Ecological Archives E090-096-A3

K. M. Holbrook and B. A. Loiselle. 2009. Dispersal in a Neotropical tree, Virola flexuosa (Myristicaceae): Does hunting of large vertebrates limit seed removal? Ecology 90:1449–1455.

Appendix C (Table C1). Fate of fruits and seeds of Virola flexuosa handled by frugivores comprising >1% of foraging visits.

Species

Body mass (g)

N

Swallowed† (%)

Dropped‡ (%)

I.; Ramphastidae (toucans)

       

      Pteroglossus azara

138

5

82

18

      P. inscriptus

126

2

50

50

      P. pluricinctus

225

8

80

20

      Ramphastos tucanus

662

92

85

15

      Ramphastos vitellinus

364

23

77

23

      Selenidera reinwardtii

140

12

46

54

Toucans

 

142

81

19

II. Atelidae (primates)

       

      Alouatta seniculus

3,600–11,100

3

82

18

      Ateles belzebuth

5,900–10,400

14

80

20

      Lagothrix lagotricha

3,600–10,200

5

61

39

Primates

 

22

75

25

III. Other birds

       

Cracidae (guans)

       

      Penelope jacquacu

1280

4

80

20

      Pipile pipile

1200

4

60

40

Momotidae (motmots)

       

      Baryphthengus martii

156

9

60

40

Turdidae (thrushes)

       

      Turdus spp.

65

6

13

87

Other birds  

23

55

45

COMBINED (I-III)  

187

77

23

   Notes: Frugivores that individually represent <1 % of visits are Capito auratus (Capitonidae), Cotinga cayana, Lipaugus vociferans, Querula purpurata (Cotingidae), Piaya cayana (Cuculidae), Trogon spp. (Trogonidae), and Tityra cayana (Tyrannidae); all were observed to drop > 50% of seeds and with body mass < 100g. N = number of observations where direct foraging data were collected. Totals for each group are given in bold. Body masses of birds are from J. G. Blake (unpublished data), K. M. Holbrook (unpublished data); primate body masses are from Emmons (1990).

† Includes seeds swallowed and seeds carried away.

‡ Includes seeds dropped or thrown down during handling and seeds where the aril was removed, but did not drop.

LITERATURE CITED

Emmons, L. H. 1990. Neotropical rainforest mammals: a field guide. Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.


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