (m) AV Red Sea Coral Reef A   1 N.A. N.A. Negative p=0.061 0.24422 0.49419 0.33774 0.16479 0.24422 -0.71832 1.24999 -0.49092 0.02638 0.66117 0.02042 0.33652 15       1.077E-03 0.2582 1.575E-02 0.0454 Negative*       Negative*   Negative*   Negative* Y Y  
Mahon and Mahon 1994 Fish A V F 63 2-21.7 S Biomass 0.000214-0.0091 (g cm-2) ASS Barbados Tidepool A 1 1 0.2 N.A. Unimodal p=0.062 0.34 0.40704 37.72702 20.53298 0.16568 1.80026 -1.45263 166.85823 -13515.1 66.76743 6702.20058   19 Positive* 0.023 0.213 -2.804E+04 0.6715 5.919E+01 0.6967 None       Unimodal Positive* None   None Y Y species-area residuals used
Majer 1990 Ants A I I 23 3-22 S Annual Rainfall 1069-1788 (mm) AV Australia Forest T 3 2 3900 N.A. None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y N  
Malmqvist and Eriksson 1995 Insects A I I 69 13-27 S Chl A, Seston Energy, Conductivity (PCA axis) N.A. AV Sweden Lake Outlets A 2 2 44-108 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.20234 -0.01919 0.02576 0.04094 -1.21985 1.02517 -0.11569 0.00051 0.2179 0.00115 0.05659 15       2.441E-05 0.7011 -9.980E-04 0.5275 None       None   None   None Y Y  
McNaughton 1968 H, S P P H, S 32 6-16 S Productivity 64-148 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS California Grassland T 1 1 <3 1.500E+00 Unimodal p=0.034 0.77                       8 Unimodal 0.028 0.005                 Unimodal Unimodal       Y N  
McNaughton 1983 H P P H N.A. 0-2.2 (D) D St. Crop Biomass 22-300 (g m-2) ASS Kenya Grassland T 3 1 222 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.09019 -0.0006 0.00066 0.00813 0.31174 -0.42132 0.00208 -0.00001 0.00218 0.00001 0.0241 105       -7.633E-06 0.6904 -4.147E-04 0.7821 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Medellin 1994 Mammals A V M N.A. 67-134 S Annual Rainfall 748-3994 (mm) AV Central and South America Forest T 3 2 2035 N.A. Positive p=0.036 0.49                       9                       Positive         Y N  
Meserve and Glanz 1978a Mammals A V M N.A. 3-8 S Annual Rainfall 25-330 (mm) AV Chile Arid Zone T 3 2 1000 N.A. Unimodal p=0.004 0.87                       9 Positive* 0.005 0.141                 Unimodal Positive*       Y N  
Meserve and Glanz 1978b H, S P P H, S N.A. 4-36 S Annual Rainfall 25-330 (mm) AV Chile Arid Zone T 3 2 1000 N.A. Unimodal p=0.04 0.7                       9 Positive* 0.033 0.229                 Unimodal Positive*       Y N  
Monk 1965 H, S, T P P H, S, T 71 28-40 S Moisture N.A. AV Florida Hardwood Forest T 3 2 245 N.A. Negative N.A. N.A.                       5                       Negative         Y N  
Moore and Keddy 1989 H, S P P H, S N.A. 2-24 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop Biomass N.A. ASS Canada Wetland A 3 2 200-300 2.500E-01 U-shaped p<0.001 0.27252 -0.49392 -0.01858 0.00246 0.24396 -0.95007 0.48645 -0.03574 0.00004 0.00696 0.00001 0.27252 179 Negative* <0.001 0.34 2.646E-06 0.0875 -3.054E-03 0.0000 Negative*       U-shaped Negative* Negative*   Negative* Y Y  
Morton and Davidson 1988a Ants A I I N.A. 2-8 S Annual Rainfall 78-276 (mm) AV North America Desert T 3 1 700 N.A. Positive p=0.003 0.68913 0.83014 0.02357 0.0056 0.68913 0.30149 0.53383 0.00856 0.00004 0.04268 0.00012 0.69464 10       -2.327E-06 0.9520 4.603E-03 0.0453 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Morton and Davidson 1988b Ants A I I N.A. 6-13 S Annual Rainfall 119-568 (mm) AV Australia Shrub - Grassland T 3 2 2070-3015 N.A. None p>0.10   0.30036 0.00519 0.004 0.09021 0.0791 0.22597 0.00137 0.00001 0.02026 0.00003 0.09232 19       4.738E-07 0.9215 5.625E-04 0.3835 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Mourelle and Ezcurra 1996 Cacti P P H 223 0-50 S Percent Summer Rainfall 25-95 AV Argentina   T 3 2 2482 6.560E+09 U-shaped p<0.001 0.35125 0.57693 0.32691 0.03469 0.33285 -0.31938 0.90652 -0.18097 0.00409 0.22925 0.00182 0.35125 180 Positive* 0.962 <0.001 -4.756E-04 0.0001     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0001 0.0001 U-shaped Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Muotka and Virtanen 1995a Bryophytes P P H N.A. 1-8 S St Crop Biomass 0.8-54.5 (g 0.1 m-2) ASS Finland Streamside T 1 1 <1 2.500E-01 None p>0.10   0.28984 0.03715 0.02975 0.08401 0.8926 -0.62782 0.1144 -0.00148 0.10778 0.00198 0.11485 19       -4.064E-04 0.3734 9.147E-03 0.1836 None       None   None   None Y Y Site 6
Muotka and Virtanen 1995b Bryophytes P P H N.A. 1-10 S St Crop Biomass 0.2-40.1 (g 0.1 m-2) ASS Finland Streamside T 1 1 <1 2.500E-01 Unimodal p<0.001 0.57381 -0.1402 -0.02579 0.04418 0.01966 2.64045 -2.87857 0.48577 -0.0137 0.11611 0.003 0.57381 19 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -4.499E-03 0.0010     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0010 0.0010 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y Site 15
Muotka and Virtanen 1995c Bryophytes P P H 50 2-20 S St. Crop Biomass 6.4-285.4 (g 0.1m-2) ASS Finland Streamside T 2 2 100-160 2.500E-01 Negative p=0.05 0.20828 -0.45637 -0.03112 0.01472 0.20828 -1.038 0.60695 -0.07078 0.00015 0.05204 0.00019 0.23838 19       1.253E-05 0.4978 -5.528E-03 0.0062 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y Among selected sites
Nantel and Neumann 1992a Mychorrhizal Fungi FG FG FG 58 8-29 (400 m-2) S Soil Nutrient Index N.A. AV Canada Deciduous Forest T   1 N.A. 4.000E+02 None p>0.10   0.11293 0.12911 0.37865 0.01275 0.01149 0.24515 0.01313 0.03189 0.42988 0.04891 0.06256 11       1.584E-03 0.3123 6.746E-03 0.5908 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Nantel and Neumann 1992b T P P T 18 2-14 (400 m-2) S Soil Nutrient Index N.A. AV Canada Deciduous Forest T   1 N.A. 4.000E+02 U-shaped p=0.045 0.58391 -0.59544 -0.30831 0.13866 0.35454 -0.81312 0.52608 -0.42103 0.03099 0.12971 0.01476 0.58391 11 Negative* .021 .272 3.401E-03 0.1900 -4.354E-02 0.0657 Negative       U-shaped Negative* Negative   Negative Y Y  
