Ecological Archives E088-170-A2

Evan L. Preisser, John L. Orrock, and Oswald J. Schmitz. 2007. Predator hunting mode and habitat domain alter nonconsumptive effects in predator–prey interactions. Ecology 88:2744–2751.

Appendix B. A figure showing meta-analysis results calculated using the Hedges' d effect size metric.

   FIG. B1. Results of a meta-analysis examining the effect of predator hunting mode and predator habitat domain on the strength of non-consumptive effects for a variety of prey response metrices. Effect size is measured in terms of Hedges’ d, which measures the effect of an experimental treatment relative to a control and is standardized by a pooled standard error. Mean effect sizes were generated using a random-effects model, and a bootstrapping routine was used to generate the accompanying 95% confidence intervals. Numbers in parentheses at the base of each bar represent the number of published papers (regular text) and the number of independent experiments (bold text) contributing to a given mean. ND = insufficient data (fewer than five independent experiments). For initial values, * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.005. For adjusted values, § = significant at α = 0.05 after step-up FDR Bonferroni-type correction (Benjamini and Hochberg 1995).


Benjamini, Y., and Y. Hochberg. 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 57:289–300.

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