Ecological Archives E088-037-A2

Graciela García-Guzmán and Eduardo Morales. 2007. Life history strategies of plant pathogens: distribution patterns and phylogenetic analysis. Ecology 88:589–596.

Appendix B. List of host plant species affected by (A) smut and rust diseases and (B) studies involving plant pathogens in Neotropical forests.

(A) Host plant species affected by smut and rust diseases

Host plant species

Plant Family

Plant life form

Plant distribution

Pathogen species

References

Flower Rust

Faramea occidentalis

Rubiaceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-evergreen rain forest

Aecidium farameae

Travers et al. 1998

Flower smut

Aegopogon cenchroides

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas, deciduous forest

Ustilago aegopogonis

Duran 1970; Espinosa-García and Sarukhán 1997

Andropogon bicornis

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Open areas

Sporisorium bicornis

Piepenbring 2002

Andropogon bicornis

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Open areas

Sporisorium holway

Piepenbring 2001

Andropogon gerardi

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Deciduous forest

Sphacelotheca andropogonis

Durán 1987

Artistida ternipes

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas, cloud forest

Ustilago aristidarius

Durán 1987

Bouteloua curtipendula

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Deciduous forest

Ustilago buchloës

Durán 1987

Bouteloua filiformis

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas

Ustilago neglecta

Durán 1987

Carex aztecica

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Disturbed areas, humid forests

Farysia chardoniana

Durán 1987

Carex chordalis

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines / Dense shade areas

Farysia corniculata

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Carex polystachya

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Disturbed areas

Farysia chardoniana

Piepenbring 2002

Cissus quadrialata

Vitaceae

Deciduous vine

Disturbed areas

Mycosyrinx cissi

Piepenbring 2002

Cissus sicyoides

Vitaceae

Deciduous vine

Disturbed areas

Mycosyrinx cissi

Mordue 1988; Piepenbring 1996, Durán 1987; Sánchez 1984

Cynodon dactylon

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas, deciduous forest

Ustilago cynodonthis

G. García-Guzmán, Unpublished data; Espinosa-García and Sarukhán 1997

Cyperus ferax

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Cintractia limitata

Piepenbring 2002

Cyperus ligularis

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Cintractia limitata

Piepenbring 2001

Cyperus ligularis

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Sand dunes

Cintractia montagnei

Durán 1987

Cyperus rotundus

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Disturbed areas, Evergreen forest

Cintractia limitata

Piepenbring 1996

Digitaria sanguinalis

Poaceae

Annual grass

Disturbed areas, deciduous forest

Ustilago syntherismae

Durán 1970

Fimbristylis dichotoma

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines, deciduous forest

Cintractia clintonii

Durán 1987

Fimbristylis dichotoma

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Cintractia axicola

Piepenbring 2001, 2002, 1996

Hackelochloa granularis

Poaceae

Annual grass

Disturbed areas, deciduous forests

Sporisorium reilianum

Durán 1987

Hilaria belangeri

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas, deciduous forest

Ustilago aegopogonis

Durán 1970

Iresine diffusa

Amaranthaceae

Deciduous vine

Disturbed areas , deciduous forest

Thecaphora haumani

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Ixophorus unisetus

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed area, deciduous forest

Tilletia ixophori

Durán 1987

Ixophorus unisetus

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed area, deciduous forest

Ustilago ixophori

Durán 1987

Lycurus phleoides

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Shoreline, deciduous forest

Tilletia macrotuberculata

Durán 1987

Melampodium divaricatum

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas, humid forests

Thecaphora hennenea

Durán 1987

Oryza sativa

Poaceae

Annual grass

Shorelines

Tilletia barclayana

Piepenbring 2001

Panicum maximum

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas

Tilletia ayresii

Piepenbring 2001, 2002

Panicum viscidellum

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas, cloud forest

Sphacelotheca veracruziana

Durán 1987

Paspalum virgatum

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed area, semi-deciduous forest

Ustilago schroeteriana

Durán 1987 , Piepenbring 2001

Polygonum hispidum

Polygonaceae

Annual herb

Aquatic

Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Polygonum hydropiperoides

Polygonaceae

Perennial herb

Disturbed areas

Microbotryum tenuisporum

Piepenbring 2002

Polygonum punctatum

Polygonaceae

Annual herb

Open areas, wet soils

Sphacelotheca cf. hydropiperis

Piepenbring 2001; Espinosa-García and Sarukhán1997

Rhynchospora aurea

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Cintractia leucoderma

Durán 1987

Rhynchospora barbata

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Grasslands

Cintractia amazonica

Piepenbring 2002

Rhynchospora cephalotes

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Evergreen rain forest borders and gaps