Nicholas et al. 1991 Nematodes A I I 38 16-24 S Biomass 19-888 (mg m-2) ASS Australia Mangrove A 1 1 0.3 1.000E+00 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Nicholson and Hulett 1969 H, S P P H, S N.A. 35-61 S Annual Rainfall 38.1-57.1 (cm) AV Central Great Plains, N. Amer. Grassland T 3 1 356 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Nilsson 1979 Birds A V B 44 14.5-29 (5 ha-1) S Biomass 25.2-90.2 (kg km-2) ASS Sweden Forest T   1 N.A. 5.000E+04 Positive p=0.004 0.77                       8                       Positive         Y N  
Nilsson and Nilsson 1978 Birds A V B N.A. 13-41 S Phosphorous 7-41 (ug l-1) AV Sweden Lakes A   2 N.A. N.A. None p>0.10   0.08768 0.07507 0.28429 0.00769 1.43371 -1.37488 1.2275 -0.02499 1.42014 0.03015 0.08617 11       -1.005E-03 0.1478 2.992E-03 0.6252 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Nilsson and Wilson 1991a H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 0-19 S Growing Days 41-98 AV Sweden Mountainside T 1 2 3 5.000E-01 Unimodal p<0.01 0.3642 0.56815 0.16485 0.03163 0.32279 2.38787 -1.83106 0.69284 -0.00374 0.2782 0.00196 0.3642 54 Positive* 0.003 0.678 -7.649E-04 0.0001     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0001 0.0001 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Nilsson and Wilson 1991b H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 1-30 S Growing Days 72-122 AV Sweden Lakeshore ? 1 2 0.3 5.000E-01 Unimodal p<0.01 0.66109 0.12504 0.04686 0.05738 0.01563 10.90674 -10.81159 4.08779 -0.02085 0.45856 0.00236 0.66109 100 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -1.598E-03 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Nwadiaro 1990 Phytoplankton P P H 48 26-36 (l-1) S Production 177-527.5 (ug O2 l-1 h-1) ASS Nigeria Estuary A 2 1 22 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Oberdorff et al. 1995 Fish A V F N.A. 4-2143 S Primary Production 1.3-17097 AV Global Rivers A 4 3 >4000 N.A. Unimodal p=0.001 0.08813 0.22364 0.00969 0.00285 0.05001 0.79124 -0.60024 0.034289 -2E-06 0.00862 0.000001 0.088131 221 Unimodal <0.001 0.024 -1.916E-08 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Oberdorff et al. 1998 Fish A V F N.A. 3.2-8.3 S Biomass 952-2743 (g 100 m-2) ASS France Coastal Streams A 2 2 130 N.A. None p>0.10                         9                       None         Y N  
Obrien et al. 1998 S, T P P S, T 1353 27-564 S Annual Rainfall 56-1317 (mm) AV South Africa   T 3 2 1977 2.500E+10 Positive p<0.001 0.58653 0.76585 0.43185 0.04681 0.58653 0.32666 0.45686 0.1842 0.00019 0.1681 0.00013 0.60236 62       -1.337E-06 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Ohmann and Spies 1998 S, T P P S, T N.A. 94-192 S Annual Rainfall 561-1882 (mm) AV Oregon Forest T   2 N.A. N.A. None p>0.10                         8                       None         Y N  
Onipchenko et al. 1998 H P P H 42 18-49 (25 m-2) S Annual Production 150-550 (g m-2) ASS Northwester Caucasus Alpine T   2 N.A. 1.250E+00 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Outridge 1987 Macroinvertebrates A I I 133 49-72 S Biomass 0.09-20.1 (g m-2) ASS Australia Billabongs A   2 N.A. 2.500E-01 Unimodal p=0.082 0.65                       8 Positive* 0.057 0.166                 Unimodal Positive*       Y N  
Owen 1988a Carnivorous Mammals A V M 29 12-19 S Above Ground Production 150-2523 (g m-2 yr-1) AV Texas   T 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 Unimodal p<0.0001 0.34478 0.53525 0.001344 0.00017 0.286494 1.63717 -1.12805 0.00411 -1E-06 0.00076 2.85E-07 0.344777 189 Unimodal <0.001 0.072 -7.174E-08 0.1791 8.460E-05 0.0049 Positive       Unimodal Unimodal Positive   Positive Y Y estimated productivity
Owen 1988b Rodents A V M 62 13-31 S Above Ground Production 150-2523 (g m-2 yr-1) AV Texas   T 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 U-shaped p<0.0001 0.57256 -0.67915 -0.004405 0.00036 0.461249 -2.13382 1.49243 -0.01384 0.000004 0.00145 0.000001 0.572559 189 U-shaped <0.001 <0.001 1.694E-07 0.0002     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0002 0.0002 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y estimated productivity
Owen 1990 Bats A V M 31 N.A. S Above Ground Production N.A. AV Texas   T 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 Negative N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           189                       Negative       Negative N Y estimated productivity
Owen and Dixon 1989a Frogs and Toads A V HP 40 6-23 S Annual Rainfall (DCA Axis) N.A. AV Texas   ? 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 Unimodal p<0.001 0.56765 0.68167 3.24631 0.29769 0.46467 1.97589 -1.33342 9.4098 -1.97134 1.11569 0.34636 0.56765 139 Unimodal <0.001 0.013 -1.605E-01 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y DCA scales positively with productivity
Owen and Dixon 1989b Lizards A V HP 46 5-27 S Annual Rainfall (DCA Axis) N.A. AV Texas   T 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 Negative p<0.0001 0.26957 -0.51921 -3.00356 0.40918 0.26957 -0.8172 0.31184 -4.72743 0.55734 1.38549 0.42805 0.27802 148       1.778E-02 0.4581 -1.882E-01 0.0000 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y DCA scales positively with productivity
Owen and Dixon 1989c Salamanders A V HP 20 1-10 S Annual Rainfall (DCA Axis) N.A. AV Texas   ? 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 U-shaped p<0.001 0.35912 -0.49455 -1.14414 0.27884 0.24458 -1.73004 1.281 -4.00241 0.72914 0.98161 0.24151 0.35912 54 U-shaped <0.001 0.032 1.336E-01 0.0082     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0082 0.0082 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y DCA scales negatively with productivity
