Ecological Archives E084-052-A1

H. Olde Venterink, M. J. Wassen, A. W. M. Verkroost, and P. C. De Ruiter. 2003. Species richness–productivity patterns differ between N-, P-, and K-limited wetlands. Ecology 84:2191–2199.

Appendix A. A list of data from 44 fertilization experiments from literature used in this study, as well as results of a statistical analysis of the data.

Wetland type

Limiting
nutrient

Aboveground
biomass
(g/m2)

N
(mg/g)

P
(mg/g)

K
(mg/g)

N:P ratio

N:K ratio

K:P ratio

Reference

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

Meadow

N+P

313

18.9

0.96

15.0

19.7

1.3

15.6

Olde Venterink et al. (2001)

Meadow

N

207

16.3

1.86

7.8

8.8

2.1

4.2

Olde Venterink et al. (2001)

Fen meadow

N

251

14.0

1.22

5.1

11.5

2.8

4.1

Olde Venterink et al. (2001)

Meadow

N+K

314

19.7

2.24

7.5

8.8

2.6

3.3

Olde Venterink et al. (2001)

Meadow

K+P

363

23.4

1.79

5.4

13.1

4.4

3.0

Olde Venterink et al. (2001)

Meadow

N+P+K

657

20.6

2.04

6.7

10.1

3.1

3.3

Olde Venterink et al. (2001)

Rich fen

N

240

12.6

0.87

7.2

14.5

1.8

8.3

Wassen et al. (1998)

Rich fen

N

162

14.3

1.06

11.2

13.5

1.3

10.6

Wassen et al. (1998)

Poor fen

N

161

16.7

3.49

14.7

4.8

1.1

4.2

Wassen et al. (1998)

Meadow

N+K

350

15.6

3.00

7.3

5.2

2.2

2.4

Olff (1992)

Meadow

N+K

233

17.3

2.41

4.0

7.2

4.3

1.7

Olff (1992)

Meadow

N+K

383

16.6

1.75

4.8

9.5

3.5

2.7

Olff (1992)

Poor fen

N

385

13.8

1.87

9.7

7.4

1.4

5.2

Van Duren (1997a)

Poor fen

N+K

350

22.5

3.59

4.2

6.3

5.3

1.2

Van Duren (1997a)

Meadow

N

565

12.5

2.37

11.6

5.3

1.1

4.9

Van Duren 1997b)

Meadow

K

275

16.9

2.61

5.5

6.8

3.5

2.1

Van Duren 1997b)

Meadow

N

633

9.9

0.84

8.4

11.8

1.2

10.0

Boeye et al. (1997)

Rich fen

N

312

13.6

1.11

9.2

12.3

1.5

8.3

Verhoeven and Schmitz (1991)

Poor fen

P

170

16.5

0.69

7.8

23.9

2.1

11.3

Verhoeven and Schmitz (1991)

Poor fen

N

230

12.2

1.30

16.4

9.4

0.7

12.6

Verhoeven and Schmitz (1991)

Rich fen

N+P

448

12.9

0.69

15.0

18.7

0.9

21.7

Kooijman (1993)

Rich fen

P

94

14.9

0.85

17.2

17.5

0.9

20.2

Kooijman (1993)

Fen

N

325

11.9

0.84

6.0

14.1

2.0

7.1

Vermeer (1986)

Meadow

N

400

14.0

0.55

1.2

25.5

11.6

2.2

Vermeer (1986)

Meadow

K

600

23.0

2.20

3.2

10.5

7.2

1.5

Vermeer (1986)

Bog

P

101

11.5

0.50

7.6

23.0

1.5

15.2

Tamm (1954)

Wet heath

P

573

10.9

0.35

4.5

31.2

2.4

12.9

Aerts and Berendse (1988)

Meadow

P

207

16.7

0.85

5.8

19.7

2.9

6.8

Wassen and Verhoeven (unpublished data)

Bog

P

266

13.8

0.82

5.3

17.3

2.6

6.5

Wassen and Verhoeven (unpublished data)

Dune slack

N

125

10.9

0.75

9.2

14.5

1.2

12.3

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

N

119

9.5

0.88

7.3

10.9

1.3

8.3

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

N

250

12.5

1.63

14.1

7.7

0.9

8.7

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

N

403

9.4

0.87

8.3

10.8

1.1

9.5

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

P

525

14.7

1.04

16.0

14.5

0.9

15.4

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

N

534

13.1

1.56

9.7

8.4

1.4

6.2

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

N+P

340

14.1

0.93

8.9

15.1

1.6

9.6

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

N+P

94

16.7

1.08

7.6

15.4

2.2

7.0

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Dune slack

P

141

15.8

1.02

8.6

15.5

1.8

8.4

Koerselman and Meuleman (1994)