Moreaua rhynchosporae-cephalotis

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Rhynchospora corymbosa

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Trichocintractia utriculicola

Piepenbring 2001

Rhynchospora corymbosa

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Open areas

Leucocintractia scleriae

Piepenbring 2001

Rhynchospora corymbosa

Cyperaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas

Testicularia minor

Piepenbring 2002

Rhynchospora corymbosa

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Open areas, moist forest

Cintractia scleriae

Piepenbring 1996

Rhynchospora holoschoenoides

Cyperaceae

Perennial marshy sedge

Swamps

Cintractia leucoderma

Piepenbring 1996

Rhynchospora tenuis

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Grasslands

Cintractia taubertiana

Durán 1970, 1987

Scleria melaleuca

 

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Aurantiosporium subnitens

Piepenbring 2001

Scleria melaleuca

Cyperaceae

Perennial sedge

Shorelines

Aurantiosporium subnitens

Piepenbring 2002, 2003

Stenotaphrum secundatum

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Sand dunes

Ustilago affinis

López and García 2002

Stipa setigera

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Open areas

Ustilago hypodytes

Piepenbring 2001

Urochloa fasciculata

Poaceae

Annual grass

Disturbed open areas

Sporisorium ovapium

Piepenbring 2001

Leaf / stem smut

Acmella oppositifolia var. oppositifolia

Asteraceae

Perennial herb

Wetlands

Entyloma spilanthis

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Acmella papposa var. macrophylla

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas

Entyloma ecuadorense

Piepenbring 2001

Baltimora recta

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Secondary and deciduous forest

Thecophora neo-mexicana

Durán 1987

Baltimora recta

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Secondary and deciduous forest

Thecaphora pulcherrima

Durán 1970, 1987

Bidens pilosa

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas, cloud forest

Entyloma bidentis

Piepenbring 1996

Bidens pilosa

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas

Thecaphora pustulata

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Browallia americana

Solanaceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas

Entyloma browalliae

Piepenbring 2002

Cosmos sulphureus

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Deciduous forest

Entyloma calendulae

Durán 1987; Gilman and Howe 1999

Dahlia pinnata

Asteraceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas

Entyloma dahliae

Piepenbring 2002; Sánchez 1984

Diastatea micrantha

Campanulaceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas

Entyloma diastatea

Piepenbring 1996, 2003; Espinosa-García and Sarukhán 1997

Galinsoga caracasana

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas

Entyloma galinsogae

Piepenbring 2002

Galinsoga parviflora var. híspida

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Open areas, deciduous forest

Entyloma galinsogae

Durán 1987; Calderón and Rzedowski, 2001

Gynerium argenteum

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas

Eballistra lineata

Piepenbring 2002

Holcus lanatus

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Disturbed areas

Ustilago striiformis

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Limnocharis flava

Butomaceae

Perennial herb

Wet or inundated areas

Doassansiopsis limnocharidis

Piepenbring 1996, 2001, 2003

Nymphaea ampla

Nymphaeaceae

Perennial herb

Aquatic, deciduous forest

Rhamphospora nymphaeae

Piepenbring 1996

Oryza sativa

Poaceae

Annual grass

Shorelines

Ebailistra oryzae

Piepenbring 2001; Davidse et al. 1994

Physalis cordata

Solanaceae

Annual herb

Cloud forest

Entyloma australe

Piepenbring 1996

Polymnia riparia

Asteraceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas

Thecaphora polymniae

Piepenbring 2002

Ranunculus geranioides

Ranunculaceae

Perennial herb

Very wet open places

Entyloma microsporum

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Ranunculus pilosus

Ranunculaceae

Perennial herb

Very wet open places

Urocystis ranunculi

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Ranunculus pilosus

Ranunculaceae

Perennial herb

Very wet open places

Entyloma microsporum

Piepenbring 1996

Setaria paniculifera

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Shorelines

Tilletia ayresii

Piepenbring 2001

Smallanthus quichensis

Asteraceae

Perennial herb

Disturbed areas

Thecaphora smallanthi

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Tithonia rotundifolia

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas

Entyloma compositarum

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Trachypogon secundus

Poaceae

Perennial grass

Open areas, deciduous forest

Tolypoporella puccinioides

Durán 1987;

