Ecological Archives E088-014-A5

C. L. Burcher, H. M. Valett, and E. F. Benfield. 2007. The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water. Ecology 88:228–242.

Appendix E. Standardized direct, indirect, and total effects of land-cover on each biotic response.

TABLE E1. Standardized direct, indirect, and total effects of land-cover on each biotic response. Direct effects reflect bivariate relationships whereas indirect effects calculate the influence of land-cover on biota through one or more intermediate links.

 

Effects

 

Direct

Indirect

Total

Fish taxa richness

     

Agriculture in 100-m corridor

-0.239

0

-0.239

 Storflow TSS % inorganic matter

0

-0.959

-0.959

Fish total density

     

Agriculture in 60-min TTZs

0

-0.439

-0.439

Urban land-cover in 60-min TTZs

0

-0.277

-0.277

 Baseflow TSS % inorganic matter

-0.690

0

-0.690

Bank height 1

0.662

0

-0.662

Cosmopolitan fish density

     

Agriculture in 60-min TTZs

0

-0.420

-0.420

Agriculture in whole watersheds

0

0.058

0.058

Bank height 1

0.688

0

0.688

Baseflow TSS % inorganic matter

-0.660

0

-0.660

Fish non-guarder density

     

Agriculture in 60-min TTZs

0

0.304

0.304

Change to incision ratio

0

-0.437

-0.437

Substrate % organic matter

0.642

0

0.642

Fish nest associate density

     

Agriculture in whole watersheds

0

0.381

0.381

Baseflow TSS % inorganic matter

0.936

0

0.936

Fish herbivore density

     

Urban land-cover in 120-min TTZs

0

0.107

0.107

Rating curve slope

0

0.264

0.264

Width to depth Ratio

0

0.466

0.466

Substrate % fines

-0.697

0

-0.697

Macroinvertebrate taxa richness

     

Agriculture in 60-min TTZs

0

0.292

0.292

Bank height 1

0

0.460

0.460

Cosmopolitan fish density

-0.700

0

-0.700

Macroinvertebrate total density

     

Agriculture in 120-min TTZs

0

0.138

0.138

Urban land-cover in 120-min TTZs

0

-.073

-.073

Rating curve slope

0

0.109

0.109

Width to depth ratio

0

0.171

0.171

Substrate % fines

-0.607

0

-0.607

Substrate D50

0.186

0

0.186

Shredder density

     

Agriculture in 60-min TTZs

0

0.328

0.328

Incision ratio change

0

-0.471

-0.471

Substrate % OM

0.691

0

0.691

Scraper density

     

Forest cover in 60-min TTZs

0

-0.299

-0.299

Urban land-cover in 120-min TTZs

0

-.350

-0.350

Incision ratio change

0

0.412

0.412

Substrate % OM

0.681

0

0.681

Collector-filterer density

     

Agriculture in 120-min TTZs

0

-0.277

-0.277

Urban land-cover in 120-min TTZs

0

0.188

0.188

Rating durve slope

0

0.233

0.233

Width to depth ratio

0

0.415

0.415

Substrate D50

0.648

0

0.648

Collector-gatherer density

     

Urban land-cover in 120-min TTZs

0

0.450

0.450

Width to depth ratio

0

0.558

0.558

Substrate % fines

-0.834

0

-0.834

Midge density

     

Agriculture in 60-min TTZs

0

-0.147

-0.147

Baseflow discharge

-0.556

0

-0.556

Bank height 1

-0.231

0

-0.231

Fish nest associates

-0.661

0

-0.661



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