Ecological Archives E090-038-A1

Karim Al-Khafaji, Shripad Tuljapurkar, James R. Carey, and Robert E. Page, Jr. 2009. Hierarchical demography: a general approach with an application to honey bees. Ecology 90:556–566.

Appendix A. Available literature estimates of model parameters.

TABLE A1. Worker production estimates for Apis mellifera.

Worker production, b  

Subspecies or race

Region

Notes

Reference 

806–1295

   

inbred line

Brian (1965) 

1000

   

maximal rate

McLellan et al. (1980)

1272–1428

   

hybrids of inbred lines

Brian (1965) 

1500

   

maximal rate

McLellan et al. (1980)

1625

   

maximal rate

McLellan et al. (1980)

1700

   

maximal rate

McLellan et al. (1980)

1900

   

maximal rate

McLellan et al. (1980)

2000

   

approximate

Brian (1983)

2000

   

21-day mean

Brian (1965)

3000

   

maximal rate

Brian (1965) 

   Note: All values reported are egg laying rates (per day). Blank cells indicate that information was not provided by reference.

 

TABLE A2. Worker life span estimates for Apis mellifera.

Worker life span, 1/µ  

Subspecies or race

Region

Notes

Reference 

12-18

 

Tropical

dearth period

Winston (1987)

12.1

Africanized

French Guiana

first adults

Winston et al. (1981)

18

Africanized

French Guiana

subsequent adults

Winston et al. (1981)

20-25

 

Tropical

flowering period

Winston (1987)

24.3

adansonii

Brasil

winter

Brian (1983)

26.3

adansonii

Brasil

summer

Brian (1983)

28

   

June

Brian (1983)

30

   

summer

McLellan et al. (1980)

30.1

   

early foragers

Brian (1965)

32

European

Kansas

first adults

Winston et al. (1981)

35

European

Kansas

subsequent adults

Winston et al. (1981)

35

   

March

Brian (1983)

37.1

   

late foragers

Brian (1965)

   Note: Values in days. Blank cells indicate that information was not provided by reference.

 

TABLE A3. Swarming fraction estimates for Apis mellifera.

Swarming fraction, g  

Subspecies or race

Region

Notes

Reference 

0.6

European

Temperate

lower bound

Winston (1987)

0.6

adansonii

South America

 

Brian (1983)

0.66

   

colonies >10,000  workers

Brian (1965)

0.67

     

Seeley (1985)

0.79

Africanized

French Guiana

calculated from

Winston et al. (1981)

0.8

   

colonies <10,000  workers

Brian (1965)

0.81

European

Kansas

calculated from

Winston et al. (1981)

   Note: Blank cells indicated that information was not provided by reference.

 

TABLE A4. Additional parameter estimates for Apis mellifera.

Swarming threshold, NS  

Subspecies or race

Region

Notes

Reference 

12,000

Africanized and European

 

queen rearing initiated

Winston (1987)

19,913

European

Kansas

 

Winston et al. (1981)

20,378

Africanized

French Guiana

 

Winston et al. (1981)

Self-sustaining size N*  

       

38,000

   

summer peak

McLellan et al. (1980)

60,000

   

strong colony in June

Brian (1983)

70,000

     

Brian (1965)

Inter-swarm intervals, T1 and T2

       

48.5

Africanized

French Guiana

T2

Otis (1991)

50–70

Africanized and European

 

good conditions, T1 or T2

Winston et al. (1981)

72.4

Africanized

French Guiana

T1 

Otis (1991) 

   Note: Blank cells indicated that information was not provided by reference.

 

LITERATURE CITED

Brian, M. V. 1965. Social insect populations. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Brian, M. V. 1983. Social insects: ecology and behavioural biology. Chapman Hall, New York, New York, USA.

McLellan, A. R., C. M. Rowland, and R. H. Fawcett. 1980. A monogynous eusocial insect worker population model with reference to honey bees. Insectes Sociaux 27:305–311.

Otis, G. W. 1991. Population Biology of the Africanized honey bee, Pages 213–234 in M. Spivak, D. J. C. Fletcher, and M. D. Breed, editors. The “African" Honey Bee. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Seeley, T. D. 1985. Honeybee Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

Winston, M. L. 1987. The biology of the honey bee. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Winston, M. L., J. A. Dropkin, and O. R. Taylor. 1981. Demography and Life-History Characteristics of 2 Honey Bee Races (Apis mellifera). Oecologia 48:407–413.



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