Owen and Dixon 1989d Snakes A V HP 67 N.A. S Annual Rainfall (DCA Axis) N.A. AV Texas   T 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 Positive p<0.0001 0.02527 -0.15897 -1.62904 0.79 0.02527 -0.18543 0.02761 -1.90013 0.1042 2.77052 1.0204 0.02534 189       2.033E-03 0.9398 -5.428E-02 0.0097 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y DCA scales negatively with productivity
Owen and Dixon 1989e Turtles A V HP 20 2-17 S Annual Rainfall (DCA Axis) N.A. AV Texas   ? 3 2 1244 4.080E+09 Positive p<0.0001 0.7055 -0.83994 -4.7423 0.31272 0.7055 -0.97906 0.14455 -5.52778 0.326 1.15522 0.46146 0.70704 98       -1.207E-01 0.1711 -5.327E-01 0.0000 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y DCA scales negatively with productivity
Palomaki and Paasivirta 1993 Macroinvertebrates A I I N.A. 32-66 S Phosphorous 5-55 (ug l-1) AV Finland Lakes A 3 2 280-900 5.680E+01 Unimodal p=0.001 0.70376 -0.27247 -0.21488 0.25294 0.07424 3.88988 -4.2373 3.06776 -0.0552 0.81048 0.01339 0.70376 11 Unimodal 0.006 0.003 -1.092E-03 0.0029     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0029 0.0029 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Patalas 1971 Zooplankton A I I 27 4-14 S Chlorophyll A 0.5-31 (ug l-1) AV Ontario Lakes A 2 2 <50 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.13208 -0.04018 0.05417 0.01744 0.24267 -0.38675 0.07383 -0.0042 0.22167 0.00791 0.02659 33       -5.536E-04 0.6474 -4.987E-03 0.5496 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998a Birds A V B N.A. 41-168 S Annual Rainfall 130-2400 (mm) AV North America   T 4 3 6067 7.560E+10 None p>0.10   0.08091 0.04167 0.03577 0.00655 -0.20301 0.29796 -0.10457 0.00072 0.1177 0.00056 0.01472 208       6.669E-06 0.0052     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0052 0.0052 None   U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998b Butterflies A I I N.A. 11-208 S Annual Rainfall 130-2400 (mm) AV North America   T 4 3 6067 7.560E+10 None p>0.10   0.02714 0.02268 0.0582 0.00074 -0.09454 0.12771 -0.079 0.0005 0.19214 0.00091 0.00224 208       5.070E-06 0.0409     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0409 Missing None   U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998c Tiger Beetles A I I N.A. 0-24 S Annual Rainfall 130-2400 (mm) AV North America   T 4 3 6067 7.560E+10 None p>0.10   0.05119 0.00786 0.01068 0.00262 0.41788 -0.38483 0.06414 -0.00028 0.03505 0.00017 0.01625 208       -2.843E-05 0.0007     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0007 0.0007 None   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998d Birds A V B N.A. 105-537 S Annual Rainfall 50-3800 (mm) AV India   T 3 2 3415 7.560E+10 Positive p<0.001 0.43255 0.65768 0.7541 0.11245 0.43255 1.05639 -0.41817 1.21125 -0.00136 0.37079 0.00105 0.44845 61       -1.007E-05 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998e Tiger Beetles A I I N.A. 1-58 S Annual Rainfall 50-3800 (mm) AV India   T 3 2 3415 7.560E+10 Unimodal p<0.001 0.52109 0.70039 0.11053 0.01466 0.49054 1.25303 -0.57962 0.19774 -0.00026 0.04755 0.00013 0.52109 61 Positive* <0.001 0.994 -3.101E-05 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998f Birds A V B N.A. 75-234 S Annual Rainfall 130-1500 (mm) AV Australia   T 3 2 3972 1.220E+11 Unimodal p<0.001 0.48939 0.66667 0.5823 0.08075 0.44445 1.51092 -0.87046 1.31972 -0.00472 0.32034 0.00199 0.48939 67 Positive* <0.001 0.726 -3.719E-05 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal Missing 0.0000 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998g Butterflies A I I N.A. 12-211 S Annual Rainfall 130-1500 (mm) AV Australia   T 3 2 3972 1.220E+11 Positive p<0.001 0.69338 0.83269 1.12189 0.09254 0.69338 0.75624 0.07883 1.01888 0.00066 0.38267 0.00238 0.69375 67       -1.286E-04 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Pearson and Carroll 1998h Tiger Beetles A I I N.A. 0-24 S Annual Rainfall 130-1500 (mm) AV Australia   T 3 2 3972 1.220E+11 Positive p<0.001 0.21924 0.46823 0.07245 0.01696 0.21924 0.65588 -0.19348 0.10148 -0.00019 0.07007 0.00043 0.22146 67       -6.164E-05 0.0297     Unimodal Unimodal Missing 0.0297 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Peres 1997 Primates A V M 21 3-14 S Biomass 117-953 (kg km-2) ASS Amazon Tropical Forest T 3 1 1077 N.A. Negative p=0.017 0.27588 -0.52525 -0.00982 0.00375 0.27588 -1.18186 0.68562 -0.0221 0.00001 0.01305 0.00001 0.31481 20       9.309E-07 0.5302 -1.274E-03 0.0126 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y  
Phillips et al. 1994 T P P T N.A. 100-240 (ha-1) S Annual Rainfall 2000-3905 (mm) AV Asia Tropical Forest T 3 2 1200 N.A. Negative p=0.092 0.4                       8                       Negative         Y N  
Phillips et al. 1994a T P P T N.A. 60-283 (ha-1) S Annual Rainfall 2028-4000 (mm) AV Central and South America Tropical Forest T 3 2 2954 N.A. None p>0.10   0.17644 0.01696 0.02853 0.03113 1.71129 -1.5387 0.16448 -0.00002 0.4204 0.00007 0.04298 13       -1.485E-07 0.0635 1.006E-04 0.0073 Positive*       None   Positive*   Positive* Y Y  
Phillips et al. 1994b T P P T N.A. 60-283 (ha-1) S Annual Rainfall 1640-4000 (mm) AV Global   T 4 3 >4000 N.A. Unimodal p=0.074 0.21081 0.28324 0.024026 0.016963 0.080223 3.248878 -2.98758 0.275593 -4.5E-05 0.132826 0.000023 0.210811 25 Positive* 0.035 0.172 -3.163E-07 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Pianka 1967a Lizards A V HP 12 4-10 S Warm Season Rainfall 12.5-131 (mm) AV Southwest N. America Desert T 3 1 1100 N.A. Positive p=0.052 0.35716 0.59763 0.30997 0.13862 0.35716 -1.33327 1.96122 -0.69153 0.06896 0.75846 0.05142 0.47517 11       8.963E-03 0.4516 4.412E-02 0.1576 None       Positive   None   None Y Y  
