Ecological Archives E089-027-A3

Thomas J. Valone and Nicholas A. Barber. Year. An empirical evaluation of the insurance hypothesis in diversity–stability models. Ecology VOL: pp-pp.

Appendix C. Breeding Bird Survey species pairs analyzed. Number in parentheses indicates the number of routes examined.

Woodpeckers and Starling – Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) with: Nuttall’s Woodpecker (Picoides nuttallii) (5), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) (4), European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) (7), Ladder-backed Woodpecker (Picoides scalaris) (2) and Gila Woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygialis) (1); Nuttall’s Woodpecker (Picoides nuttallii) with: Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) (3) and European Starling (5); Northern Flicker with European Starling (4); Ladder-backed Woodpecker with Gila Woodpecker (1).  

Kingbirds – Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) and Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) (10)

Flycatchers – Eastern Wood-pewee (Contopus virens) with: Acadian Flycatcher (Empidodax virescens) (6), Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) (5); Acadian Flycatcher with Eastern Phoebe (5) 

Chickadees – Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) with: Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Poecile rufescens)(4), Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli) (2); Chestnut-backed Chickadee with Mountain Chickadee (1)

Kinglets – Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa) with Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) (5)

MacArthur’s warblers – Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) with: Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata) (7), Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) (3), Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) (5); Yellow-rumped Warbler with: Black-throated Green Warbler (4), Blackburnian Warbler (5); Black-throated Green Warbler with Blackburnian Warbler(4).

Understory warblers – Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia) with Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) (1),  Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) (4), Louisiana Waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla) (1), Kentucky Warbler (Oporonis formosus) (5), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) (3); Wilson’s Warbler with: Ovenbird (2), Louisiana Waterthursh (1), Kentucky Warbler (2), Hooded Warbler (2); Ovenbird with: Louisiana Waterthrush (1), Kentucky Warbler (8), Hooded Warbler (7); Louisiana Waterthrush with: Kentucky Warbler (1), Hooded Warbler (1); Kentucky Warbler with Hooded Warbler (8).

Icterids – Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) with Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) (5)

Cavity Nesters –  Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) with Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) (3), Carolina Wren (Thryothrus ludovicianus) (2), Eastern Bluebird (Siala sialis) (2), European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) (2), House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) (2); Tufted Titmouse with: Carolina Wren (3), Eastern Bluebird (4), European Starling (8), House Sparrow (8), Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) (5), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) (5); Carolina Wren with: Eastern Bluebird (2), European Starling (3), House Sparrow (3), Black-capped Chickadee (1), House Wren (1); Eastern Bluebird with: European Starling (4), House Sparrow (4), Black-capped Chickadee (1), House Wren (1); European Starling with: House Sparrow (8), Black-capped Chickadee (5), House Wren (4); House Sparrow with: Black-capped Chickadee (5), House Wren (4); Black-capped Chickadee with House Wren (4).

 Western foliage gleaners –  Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus) with Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata)(4), Grace’s Warbler (Dendroica graciae) (4); Yellow-rumped Warbler with Grace’s Warbler (2).

Flycatchers/redstart – Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) with American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) (11)

Nuthatch/warbler – Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) with Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus) (5)



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