Ecological Archives E091-236-A3

T. Sattler, D. Borcard, R. Arlettaz, F. Bontadina, P. Legendre, M. K. Obrist, and M. Moretti. 2010. Spider, bee, and bird communities in cities are shaped by environmental control and high stochasticity. Ecology 91:3343–3353.

Appendix C. Biplot of species community analysis of birds (Aves) for the three study cities.

FigC1
 

   FIG. C1. Biplot of species community analysis of birds (Aves) in Zurich (RDA, for details see methods) showing the first canonical axis on the x-axis and the second on the y-axis (n = 32). Selected environmental variables in bold arrows; for visibility only the species most correlated to the first two canonical axes are shown (dashed arrows); abbreviated species names (i.e., 3 letters of the genus and 3 letters of the species) see Appendix A, Table A3. Q = squared variable.


 

FigC2
 

   FIG. C2. Biplot of species community analysis of birds (Aves) in Lucerne (RDA, for details see methods) showing the first canonical axis on the x-axis and the second on the y-axis (n = 32). Selected environmental variables in bold arrows; for visibility only the species most correlated to the first two canonical axes are shown (dashed arrows); abbreviated species names (i.e., 3 letters of the genus and 3 letters of the species) see Appendix A, Table A3.


 

FigC3
 

   FIG. C3. Biplot of species community analysis of birds (Aves) in Lugano (RDA, for details see methods) showing the first canonical axis on the x-axis and the second on the y-axis (n = 32). Selected environmental variables in bold arrows; for visibility only the species most correlated to the first two canonical axes are shown (dashed arrows); abbreviated species names (i.e., 3 letters of the genus and 3 letters of the species) see Appendix A, Table A3 (Passp = Passer spec. = P. domesticus and P. hispaniolensis italiae). Q = squared variable. The influence of solar radiation at fine scales, reflecting microclimatic conditions, is not uniform. This figure shows that the standard deviation of solar radiation on R50m and R250m points in the opposite direction of the sum of solar radiation on R250m and R1000m. Standard deviation of solar radiation reflects a structurally highly diversified habitat. So the opposing directions point at the fact that places with highest solar radiation at ground level tend to be less structurally diversified. Highest solar radiation therefore means absence of woody plants or houses, which in turn means more homogeneous habitats.


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