Pianka 1967b H, S P P H, S N.A. 0.8-1.76 (D) D Warm Season Rainfall 12.5-131 (mm) AV Southwest N. America Desert T 3 1 1100 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.14402 -0.01072 0.02328 0.02074 -2.28388 2.18056 -0.16994 0.01099 0.11561 0.00783 0.19658 12       8.417E-03 0.7312 -8.470E-03 0.9054 None       None   None   None Y Y perennials only
Pianka 1971a Lizards A V HP 23 11-17 S Annual Rainfall 145-286 (mm) AV Africa Desert T 3 1 287 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.31493 -0.01332 0.01419 0.09918 -5.55343 5.26928 -0.23484 0.00052 0.11253 0.00026 0.42261 10       3.566E-05 0.4385 -9.247E-04 0.6616 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Pianka 1971b H, S P P H, S N.A. 7-17 S Annual Rainfall 145-286 (mm) AV Africa Desert T 3 1 287 5.336E+03 None p>0.10   0.15159 0.01263 0.02913 0.02298 -3.46099 3.63381 -0.28847 0.00071 0.26482 0.00062 0.1768 10       5.438E-05 0.2746 1.012E-03 0.6511 None       None   None   None Y Y perennials only
Pierce et al. 1994 Fish A V F 24 8-17 S Biomass 7-26.9 (g m-2) ASS Canada Lakes A 2 2 103 1.015E+03 None p>0.10   0.08063 0.02774 0.12125 0.0065 -1.17772 1.27987 -0.40523 0.01364 0.69008 0.02138 0.06112 11       1.049E-03 0.6490 2.156E-03 0.8730 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Pollock et al. 1998 H, S, T P P H, S, T 233 12-87 (55 m-2) S Productivity Index 5.23-697.63 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS Alaska Riparian Wetlands A 1 1 9.8 5.500E+01 None p>0.10   0.03676 0.00371 0.02697 0.00135 1.9114 -1.94429 0.19304 -0.00028 0.09038 0.00013 0.26736 16       -6.335E-06 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 None   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Porembski et al. 1995 H, S P P H, S N.A. 1.02-15.86 (D) D Annual Rainfall 1052.4-2197.6 (mm) AV Ivory Coast Inselberg T   2 N.A. 3.000E+00 Negative p<0.0001 0.39992 -0.63239 -0.00687 0.00091 0.39992 -1.07102 0.44084 -0.011642 0.000002 0.00912 0.000003 0.401865 88       -8.885E-07 0.2763 -1.404E-03 0.0000 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y  
Porter 1972 Corals A I I N.A. 0-3.5 (D) D Depth 0-29.2 (m) AV Panama Coral Reef A   1 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p=0.007 0.47228 -0.1338 -0.01555 0.03195 0.0179 2.08617 -2.32006 0.24248 -0.00889 0.08389 0.00277 0.47228 15 Unimodal 0.001 0.002 -5.108E-03 0.1348 -7.303E-03 0.7548 None       Unimodal Unimodal None   None Y Y  
Price et al. 1998 Gall Insects A I I N.A. 0.04-46 S Latitude 3-86 (degress N, S) AV Global   T 4 3 >20,000 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.16016 -0.10647 -0.04727 0.02629 0.01134 1.20932 -1.37118 0.5369 -0.00746 0.08627 0.00106 0.16016 284 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -1.488E-03 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rebelo 1992 Fish A V F 55 15-45.1 S Biomass 8.7-59.1 (kg) ASS Portugal Estuary A 2 1 42 6.430E+03 Positive p=0.001 0.77858 0.88237 0.51696 0.09747 0.77858 0.72362 0.16232 0.42395 0.00137 0.49841 0.00718 0.77973 10       -1.040E-04 0.7370 1.680E-02 0.0018 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Redmann 1975 H P P H N.A. 16-34 S Production 106.5-252 (g m-2) ASS North Dakota Grassland T 1 1 9 1.530E+01 Negative p=0.04 0.42846 -0.65457 -0.0808 0.033 0.42846 -3.90969 3.273 -0.48264 0.00113 0.30143 0.00084 0.5452 10       4.156E-05 0.3099 -3.415E-03 0.0522 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y  
Reed and Fleagle 1995a Primates A V M N.A. 2-10 S Annual Rainfall 1040-4000 (mm) AV Asia   T 4 3 >4000 N.A. None p>0.10   -0.00534 -0.000014 0.00086 0.000029 1.20596 -1.2304 0.003127 -1E-06 0.0051 0.000001 0.046673 11       -1.300E-07 0.5153 -2.672E-06 0.9869 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Reed and Fleagle 1995b Primates A V M N.A. 2-14 S Annual Rainfall 780-3250 (mm) AV South America   T 4 3 >4000 N.A. Positive p<0.001 0.67716 0.8229 0.006197 0.00124 0.67716 1.57741 -0.7743 0.011878 -1E-06 0.00547 0.000001 0.707403 14       -6.799E-07 0.0302     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0302 0.0302 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Reed and Fleagle 1995c Primates A V M N.A. 1-16 S Annual Rainfall 500-2540 (mm) AV Africa   T 4 3 >4000 N.A. Positive p<0.001 0.77366 0.87958 0.0067 0.00091 0.77366 1.42582 -0.55692 0.010866 -1E-06 0.00468 0.000002 0.785439 18       -4.671E-07 0.0752 7.980E-04 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal 0.0752 0.0752 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Reed and Fleagle 1995d Primates A V M N.A. 1-12 S Annual Rainfall 280-3200 (mm) AV Madagascar   T   2 <1600 N.A. Positive p<0.001 0.75478 0.86878 0.003587 0.00046 0.754778 1.42509 -0.57196 0.005885 -1E-06 0.00194 0.000001 0.772441 22       -2.398E-07 0.0801 4.986E-04 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal 0.0801 0.0801 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rex 1981a Cumacea A I I N.A. N.A. D Depth N.A. AV Western N. Atlantic Deep-Sea Benthos A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.01 0.70127 0.48514 0.001014 0.00049 0.235364 2.68048 -2.299 0.0056 -1E-06 0.00107 2.14E-07 0.701271 16 Unimodal <0.001 0.005 -1.282E-07 0.0133     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0133 0.0133 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rex 1981b Fish A V F N.A. N.A. D Depth N.A. AV Western N. Atlantic Deep-Sea Benthos A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.05 0.23364 0.01413 0.000035 0.00049 0.0002 2.8986 -3.1449 0.00324 -1E-06 