Ecological Archives E090-234-A5

Elisabeth Marquard, Alexandra Weigelt, Vicky M. Temperton, Christiane Roscher, Jens Schumacher, Nina Buchmann, Markus Fischer, Wolfgang W. Weisser, and Bernhard Schmid. 2009. Plant species richness and functional composition drive overyielding in a six-year grassland experiment. Ecology 90:3290–3302.

Appendix E. Three tables summarizing the ANOVAs for the net effect from 2003–2007, and for the complementarit effect and selection effect in 2003, 2005–2007, using a statistical model in which functional group composition was fitted prior to species richness (described as model 2 in the Methods section).

Tables E1–E3: Summary of the ANOVA for NE (E1) from 2003–2007, and CE (E2) and SE (E3) in 2003, 2005–2007 (model 2 in "Methods"), using type-I sums of squares. Indented terms show two different sets of orthogonal contrasts for FG composition: (i) linear contrast for FG richness and its deviation from linearity and (ii) contrast for the presence of particular FGs and their interactions. In both cases the sum of contrast terms corresponds to FG composition. For the within plots analysis, the 2- and 3-way interactions of FGs were aggregated into the term residual FG composition. Year was fitted as a 5-level factor for NE and as a 4-level factor for CE and SE. The column % contains the proportions of explained between-plot-variation.

Table E1:

Source

df

SS

MS

%

F

P

Between plots

           

Block

3

1171

390

6

2.82

0.054

Functional group (FG) composition

12

11586

966

57

6.97

<0.001

   FG richness

1

4144

4144

20

29.92

<0.001

   FG composition residuals

11

7443

677

37

4.89

<0.001

   Main effects of presence of particular FGs

4

10435

2609

51

18.84

<0.001

      Presence legumes

1

9042

9042

45

65.28

<0.001

      Presence tall herbs

1

1053

1053

5

7.60

0.009

      Presence small herbs

1

225

225

1

1.62

0.212

      Presence grasses

1

115

115

1

0.83

0.369

   2-way interactions between FGs

6

1075

179

5

1.29

0.287

      Presence legumes × presence tall herbs

1

21.6

21.6

0

0.16

0.695

      Presence legumes × presence small herbs

1

5.5

5.5

0

0.04

0.843

      Presence legumes × presence grasses

1

188.2

188.2

1

1.36

0.252

      Presence tall herbs × presence small herbs

1

166.8

166.8

1

1.20

0.280

      Presence tall herbs × presence grasses

1

72.4

72.4

0

0.52

0.475

      Presence small herbs × presence grasses

1

620.3

620.3

3

4.48

0.042

   3-way interactions between FGs**

2

77

38

0

0.28

0.759

Log (species richness (SR))

1

1877

1877

9

13.55

0.001

FG composition × log (SR)

12

1099

92

5

0.66

0.774

Plot residuals

33

4571

139

23

   
             

Within plots

           

Year

4

1633

408

 

7.69

<0.001

FG composition × Year

48

2318

48

 

0.91

0.640

   FG richness × Year

4

13

3

 

0.06

0.993

   FG composition residuals × Year

44

2304

52

 

0.99

0.505

   Presence of particular FGs × Year

16

1297

81

 

1.53

0.099

      Presence legumes × Year

4

399

100

 

1.88

0.118

      Presence tall herbs × Year

4

623

156

 

2.93

0.023

      Presence small herbs × Year

4

186

46

 

0.87

0.481

      Presence grasses × Year

4

90

22

 

0.42

0.793

   Residual FG composition × Year

32

1021

32

 

0.60

0.953

Log (SR) × Year

4

67

17

 

0.32

0.867

Presence legumes × log (SR) × Year

4

804

201

 

3.79

0.006

Residual log (SR) × Year

44

1420

32

 

0.61

0.971

             

Residuals

139

7378

53

     

 

 

Table E2:

Source

df

SS

MS

%

F

P

Between plots

           

