Ecological Archives E087-062-A1

Mark I. McCormick. 2006. Mothers matter: crowding leads to stressed mothers and smaller offspring in marine fish. Ecology 87:1104–1109.

Appendix A. Results of statistical analyses.

TABLE A1. (A) Comparison of the mean levels of total aggression displayed by breeding females on experimental patch reefs and dominant females in social groups on the main reef. Data were log10(x+1)-transformed. (B) Tukey’s hsd means comparisons showing the nature of significant difference found by ANOVA.

A) Sources of variation

df

MS

F

P

Treatment

4

2.983

31.441

<0.0001

Error

34

0.095

   
         

B)

1 Female

3 Females

6 Females

Main reef

No Females

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

1 Female

 

0.9546

0.4185

0.8030

3 Females

   

0.7545

0.2257

6 Females

     

0.0131

 

TABLE A2. Comparison of the mean levels of total aggression displayed by males on experimental patch reefs and nest guarding males on the main reef. Data were log10(x+1)-transformed.

Sources of variation

df

MS

F

P

Treatment

4

0.504

2.437

0.068

Error

31

0.207

   

 

TABLE A3. (A) Comparison of the mean standard length of Pomacentrus amboinensis larvae at hatching produced by breeding pairs on patch reefs exposed to 0, 1, 3, or 6 additional females and produced by females in social groups on the main reef.  (B) Tukey’s hsd means comparisons showing the nature of significant difference found by ANOVA.

A) Sources of variation

df

MS

F

P

Treatment

4

0.126

31.61

<0.0001

Error

26

0.004

   
         

B)

1 Female

3 Females

6 Females

Main reef

No Females

0.0399

0.0004

0.0001

0.0001

1 Female

 

0.3301

0.0004

0.0001

3 Females

   

0.0329

0.0009

6 Females

     

0.7652

 

TABLE A4. Comparison of the mean yolk-sac size of Pomacentrus amboinensis larvae at hatching produced by breeding pairs on patch reefs exposed to 0, 1, 3, or 6 additional females, and produced by females in social groups on the main reef.

Sources of variation

df

MS

F

P

Treatment

4

0.126

31.61

<0.0001

Error

26

0.004

   

 

TABLE A5. Comparison of the mean number of eggs produced (per 30 d) by female Pomacentrus amboinensis on patch reefs exposed to 0, 1, 3, or 6 additional females. Note: nest from the main reef were not compared because more than one female was likely to have contributed to the nests, making comparison invalid.

Sources of variation

df

MS

F

P

Treatment

3

5.8826E+07

1.098

0.377

Error

17

5.3566E+07

   

 

TABLE A6. (A) Comparison of the mean ovarian cortisol levels (ng/g) of Pomacentrus amboinensis females on patch reefs exposed to 0, 1, 3, or 6 additional females and dominant females in social groups on the main reef. (B) Tukey’s hsd means comparisons showing the nature of significant difference found by ANOVA.

A) Sources of variation

df

MS

F

P

Treatment

4

3525.24

5.524

0.0009

Error

50

638.15

   
         

B)

1 Female

3 Females

6 Females

Main reef

No Females

0.7756

0.4724

0.0002

0.1065

1 Female

 

0.9796

0.0017

0.7310

3 Females

   

0.0108

0.9847

6 Females

     

0.0108



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