0.00132 3.30E-07 0.233642 28 Unimodal 0.015 0.014 -1.592E-07 0.0154     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0154 0.0154 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rex 1981c Gastropoda A I I N.A. N.A. D Depth N.A. AV Western N. Atlantic Deep-Sea Benthos A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.01 0.60601 0.04558 0.00011 0.0005 0.002078 3.93453 -3.96583 0.009518 -2E-06 0.00165 3.16E-07 0.606008 25 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -1.739E-07 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rex 1981d Megainvertebrates A I I N.A. N.A. D Depth N.A. AV Western N. Atlantic Deep-Sea Benthos A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.01 0.29 0.02466 0.00006 0.00031 0.000608 1.60352 -1.66799 0.003929 -1E-06 0.00083 1.87E-07 0.29 63 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -1.693E-07 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rex 1981e Polycheata A I I N.A. N.A. D Depth N.A. AV Western N. Atlantic Deep-Sea Benthos A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.01 0.49634 -0.4486 -0.001038 0.00047 0.201242 1.43181 -1.9573 0.003312 -1E-06 0.00139 2.77E-07 0.496337 21 Unimodal 0.033 0.001 -5.671E-08 0.0493     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0493 Missing Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Rex 1981f Protobranchia A I I N.A. N.A. D Depth N.A. AV Western N. Atlantic Deep-Sea Benthos A   2 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.05 0.45862 -0.17765 -0.0002 0.00035 0.03156 1.39379 -1.46182 0.003471 -1E-06 0.00132 2.18E-07 4.59E-01 12 Unimodal 0.04 0.022 -1.094E-07 0.1601 -3.612E-05 0.6804 None       Unimodal Unimodal None   None Y Y  
Richerson and Lum 1980 H, S, T P P H, S, T 5902 403-1487 S Annual Rainfall 20.54-1193.4 (mm) AV California Terrestrial T 3 2 1300 4.370E+09 Unimodal p<0.05 0.52596 0.60897 0.41535 1.45658 0.37085 1.97057 -1.41741 1.34403 -0.00065 4.57606 0.07793 0.52596 91 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -4.653E-04 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Risser and Rice 1971 T P P T N.A. N.A. D St. Crop Biomass N.A. ASS Oklahoma Upland Forest T   1 N.A. 1.619E+03 Positive p=0.01 0.19 N.A.         N.A.           61                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Rodriguez and Stoner 1990 Epiphytic Algae P P H N.A. 0.7-5.5 S Biomass 0.001-1.3 (mg cm-2) ASS Puerto Rico Mangrove A 1 1 2 N.A. None p>0.10                         9                       None         Y N  
Rogovin et al. 1994 Rodents A V M 10 2-7 S Biomass 0.92-5.6 (kg ha-1) ASS India Desert T 3 1 198-296 3.000E+04 Unimodal p=0.056 0.94                       5 Positive* 0.039 0.142                 Unimodal Positive*       Y N  
Roy et al. 1998a Gastropoda A I I 1907 203-910 S Sea Surface Temperature 6.6-29.5 (oC) AV Eastern Pacific Continental Shelf A   2 N.A. N.A. U-shaped p<0.001 0.91158 0.91794 29.41163 1.72978 0.84261 -0.84542 1.78281 -27.08811 1.54321 8.8848 0.24003 0.91158 56 U-shaped 0.08 0.001 1.760E-03 0.0000     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0000 0.0000 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Roy et al. 1998b Gastropoda A I I 2009 91-961 S Sea Surface Temperature 0.8-28.5 (oC) AV Western Atlantic Continental Shelf A   2 N.A. N.A. U-shaped p<0.001 0.83737 0.86459 27.74797 2.17446 0.74752 -0.76363 1.65558 -24.50769 1.72049 9.72769 0.31499 0.83737 57 U-shaped 0.02 <0.001 2.526E-03 0.0000     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0000 0.0000 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Russell-Smith 1991 H, S, T P P H, S, T 559 23.6-95.5 S Annual Rainfall 624-1640 (mm) AV Northern Australia Monsoon Rainforest T 3 2 1077 8.400E+03 Positive p<0.001 0.55272 0.74345 0.04118 0.0099 0.55272 -1.49844 2.25688 -0.083 0.00006 0.08229 0.00004 0.62015 16       6.979E-07 0.1311 1.017E-03 0.0000 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Salick and Pong 1984 Termites A I I N.A. N.A. S Soil Productivity N.A. AV Malaysia Rainforest T 3 1 596 N.A. Positive p<0.001 0.62                       6                       Positive         N N  
Sarmiento 1983 H P P H N.A. 3-12 (100 m-2) S Annual Rainfall 800-2600 (mm) AV Venezuela Tropical Savanna T 3 1 1435 1.000E+02 Positive p=0.04 0.10145 0.31851 0.0197 0.00927 0.10145 0.26763 0.05159 0.01655 0.00001 0.05668 0.00018 0.10152 42       -1.991E-06 0.9439 2.602E-03 0.0883 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y perennials only
Scheibe 1987 Lizards A V HP 29 2-8 S Warm Season Rainfall 35.8-309.4 (mm) AV Southwest N. America Desert - Pine Forest T 3 2 1000-1200 N.A. Negative p=0.007 0.34182 -0.58466 -0.11952 0.03909 0.34182 -1.17065 0.60714 -0.23931 0.0034 0.15078 0.00414 0.36705 20       3.850E-04 0.8135 -3.266E-02 0.0544 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y  
Scheiner and Rey-Banayas 1994 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 6.07-102.94 S Production 1.5-900 (g C m-2 yr-1) ASS Global   T 4 3 37598 1.600E+04 U-shaped p<0.0001 0.42813 0.64017 0.04997 0.00625 0.40982 0.23778 0.42453 0.01856 0.00004 0.01941 0.00002 0.42813 94 Positive* 0.337 <0.001 -7.421E-08 0.7892 1.573E-03 0.0000 Positive       U-shaped Positive* Positive   Positive Y Y  