Block

3

456

152

3

1.28

0.298

Functional group (FG) composition

12

7879

657

53

5.53

<0.001

   FG richness

1

4027

4027

27

33.90

<0.001

   FG composition residuals

11

3852

350

26

2.95

0.008

   Main effects of presence of particular FGs

4

6432

1608

44

13.54

<0.001

      Presence legumes

1

5479

5479

37

46.12

<0.001

      Presence tall herbs

1

737

737

5

6.20

0.018

      Presence small herbs

1

48

48

0

0.40

0.529

      Presence grasses

1

168

168

1

1.41

0.243

   2-way interactions between FGs

6

1306

218

9

1.83

0.123

      Presence legumes × tall herbs

1

1

1

0

0.01

0.935

      Presence legumes × small herbs

1

31

31

0

0.26

0.612

      Presence legumes × grasses

1

137

137

1

1.15

0.291

      Presence tall herbs × small herbs

1

734

734

5

6.17

0.018

      Residual 2-way interactions between FGs*

2

404

202

3

1.70

0.198

   3-way interactions between FGs**

2

141

70

1

0.59

0.558

Log (species richness (SR))

1

981

981

7

8.26

0.007

FG composition × log (SR)

12

1534

128

10

1.08

0.410

Plot residuals

33

3921

119

27

   
             

Within plots

           

Year

3

3954

1318

 

16.46

<0.001

FG composition × Year

36

2998

83

 

1.04

0.426

   FG richness × Year

3

193

64

 

0.80

0.495

   FG composition residuals × Year

33

2805

85

 

1.06

0.398

   Presence of particular FGs × Year

12

1359

113

 

1.41

0.172

      Presence legumes × Year

3

352

117

 

1.46

0.229

      Presence tall herbs × Year

3

8

3

 

0.03

0.992

      Presence small herbs × Year

3

361

120

 

1.50

0.218

      Presence grasses × Year

3

638

213

 

2.66

0.052

   Residual FG composition × Year

24

1640

68

 

0.85

0.663

Log (SR) × Year

3

14

5

 

0.06

0.981

FG composition × log (SR) × Year

36

2043

57

 

0.71

0.880

             

Residuals

103

8250

80

     

 

 

Table E3:

Source

df

SS

MS

%

F

P

Between plots

           

Block

3

187

62

2

0.27

0.849

Functional group (FG) composition

12

3059

255

25

1.09

0.402

   FG richness

1

35

35

0

0.15

0.703

   FG composition residuals

11

3025

275

25

1.17

0.342

   Main effects of presence of particular FGs

4

1228

307

10

1.31

0.287

      Presence legumes

1

887

887

7

3.78

0.060

      Presence tall herbs

1

8

8

0

0.03

0.859

      Presence small herbs

1

275

275

2

1.17

0.286

      Presence grasses

1

58

58

0

0.25

0.622

   2-way interactions between FGs

6

1449

242

12

1.03

0.424

      Presence legumes × tall herbs

1

30

30

0

0.13

0.722

      Presence legumes × small herbs

1

3

3

0

0.01

0.908

      Presence legumes × grasses

1

67

67

1

0.29

0.597

      Presence tall herbs × small herbs

1

1274

1274

11

5.43

0.026

      Residual 2-way interactions between FGs*

2

75

38

1

0.16

0.852

   3-way interactions between FGs**

2

382

191

3

0.82

0.451

Log (species richness (SR))

1

149

149

1

0.63

0.431

FG composition × log (SR)

12

944

79

8

0.34

0.976

Plot residuals

33

7737

235

64

   
             

Within plots

           

Year

3

2868

956

 

7.82

<0.001

FG composition × Year

36

6778

188

 

1.54

0.048

   FG richness × Year

3

389

130

 

1.06

0.369

   FG composition residuals × Year

33

6389

194

 

1.58

0.042

   Presence of particular FGs × Year

12

2447

204

 

1.67

0.085

      Presence legumes × Year

3

63

21

 

0.17

0.915

      Presence tall herbs × Year

3

1089

363

 

2.97

0.035

      Presence small herbs × Year

3

442

148

 

1.21

0.311

      Presence grasses × Year

3

853

284

 

2.33

0.079

   Residual FG composition × Year

24

4331

180

 

1.48

0.093

Log (SR) × Year

3

93

31

 

0.25

0.858

FG composition × log (SR) × Year

36

6112

170

 

1.39

0.102

             

Residuals

103

12582

122

     

* includes presence tall herbs × grasses, presence small herbs × grasses; ** includes presence legumes × tall herbs × small herbs and presence legumes × tall herbs × grasses


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