Ecological Archives E085-036-A4

B. Irene Tieleman, Joseph B. Williams, and G. Henk Visser. 2004. Energy and water budgets of larks in a life history perspective: parental effort varies with aridity. Ecology 85:1399–1410.

Appendix D. A table showing aridity index, nestling growth constant K, clutch size and number, and daily nest survival rate for 14 species of larks.

Table D1. Aridity index (from Tieleman et al. 2003a), nestling growth constant K, clutch size (average ± SD, n) and number (year-1), and daily survival rate (DSR, average ± SE, n) for 14 larks from this study and literature.

Species

Aridity

Growth constant

Clutch size

SD

n

# Clutches

DSR

SE DSR

n

Reference

Dune Lark

1.76

0.307

1.90

   

1

     

1

Dunn's Lark

1.78

0.498

2.88

0.741

24

1

0.8162

0.0332

29

2

Hoopoe Lark

1.78

0.409

2.99

0.723

68

1

0.8016

0.0188

93

2

Bar-tailed Desert Lark

1.78

0.520

3.24

0.768

21

1

0.8638

0.0290

21

2

Desert Lark

2.05

0.540

3.11

   

1

0.9340

   

3, 4

Black-crowned Finchlark

2.24

0.622

2.57

0.679

30

 

0.8968

0.0230

26

2

Crested Lark

2.24

0.473

4.15

   

2

0.9618

   

3, 4, 5

Calandra Lark

2.26

 

4.20

   

2

     

3

Short-toed Lark

2.59

 

3.50

   

2

0.9412

   

3, 5

Lesser Short-toed Lark

2.59

 

3.24

   

2

0.9379

   

3, 5, 6

Thekla Lark

2.59

 

3.60

     

0.9380

   

5, 6

Spike-heeled Lark

2.60

 

2.58

     

0.9491

   

7, 8, 9

Skylark

3.20

0.612

3.92

0.900

12

3.5

0.9862

0.0097

16

2

Woodlark

3.20

0.553

4.07

0.730

14

2.5

0.9636

0.0206

13

2

Growth constant from Negev Desert, aridity = 2.05.

References: 1. Boyer (1988). 2.This study. 3. Cramp (1988). 4. Shkedy and Safriel (1992). 5. Yanes and Suarez (1997). 6. Suárez and Manrique (1992). 7. Maclean (1970). 8. Lloyd (1999). 9. Lloyd (1998).

 

Literature cited

Boyer, H. J. 1988. Breeding biology of the Dune Lark. Ostrich 59:30–37.

Cramp, S. 1988. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Lloyd, P. 1998. A study of Namaqua Sandgrouse and other arid zone birds. Dissertation. University of Cape Town.

Lloyd, P. 1999. Rainfall as a breeding stimulus and clutch size determinant in South African arid-zone birds. Ibis 141:637–643.

Maclean, G. L. 1970. Breeding behaviour of larks in the Kalahari sandveld. Ann Nata Mus 20:381–401.

Shkedy, Y., and U. N. Safriel. 1992. Nest predation and nestling growth rate of two lark species in the Negev Desert, Israel. Ibis 134:268–272.

Suárez, F., and J. Manrique. 1992. Low breeding success in Mediterranean shrubsteppe passerines: Thekla Lark Galerida thekla, Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella rufescens, and Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica. Ornis Scandinavica 23:24–28.

Tieleman, B. I., J. B. Williams, and P. Bloomer. 2003. Adaptation of metabolism and evaporative water loss along an aridity gradient. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Series B 270:207–214.

Yanes, M., and F. Suárez. 1997. Nest predation and reproductive traits in small passerines: a comparative approach. Acta Oecologica 18:413–426.



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