Schmidt 1975 H, S P P H, S N.A. 38-92 S Annual Rainfall 639.9-833.4 (mm) AV Tanzania Serengetti Grasslands T 2 1 44 4.800E+03 None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Schulze et al. 1996 H P P H 374 N.A. S Annual Rainfall 50-600 (mm) AV Namibia Desert - Dry Forest T 3 2 1297 N.A. Positive N.A. 0.77 N.A.         N.A.           N.A.                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Scott and Billings 1964 H P P H 14 2-11 S St. Crop Biomass 14-348 (g m-2) ASS Wyoming Alpine Tundra T   1 N.A. 1.500E-01 Unimodal p<0.001 0.36 0.06127 0.00203 0.00478 0.00375 2.12979 -2.15238 0.0706 -0.0002 0.01402 0.00004 0.35773 50 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -3.116E-05 0.0014     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0014 0.0014 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Sedberry and Van Dolah 1984 Fish A V F 122 26-41 S Biomass 20.11-118.73 (kg ha-1) ASS South Atlantic Ocean A 3 1 223 N.A. Unimodal p=0.057 0.78                       7 Unimodal 0.023 0.024                 Unimodal Unimodal       Y N  
Shanker and Sukumar 1998 Mammals A V M 9 2-3.8 S Biomass 485.1-882.8 (g ha-1) ASS Southern India Montane Forests T   1 N.A. 5.800E+03 None p>0.10   -0.17332 -0.00083 0.00158 0.03004 5.73149 -5.92839 0.02758 -0.00002 0.01586 0.00001 0.30917 11       -7.561E-06 0.5870 -2.889E-04 0.8566 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Shenbrot 1992 Rodents A V M 13 2-8 D Plant Abundance (DCA axis) N.A. AV Bukhara Desert T 1 1 11-16 1.000E+04 Positive N.A. N.A. N.A.         N.A.           600                       Positive       Positive N Y  
Shenbrot and Krasnov 1997 Lizards A V HF 14 3-11 S Biomass 37.7-192.8 (g ha-1) ASS Negev, Israel Desert T 2 1 39.6 4.000E+04 None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Shenbrot et al. 1991a Lizards A V HP 15 4-10 S Biomass 35-691 (g ha-1) ASS Bukhara Desert T 1 1 11-16 1.000E+04 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Shenbrot et al. 1991b Lizards A V HP 17 4-10 S Biomass 97-453 (g ha-1) ASS Mexico Desert T 2 1 44-65 1.000E+04 None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Shepherd 1998 Mammals A V M 237 17-55 S Latitude 10-68 (degrees N) AV North America   T 4 3 8433 N.A. U-shaped p=0.003 0.46613 -0.48882 -0.32683 0.11439 0.23894 -2.422 1.99108 -1.61939 0.01728 0.40816 0.0053 0.46613 28 U-shaped <0.001 0.038 5.124E-04 0.0004     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0004 0.0004 U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Sheppard 1980 Corals A I I N.A. 4-34 S Depth 1-48 (m) AV Indian Ocean Chagos Atolls A   1 N.A. N.A. Unimodal p<0.05 0.68505 -0.06818 -0.04061 0.1329 0.00465 3.06762 -3.24247 1.82749 -0.04073 0.3015 0.00636 0.68505 22 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -2.234E-03 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Shipley et al. 1991 H, S P P H, S N.A. N.A. S St. Crop Biomass N.A. ASS Canada Shoreline A   2 N.A. 2.500E-01 Unimodal p<0.05 0.44205 0.38065 0.62428 0.23401 0.1449 2.57653 -2.26253 4.22559 -1.12692 0.79408 0.24117 0.44205 48 Unimodal     -2.447E-01 0.0163     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0163 0.0163 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y species richness and biomass transformed
Simpson et al. 1986 Benthic Invertebrates A I I N.A. 10-59 S Biomass 0.2-14.6 (g m-2) ASS New York Hudson River A 2 1 113 2.770E-01 Unimodal p<0.05 0.66197 0.72987 2.77961 0.69577 0.53271 1.66521 -1.00206 6.34172 -0.28914 1.71158 0.12968 0.66197 16 Positive* 0.003 0.365 -1.164E-02 0.0003     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0003 0.0003 Unimodal Positive* Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Standen 1979 Earthworms A I I 13 0-9 S Annual Rainfall 670-2050 (mm) AV United Kingdom Moors T 2 1 168 N.A. Positive p=0.05 0.08433 0.29039 0.01962 0.00975 0.08433 1.35542 -1.07414 0.09159 -0.00026 0.07506 0.00027 0.10382 46       -1.282E-04 0.0502     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0502 Missing Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Thiel et al. 1995 Fish A V F 60 7.5-14 S Biomass 75.3-226 (kg m-3 10-6) ASS Germany Estuary A 1 1 51 N.A. None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Thomas and MacLean 1988 Mites A I I N.A. 11-35 S Mite Biomass 9.8-122.6 (mg m-2) ASS Alaska Tundra T 3 1 600 N.A. Positive p<0.001 0.6477 0.8048 0.15852 0.03125 0.6477 1.11018 -0.31246 0.21867 -0.00041 0.15217 0.00102 0.65208 16       -4.349E-05 0.3914 6.671E-03 0.0003 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Tieszen et al. 1979 H P P H N.A. 4.7-61.4 (m-2) S Moisture Index N.A. AV Kenya Desert - Alpine Forest T 3 2 350 1.500E+02 Negative p=0.05 0.33977 -0.5829 -0.2964 0.13066 0.33977 0.54959 -1.60981 0.5013 -0.00609 0.54959 0.00409 0.47033 11       -3.182E-04 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Negative   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Uku and Mavuti 1994a Zooplankton A I I 23 15-23 S Biomass 50-341 (mg m-3) ASS Kenya Lakes A 3 2 208 N.A. None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Uku and Mavuti 1994b Phytoplankton P P H 16 4-13 S Chlorophyll A 4.6-71.5 (mg m-3) ASS Kenya Lakes A 3 2 208 N.A. None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Vallet and Dauvin 1998 Benthic Macrofauna A A, I F, I 227 11-123 S Biomass (AFDW) 119-385 (mg 100 m-3) ASS English Channel Benthos A 3 1 430 N.A. None p>0.10                         6                       None         Y N  