Meadow

N+K

770

20.0

3.25

10.7

6.2

1.9

3.3

Oomes (1995)

Meadow

K

717

21.0

3.25

9.0

6.5

2.3

2.8

Oomes (1995)

Bog

K

 

14.1

2.54

7.0

5.6

2.0

2.7

Goodman and Perkins (1968)

Wet heath

P+N

 

12.47

0.62

10.71

20.02

1.16

17.19

Loach (1968)

Wet heath

P

 

12.42

0.58

8.62

21.49

1.44

14.91

Loach (1968)

Bog

P+N

 

10.59

0.46

5.26

23.21

2.01

11.53

Loach (1968)

†(Co)-limited by N+P+K or by a combination of two of these three nutrients.

Statistical Analysis

Significance level of differences in N:P, N:K, and K:P ratios in vegetation between wetlands (co)-limited by different nutrients (P values of one-way ANOVA, Tukey t tests). Nutrient ratios were determined in aboveground vascular plants (living and dead) of control plots from 44 fertilization experiments from literature. K+P (n = 1), and N+P+K (co)-limited wetlands (n = 1) could not be tested because of too few observations.

Limitation
No. sites (n)
N
(17)
P
(9)
K
(4)
N+P
(6)

N:P ratio

P
9
<0.001
 
 
 
K
4
0.249
<0.001
 
 
N+P
6
<0.001
0.986
< 0.001
 
N+K
6
0.113
<0.001
>0.999
<0.001

N:K ratio

P
9
0.613
 
 
 
K
4
0.002
0.062
 
 
N+P
6
0.997
0.919
0.019
 
N+K
6
0.001
0.054
0.999
0.015

K:P ratio

P
9
0.050
 
 
 
K
4
<0.001
<0.001
 
 
N+P
 6
0.032
0.986
<0.001
 
N+K
6
<0.001
<0.001
>0.999
<0.001

Literature Cited

Aerts, R., and F. Berendse. 1988. The effect of increased nutrient availability on vegetation dynamics in wet heathlands. Vegetatio 76:63–69.

Aerts, R., B. Wallen, and N. Malmer. 1992. Growth-limiting nutrients in sphagnum-dominated bogs subject to low and high atmospheric nitrogen supply. Journal of Ecology 80:131–140.

Boeye, D., B. Verhagen, V. Van Haesebroeck, and R. F. Verheyen. 1997. Nutrient limitation in species-rich lowland fens. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:415–424.

Goodman, G. T., and D. F. Perkins. 1968. The role of mineral nutrients in Eriophorum communities. IV Potassium supply as a limiting factor in an E. vaginatum community. Journal of Ecology 56:685–696.

Koerselman, W., and A. F. M. Meuleman. 1994. Groeibeperkende voedingsstoffen in verschillende duinvalleitypen. Report. KIWA, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Kooijman, A. 1993. Changes in the bryophyte layer of rich fens as controlled by acidification and eutrophication. Dissertation. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Loach, K. 1968. Relations between soil nutrients in wet-heaths. II Nutrient uptake by the major species in the field and in controlled conditions. Journal of Ecology 56:117–127.

Olde Venterink, H., R. E. van der Vliet, and M. J. Wassen. 2001. Nutrient limitation along a productivity gradient in wet Meadows. Plant and Soil 234:171–179.

Olff, H. 1992. On the mechanisms of vegetation succession. Dissertation. University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Oomes, M. J. M. 1995. Restoration of wet grasslands, case study. Pages 59-63 in J. T. A. Verhoeven, editor. Ecological engineering for ecosystem restoration. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Tamm, C. O. 1954. Some observations on the nutrient turn-over in a bog community dominated by Eriophorum vaginatum. Oikos 5:189–194.

Van Duren, I. C., D. Boeye, and A. P. Grootjans. 1997a. Nutrient limitations in an extant and drained poor fen: implications for restoration. Plant Ecology 133:91–100.

Van Duren, I. C., D. M. Pegtel, B. A. Aerts, and J. A. Ingberg. 1997b. Nutrient supply in undrained and drained Calthion meadows. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:829–838.

Verhoeven, J. T. A., and M. B. Schmitz. 1991. Control of plant growth by nitrogen and phosphorus in mesotrophic fens. Biogeochemistry 12:135–148.

Vermeer, J. G. 1986. The effect of nutrients on shoot biomass and species composition of wetland and hayfield communities. Acta Oecologia 7:31–41.

Wassen, M. J., R. Van der Vliet, and J. T. A. Verhoeven. 1998. Nutrient limitation in the Biebrza Valley fens and floodplain (Poland). Acta Botanica Neerlandica 47:241–253.


[Back to E084-053]