Root smut

Juncus tenuis

Juncaceae

Perennial rush

Disturbed areas, shorelines

Entorrhiza casparyana

Piepenbring 1996, 2003

Rust

Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrinae

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Ravenelia mineirosensis

Rezende and Dianese 2001; Arantes 2003

Annona cherimola

Annonaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Deciduous upland forest

Phakospora cherimoliae

Cummins 1941; Popenoe 1974

Annona monticola

Annonaceae

Deciduous shrub

Open areas, Cerrado

Uredo sp.

Dianese et al. 1997; de Mendonça et al. 2004

Annona tomentosa

Annonaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Batistopsora crucis-filii

Dianese et al. 1997; de Mendonça et al. 2004

Bauhinia acuruana var. nitida

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Uromyces foveolatus

Rezendeand Dianese 2003; Álvares and Scariot, 2004

Bauhinia curvula

Fabaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Uromycesfloralis

Rezendeand Dianese 2003; de Mendonça et al. 2004

Bauhinia dumosa var. viscidula

Fabaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Uromyces goyazensis

Rezendeand Dianese 2003; Paganucii, 2002

Bauhinia forficata

Fabaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Disturbed areas

Uromyces viegasii

Rezendeand Dianese 2003; Nascimento et al. 1999

Bauhinia heterophylla

Fabaceae

Evergreen shrub

Moist savanna

Scopella bauhiniicola

Cummins 1940

Bauhinia holophylla

Fabaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Uromyces bauhiniae

Rezendeand Dianese 2003; Rondon et al. 2003

Chamaecrista claussenii var. cyclophylla

Fabaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Ravenelia cerradensis

Rezende and Dianese 2001;

Chamaecrista decumbens

Fabaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Ravenelia chapadensis

Rezende and Dianese 2001

Cissus sicyoides

Vitaceae

Deciduous vine

Disturbed areas

Endophyllumcircumscriptum

Buriticá and Hennen 1980; Sánchez 1984

Clethra macrophylla

Clethraceae

Evergreen tree

Cloud forest

Puccinia hiascens

López and García 2001; Stephen et al. 2001

Clibadium arboreum

Asteraceae

Deciduous tree

Semideciduous forest

Endophyllum decoloratum

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Coffea arabica

Rubiaceae

Evergreen tree

Deciduous forest

Hemileia vastatrix

López and García 2002; Watson and Dallwitz 1992

Cordia ferruginea

Boraginaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas, deciduous forest

Alveolaria cordiae

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Croton ciliatoglandulifer

Euphorbiaceae

Deciduous shrub

Deciduous forest

Baeodromus dominicana

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Dalbergia miscolobium

Fabaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Cerrado

Mimema venturae

Dianese et al. 1997; Franco 2002

Duguetia furfuracea

Annonaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Dietelia duguetiae

Buriticá and Hennen 1980; de Abreu 2002

Enterolobium cyclocarpum

Fabaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Disturbed areas, humid tropical and pre-montane forests