Vogel et al. 1986 H P P H 136 5-68 S Annual Rainfall 20-225 (mm) AV Israel Desert T 3 1 480 N.A. Positive p=0.009 0.342 0.58481 0.16353 0.05501 0.342 1.70916 -1.1642 0.47792 -0.00139 0.20289 0.00086 0.4332 19       -4.394E-05 0.0006     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0006 0.0006 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Walker 1968 H, S P P H, S 147 13-56 (4 m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 89-225 (g 0.25 m-2) ASS New Guinea High Shrubland T 1 1 4 4.000E+00 None p>0.10   0.2654 0.01723 0.0755 0.07044 0.60032 -0.33622 0.03898 -0.00002 0.90111 0.00284 0.07131 14       -9.914E-06 0.7633 1.920E-03 0.0498 Positive       None   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Ward 1986a Macroinvertebrates A I I N.A. 34-107 S Biomass 660-3610 (mg m-2) ASS Colorado Stream A 2 2 50 6.000E-01 Positive p=0.031 0.41898 0.64729 0.02225 0.00874 0.41898 2.20406 -1.60555 0.07578 -0.00001 0.03246 0.00001 0.57325 11       -1.918E-07 0.0013     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0013 0.0013 Positive   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Ward 1986b Epilithic Algae P P H 25 11-17 S Biomass 0-600 (mg sample-1) ASS Colorado Stream A 2 2 50 N.A. None p>0.10   0.11405 0.00077 0.00223 0.01301 -0.84293 0.97505 -0.00569 0.00001 0.01214 0.00002 0.04792 11       8.014E-07 0.8138 5.451E-05 0.8846 None       None   None   None Y Y  
Wassen et al. 1990 H, S P P H, S 45 13-33 (10 m-2) S Production 1-6 (kg m-2) ASS Poland Fen A 2 1 100 1.000E+01 Negative p=0.001 0.95                       6                       Negative         Y N  
Wells 1984a Macrocrustaceans A I I N.A. 5-14 S Biomass 182-1032 (mg m-2) ASS Australia Mangrove A   1 N.A. 4.400E-01 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Wells 1984b Macromolluscs A I I N.A. 0-58 S Biomass 0-3012 (mg m-2) ASS Australia Mangrove A   1 N.A. 4.400E-01 None p>0.10                         4                       None         Y N  
Wells 1996c H P P H N.A. 17-29 S Nitrogen 7.2-24.5 (mg g-1) AV Atlantic Canada Peatland A 3 1 1280 N.A. None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y N  
Werger et al. 1983 H P P H 61 7-31 (m-2) S Nitrogen 46-450 (ug 100 g-1) AV Netherlands Grassland T 2 1 75 1.000E+00 Positive p=0.031 0.23343 0.48315 0.04329 0.01849 0.23343 0.2547 0.23879 0.02282 0.00005 0.06515 0.00014 0.23826 20       -1.181E-08 0.9976 2.089E-03 0.0004 Positive       Positive   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Westman and Whittaker 1975 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 6-23.4 S Production 307-1441 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS California, Arizona, Tennessee Forest T   2 N.A. 1.000E+02 None p>0.10                         9                       None         Y N  
Wheeler and Giller 1982 H P P H N.A. N.A. S St. Crop Biomass 200-4900 (g m-2) ASS United Kingdom Fen A 2 1 <25 1.025E+02 U-shaped p=0.005 0.35486 -0.51204 -0.00336 0.96672 0.26218 -1.3388 0.88103 -0.00879 1.27E-06 2.6555 0.58315 0.35486 36 Negative* 0.002 0.283 1.338E-01 0.0168     U-shaped U-shaped Missing 0.0168 U-shaped Negative* U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Wheeler and Shaw 1991 H P P H N.A. N.A. S St. Crop Production 58-2799 (g m-2) ASS United Kingdom Fen A   1 N.A. 4.000E+00 U-shaped p<0.001 0.40796 -0.58472 -9.3306 1.42954 0.3419 -1.36685 0.82327 -21.81115 5.26097 4.36996 1.75002 0.40796 84 Negative* <0.001 0.192 1.906E-01 0.0029     U-shaped U-shaped Missing 0.0029 U-shaped Negative* U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Whiteside and Harmsworth 1967a Cladocera A I I 27 0.001-3.6 (D) D Phytoplankton Production 194-1691 (g m-2 yr-1) AV Indiana Lakes A 2 2 80 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.91074 -0.89258 -0.001963 0.00029 0.796707 1.143513 -2.06391 0.002515 -2E-06 0.001211 0.000001 0.910735 14 Negative* 0.128 <0.001 -1.850E-06 0.1819 -1.162E-03 0.0474 Negative       Unimodal Negative* Negative   Negative Y Y  
Whiteside and Harmsworth 1967b Cladocera A I I 28 0.409-3.772 (D) D Phytoplankton Production 62-943 (g m-2 yr-1) AV Denmark Lakes A 2 2 200 N.A. Negative p<0.0001 0.80557 -0.89753 -0.004241 0.00049 0.805567 -1.3014 0.42766 -0.006149 0.000002 0.00146 0.000002 0.825349 20       -1.729E-06 0.6617 -2.163E-03 0.0102 Negative       Negative   Negative   Negative Y Y  
Whittaker 1966 H, S, T P P H, S, T 105 8-40 S Ab. Gr. Production 566-2408 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS N. Carolina, Tennesse Deciduous Forest T   1 N.A. 1.000E+03 None p>0.10   0.41369 0.00754 0.00444 0.17114 0.75381 -0.34824 0.013744 -2E-06 0.02138 0.00001 0.176721 16       -1.436E-07 0.4256 3.139E-04 0.0081 Positive       None   Positive   Positive Y Y  
Whittaker and Niering 1975 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 6-58 S Production 140-1340 (g m-2 yr-1) ASS Arizona Grassland - Forest T 2 2 29 1.000E+03 None p>0.10   -0.30532 -0.01166 0.00972 0.09322 -2.02017 1.75345 -0.07718 0.00004 0.04464 0.00003 0.2271 16       1.821E-06 0.0007     U-shaped U-shaped 0.0007 0.0007 None   U-shaped U-shaped U-shaped Y Y  
Whittaker and Woodwell 1969 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 14-19 (0.1 ha-1) S Production 18.5-59.1 (g m-2) ASS New York Oak-Pine Forest T   1 N.A. 1.000E+03 None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Wiens 1973 Birds A V B 23 3-10 S Annual Rainfall 230-940 (mm) AV North America Grasslands T 3 2 1764 1.030E+05 None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y N  
Wiens and Nussbaum 1975 Birds A V B 22 7-15 S Biomass 223.3-526.1 (g ha-1) ASS Oregon Conifer Forest T   1 N.A. N.A. Positive p=0.072 0.6                       6                       Positive         Y N  
Williams 1972 Diatoms P P H N.A. 13.4-33.9 (5 ul-1) S Biovolume 5.4-366.2 (ul l-1) ASS North America Rivers A   2 N.A. N.A. None p>0.10   -0.23272 -0.01559 0.01495 0.05416 -0.34066 0.11126 -0.02283 0.00002 0.06338 0.00018 0.05488 21       7.175E-07 0.8904 -6.519E-04 0.1470 None       None   None   None Y N  
Williams 1972 Diatoms P P H N.A. 8.6-40.9 (5 ul-1) S Biovolume 1.7-64.3 (ul l-1) ASS North America Lakes A   2 N.A. N.A. None p>0.10                         7                       None         Y Y  
Williams and Marsh 1998 Mammals A V M N.A. 2.8-4.5 S Biomass Index 242-819 (g) ASS Australia Rainforest T   2 N.A. N.A. None p>0.10                         5                       None         Y N  
