Ecological Archives E091-033-A1

Richard P. Shefferson and Deborah A. Roach. 2010. Longitudinal analysis of Plantago: adaptive benefits of iteroparity in a short-lived, herbaceous perennial. Ecology 91:441–447.

Appendix A. Path coefficients from structural equation modeling of relative fitness in Plantago lanceolata.

Path coefficients from structural equation modeling of relative fitness as a function of size attained in the first year of life (i.e., early–life size), age of first reproduction, total first year reproduction, lifespan, and the number of reproductive years in four cohorts of an experimental population of Plantago lanceolata in Shadwell, Virginia. The structural equation model is presented in Fig. 1. Asterisks indicate significance (No asterisk: P > 0.05; * 0.01 < P ≤ 0.05; ** 0.001 < P ≤ 0.01; *** P ≤ 0.001).

From

To

Cohort 1
Est ± SE

Cohort 2
Est ± SE

Cohort 3
Est ± SE

Cohort 4
Est ± SE

Early–life size

Age 1st repr

–0.266 ± 0.016***

–0.403 ± 0.013***

–0.307 ± 0.029***

–0.268 ± 0.035***

Early–life size

Total 1st yr repr

0.138 ± 0.016***

0.361 ± 0.012***

0.383 ± 0.025***

0.176 ± 0.029***

Early–life size

Lifespan

–0.143 ± 0.015***

0.045 ± 0.014**

–0.012 ± 0.032

0.028 ± 0.031

Age 1st repr

Lifespan

–0.012 ± 0.015

0.232 ± 0.014***

0.139 ± 0.021***

0.258 ± 0.023***

Total 1st yr repr

Lifespan

0.451 ± 0.011***

0.364 ± 0.011***

0.361 ± 0.019***

0.395 ± 0.017***

Age 1st repr

# reprod yrs

–0.296 ± 0.008***

–0.458 ± 0.008***

–0.368 ± 0.012***

–0.352 ± 0.015***

Lifespan

# reprod yrs

0.832 ± 0.007***

0.728 ± 0.008***

0.750 ± 0.011***

0.763 ± 0.013***

Early–life size

Rel. fitness

0.004 ± 0.001***

0.002 ± 0.000***

0.009 ± 0.002***

0.000 ± 0.002

Age 1st repr

Rel. fitness

–0.002 ± 0.001***

0.001 ± 0.001

0.001 ± 0.001

0.002 ±0.001

Total 1st yr repr

Rel. fitness

0.026 ± 0.001***

0.028 ± 0.000***

0.040 ± 0.001***

0.025 ± 0.001***

Lifespan

Rel. fitness

–0.013 ± 0.001***

–0.002 ± 0.001***

0.000 ± 0.001

0.001 ± 0.001

# reprod yrs

Rel. fitness

0.049 ± 0.001***

0.032 ± 0.001***

0.047 ± 0.002***

0.049 ± 0.001***


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