Ravenelia havanensis

Arthur 1921; Berndt, 2002; Penninton and Sarukhán 1998

Erythroxylon havanense

Erythroxylaceae

Deciduous shrub

Deciduous forest

Bubakia erythroxylonis

Cummins 1940; Domínguez and Ávila-Sakar 2002

Eugenia dysenterica

Myrtaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Puccinia psidii

Dianese et al. 1997; Arantes 2002

Eupatorium morifolium

Asteraceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas

Cionothrix basicrassa

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Eupatorium odoratum

Asteraceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas

Cionothrix praelonga

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Galactia peduncularis

Fabaceae

Perennial herb

Disturbed areas , Cerrado

Uromyces galactiae

Rezende and Dianese 2003

Heliocarpus donnellsmithii

Tiliaceae

Deciduous tree

Disturbed areas, Cloud forest

Pucciniosira pallidula

López and García 2002; Pennington and Sarukhán 1998

Hymenaea stigonocarpa

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Crossopsora hymenaeae

Dianese et al. 1997

Hyptis spicata

Lamiaceae

Perennial herb

Disturbed areas

Puccinia amphiospora

Cummins 1937

Jatropha canescens

Euphorbiaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Deciduous Forest

Phakopsora jatrophicola

Cummins 1937

Lantana camara

Verbenaceae

Evergreen shrub

Disturbed areas , evergreen rainforest

Prospodium tuberculatum

Day et al. 2003; Weber, 2003

Lonchocarpus nicou

Fabaceae

Evergreen shrub

Evergreen rain forest

Dicheirinia guianensis

Cummins 1937

Lucuma caimito

Sapotaceae

Evergreen tree

Evergreen rain forest

Scopella bauhiniicola

Cummins 1940; Popenoe 1974

Malva neglecta

Malvaceae

Annual / biennial herb

Disturbed areas, Deciduous forest

Puccinia malvacearum

López and García 2002; Uva et al. 1997

Mikania cordifolia

Asteraceae

Annual climbing herb

Disturbed areas

Dietelia portoricencis

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Mimosa ceratonia

Fabaceae

Evergreen shrub

Disturbed areas Evergreen rain forest

Lipocystis caesalpiniae

Cummins 1937

Nectandra rigida

Lauraceae

Evergreen tree

Evergreen rain forest

Dicheirinia solenioides

Cummins 1940

Oxalis corniculata

Poaceae

Annual herb

Disturbed areas , Cloud forest

Puccinia oxalidis

López and García 2002; Espinosa-García and Sarukhán 1997

Parthenium hysterophorus

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Cloud forest

Puccinia abrupta var. Partheniicola

López and García 2001

Pelargonium hortorum

Geraniaceae

Evergreen shrub

Disturbed areas Cloud forest

Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis

López and García 2002

Piper hispidum

Piperaceae

Evergreen shrub

Evergreen rain forest edges

Uredo piperinum

Berndt, 2002

Pithecellobium longifolium

Fabaceae

Evergreen tree

Riverbank, Evergreen rain forest

Uraecium guanacastensis

Berndt, 2002; Holdridge and Poveda, 1975

Prunus persica

Rosaceae

Deciduous tree

Cloud forest

Tranzchelia discolor

López and García 2002

Pteridium aquilinum

Dennstaedtiaceae

Fern

Cloud forest

Urediniopsis pteridis

López and García 2002

Roupala veraguensis

Proteaceae

Evergreen tree

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Uredo roupalae

Cummins 1937; Franco, 2002

Smilax spinosa

Smilacaceae

Deciduous vine

Disturbed areas

Puccinia poikilospora

Cummins 1940

Stachytarpheta cayennensis

Verbenaceae

Perennial herb

Disturbed areas

Endophyllum stachytarphetae

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Stryphnodendron coriaceum

Fabaceae

Evergreen tree

Disturbed areas Evergreen rainforest

Uredo stryphnodendri

Berndt, 2002

Tabebuia ochracea

Bignoniaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Prosopodium tecomicola

Dianese et al. 1997

Tabebuia rufescens

Bignoniaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Prosopodium palmatum

Dianese et al. 1997; Stephen et al. 2001

Tabebuia serratifolia

Bignoniaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Prosopodium tecomicola

Dianese et al. 1997; Arantes 2002

Tabebuia stans

Bignoniaceae

Semi deciduous tree

Disturbed areas, Cerrado

Prosopodium appendiculatum

Dianese et al. 1997

Tocoyena guianensis

Rubiaceae

Evergreen tree

Evergreen rain forest

Phakopsora melaena

Berndt, 2002; Belbenoit et al. 2001

Trifolium sp .

Fabaceae

Perennial herb

Cloud forest

Uromyces trifolli-repentis

López and García 2002

Triumfetta dumetorum

Tiliaceae

Deciduous shrub

Disturbed areas

Pucciniosira pallidula

Buriticá and Hennen 1980

Vernonia canescens

Asteraceae

Evergreen shrub

Evergreen rain forest

Puccinia arthuriana

León-Gallegos and Cummins 1979

Vernonia ctenophora

Asteraceae

Perennial herb

Evergreen rain forest

Puccinia arthuriana var. tabascana

León-Gallegos and Cummins 1979

Vernonia tortuosa

Asteraceae

Perennial herb

Cloud forest

Puccinia erratica

López and García 2001

Xanthium occidentale

Asteraceae

Annual herb

Shorelines

Puccinia xanthii

Cummins 1937

(B) Studies involving plant pathogens in Neotropical forests

Host plant species

Plant Family

Plant life form

Plant distribution

Reference

Canker

Nectandra ambigens

Lauraceae

Evergreen tree

Tropical rain forest

G. García-Guzmán (unpublished data)

Nectandra sp.

Lauraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Gilbert et al. 1994

Ocotea whitei

Lauraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Gilbert et al. 1994, 2001

Phoebe cinnamomifolia

Lauraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Gilbert et al. 1994

Tetragastris panamensis

Burseraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Gilbert and De Steven 1996

Damping-off

Anacardium excelsum

Anacardiaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Davidson et al. 2000

Aspidosperma cruenta

Apocynaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Cavanillesia platanifolia

Bombacaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Ceiba pentandra

Bombacaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Dipterix panamensis

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Evergreen tropical rain forest

Clark and Clark 1984

Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Platypodium elegance

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1983,1984

Tabebuia rosea

Bignoniaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Tachigalia versicolor

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Kitajima and Augspurger 1989

Terminalia oblonga

Combretaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Tetragastris panamensis

Burseraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Davidson et al. 2000

Triplaris cumingiana

Polygonaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Augspurger 1984

Flower Disease

Moussonia deppeana

Gesneriaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cloud forest remnant

Lara and Ornelas 2003

Leaf Disease

Alseis blackiana

Rubiaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Anacardium excelsum

Anacardiaceae

Deciduous tree

Deciduous tropical forest

Gilbert 1995

Annona spraguei

Annonaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Deciduous tropical forest

Gilbert 1995

Antirrhoea trichantha

Rubiaceae

Deciduous tree

Deciduous tropical forest

Gilbert 1995

Aspidosperma tomentosum

Apocynaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Avicennia germinans

Verbenaceae

Evergreen tree

Caribbean mangrove forest

Gilbert et al. 2002

Banisteriopsis campestris

Malpighiaceae

Deciduous vine

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Barjonia erecta

Asclepiadaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Borreira sp.

Rubiaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Byrsonima coccolobifolia

Malpighiaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Byrsonima crassa

Malpighiaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Byrsonima verbascifolia

Malpighiaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Castilla elastica

Moraceae

Deciduous tree

Deciduous tropical forest

Gilbert 1995

Chomelia ribesioides

Rubiaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Chrysophyllum pomiferum

Sapotaceae

Evergreen tree

Evergreen rain forest

Benítez-Malvido et al. 1999

Corton goyazensis

Euphorbiaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Dalechampia caperonioides

Euphorbiaceae

Perennial herb

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Erythroxylum campestre

Erythroxylaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Erythroxylum deciduum

Erythroxylaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Erythroxylum suberosum

Erythroxylaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Erythroxylum tortuosum

Erythroxylaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Hirtella americana

Chrysobalanaceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Hirtella triandra

Chrysobalanaceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Hyptis saxatilis

Lamiaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Kielmeyera coriacea

Clusiaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Kielmeyera variabilis

Clusiaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Laguncularia racemosa

Combretaceae

Evergreen tree

Caribbean mangrove forest

Gilbert and Mejía-Chang 2001

Luehea seemannii

Tiliaceae

Deciduous tree

Deciduous tropical forest

Gilbert 1995

Manihot sp.

Euphorbiaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Maprounea guianensis

Euphorbiaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Micropholis venulosa

Sapotaceae

Evergreen tree

Evergreen rain forest

Benítez-Malvido et al. 1999

Palicourea rigida

Rubiaceae

Semi-deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Pavonia rosa-campestris

Malvaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Peixotoa goyana

Malpighiaceae

Deciduous shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Pouteria caimito

Sapotaceae

Evergreen tree

Evergreen rain forest

Benítez-Malvido et al. 1999

Prioria copaifera

Fabaceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Protium panamense

Burseraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Protium tenuifolium

Burseraceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Qualea grandiflora

Vochysiaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Qualea paviflora

Vochysiaceae

Deciduous tree

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Quararibea asterolepis

Bombacaceae

Evergreen tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Rhizophora mangle

Rhizophoraceae

Evergreen tree

Caribbean mangrove forest

Gilbert et al. 2002

Sabiceae brasiliensis

Rubiaceae

Evergreen shrub

Cerrado

Marquis et al. 2001

Tachigalia versicolor

Fabaceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

Tetragastris panamensis

Burseraceae

Deciduous tree

Semi-deciduous lowland tropical forest

Barone 1998

 

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