Williams et al. 1996 S, T P P S, T 291 N.A. S Annual Rainfall 500-1500 (mm) AV Australia Tropical Savanna T 3 2 710 4.000E+02 U-shaped p<0.001 0.3 N.A.         N.A.           940 N.A.                     U-shaped N.A.     U-shaped N Y  
Wilson and Keddy 1988 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. N.A. S St. Crop Biomass 0-625 (g m-2) ASS Canada Lakeshore A 1 1 < 10 2.500E-01 Unimodal p=0.003 0.12723 0.14459 0.00189 0.00146 0.02091 1.02503 -0.93889 0.01337 -0.00002 0.004 0.00001 0.12723 80 Unimodal 0.001 0.008 -3.803E-06 0.0120     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0120 0.0120 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Wisheu and Keddy 1989a H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 2-24 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop + Litter Biomass 0.16-649 (g 0.25 m-2) ASS Canada Lakeshores A 3 2 1200 2.500E-01 Negative p<0.001 0.1553 -0.39409 -0.01574 0.00396 0.1553 -0.02278 -0.38599 -0.00091 -0.00003 0.01448 0.00003 0.16642 88       -7.627E-06 0.0006     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0006 0.0006 Negative   Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Wisheu and Keddy 1989b H, S, T P P H, S, T 37 0-23 (0.25 m-2) S St. Crop + Litter Biomass 0.1-145.2 (g 0.25 m-2) ASS Canada Lakeshore A 2 1 <30 2.500E-01 Unimodal p<0.001 0.34415 0.41097 0.07064 0.0143 0.16889 1.49371 -1.16085 0.25675 -0.00164 0.03539 0.00029 0.34415 122 Unimodal <0.001 <0.001 -1.423E-04 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  
Wright 1983a Birds A V B N.A. 9-540 S Average Net Primary Production 0.1-2.3 (kg m-2 yr-1) AV Global Islands ? 4 3 >4000 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.82028 0.88174 0.4151 0.04355 0.77746 1.76796 -0.91005 0.8323 -0.18481 0.17556 0.07573 0.82028 28 Positive* <0.001 0.907 -3.707E-01 0.4995 5.184E-01 0.1013 None       Unimodal Positive* None   None Y Y  
Wright 1983b H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 137-12000 S Average Actual Evapotranspiration 7-125 (cm yr-1) ASS Global Islands T 4 3 >4000 N.A. Unimodal p<0.001 0.90566 0.91802 0.01154 0.00106 0.84276 1.88581 -0.99976 0.02371 -0.00009 0.00336 0.00002 0.90566 24 Positive* <0.001 0.831 -2.406E-04 0.2031 1.300E-02 0.0256 Positive       Unimodal Positive* Positive   Positive Y Y  
Zobel and Liira 1997 H, S, T P P H, S, T N.A. 2-61.2 (m-2) S St. Crop Biomass 9-812 (g m-2) ASS Estonia Grassland - Forest T 2 2 100-265 1.000E+00 Unimodal p<0.10 0.23056 0.24205 0.01596 0.0128 0.05859 1.52096 -1.34446 0.1003 -0.00012 0.03828 0.00005 0.23056 27 Unimodal 0.015 0.066 -6.029E-06 0.0000     Unimodal Unimodal 0.0000 0.0000 Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Unimodal Y Y  

1H - herbaceous vegetation (including phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes and macroalgae), T - trees, S - shrubs.
2A - animals, P - plants, FG - fungi.
3P - plants, V - vertebrates, I - invertebrates, FG - fungi.
4H - herbaceous vegetation (including phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes and macroalgae), T - trees, S - shrubs, FG - fungi, B - birds, M - mammals, HP - herpetofauna, F - fish, I - invertebrates.
5Total number of species occurring among study sites.
6Species richness measures within sites may include measures of species density or total number of species encountered. D - indicates an index of species richness.
7S - study used species richness, D - study used a species diversity index.
8AV - productivity measure is a measure of available energy to the taxa in question (e.g., rainfall, nitrogen, or light for plants), ASS - productivity measure is a measure of assimilated energy for the taxa in question (e.g., biomass or production).
9System Type 2: A - aquatic, T - terrestrial.
10Geographic scale classifications: 1 - local (0-20 km), 2 - landscape (20-200 km), 3 - regional (200-4000 km), 4 - continental to global (>4000 km).
11Biotic Scale Classifications: 1 - within community, 2 - among community, 3 - continental to global (>4000 km).
12Greatest linear distance among study sites (km).
13Average size of plot used to determine species richness (m2).
14Standardized coefficient of the linear term from ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression.
15Linear term from OLS linear regression.
16Standard error of the linear coefficient from OLS linear regression.
17Standardized coefficient of the linear term from OLS polynomial regression.
18Standardized coefficient of the quadratic term from OLS polynomial regression.
19Linear coefficient from OLS quadratic regression.
20Quadratic term from OLS quadratic regression.
21Sample size.
22The null hypothesis that maximum species richness (in the case of a negative quadratic term) or minimum species richness (in the case of a positive quadratic term) is found at a minimum value of productivity is rejected if p < 0.10. NAC = not able to compute.
23The null hypothesis that maximum species richness (in the case of a negative quadratic term) or minimum species richness (in the case of a positive quadratic term) is found at a maximum value of productivity is rejected if p < 0.10. NAC = not able to compute.
24Results from the Mitchell-Olds and Shaw (1987) test to determine whether curvilinear relationships (from OLS regressions) reached a maximum or minimum within the observed range of productivity.
25Results from general linearized model regressions.
26Results from the Mitchell-Olds and Shaw (1987) test to determine whether curvilinear relationships (from GLIM regressions) reached a maximum or minimum within the observed range of productivity. INC = inconclusive.


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