Ecological Archives E000–000-A7

Jennifer K. O'Leary and Timothy R. McClanahan. 2010. Trophic cascades result in large-scale coralline algae loss through differential grazer effects. Ecology 91:3584–3597.

Appendix G. Survey of tropical studies reporting sea urchin associations with CCA (TABLE G1), sea urchin bioerosion rates (TABLE G2), and sea urchin densities (TABLE G3). Asterisk indicates determined by data in paper, not reported by original authors. NR = Not reported.

TABLE G1. Survey of tropical studies reporting sea urchin associations with CCA.

Urchin Species Locality Associations with CCA Bioerosion kg CaCO3 /m2/yr for given density High Density Unless specified / m2 Size mm: mode (range) unless specified Habitat Reference
Diadema antillarum   Caribbean   Positive NR 5–12   55 (0–89) Shallow forereef Edmunds and Carpenter 2001
Positive NR 1.3   NR Shallow forereef Aronson and Precht 2000
Positive NR 8.9 NR Shallow reefs Carpenter and Edmunds 2006
Caribbean pre-disease   Positive NR 2.9 NR NR van Stevenicnck and Bak 1986
Positive NR 14 NR Fore reef Liddell and Ohlhorst 1986
Positive NR 1.1–14.4 range NR NR Lessios 1988
Positive NR 15 mean NR Fore reef Morrison 1988
Negative* NR 71 NR Shallow lagoon Sammarco 1982a
Diadema antillarum and Tripneustes ventricosus Caribbean Positive* NR 1.9 NR Shallow forereef Aronson and Precht 2000
Diadema mexicanum Eastern Pacific Positive* 5.84–11.68 50–100 NR Seaward reef base Eakin 1996
Diadema savignyi W. Indian Ocean Negative NR 8.1 biomass 1,125 kg/ha Back reef This study
Echinometra mathaei Indo-Pacific Inconclusive NR 0.5 NR Back reef Pari et al. 2002
Japan Negative* NR for high densities 29 NR Back reef Hibino and van Woesik 2000
W. Indian Ocean   Negative* 8.64 56.35 38.5 mean (33–41) Back reef (fished) Carreiro-Silva and McClanahan 2001
Negative* 3.8 14.2 40.8 Back reef (fished) McClanahan and Muthiga 1988
Negative NR 16.1–251.8 biomass 553.7–1457.5 kg/ha Back reef (fished) McClanahan 1997
Eucidaris thourarsii Eastern Pacific Negative 1.64 – 8.2 10–50 range NR Intertidal - 20m Glynn et al. 1979
Echinothrix spp. Hawaii Positive* 0.36 0.1 mean NR Near-shore platform Harney and Fletcher 2003


TABLE G2. Sea urchin bioerosion rates.

Urchin Species Locality Bioerosion kg CaCO3 /m2/yr for given density High Density / m2 Unless specified Size mm: mode (range) Habitat Reference
Centrostephanus coronatus Eastern Pacific 0.19   6.86 mean NR Reef crest / front Toro-Farmer et al. 2004
Diadema antillarum   Caribbean   0.0016 1 NR Fore reef Mallela and Perry 2007
2.9 12 NR Reef terrace Bak et al. 1984
4.6 8.8 NR Patch reef Ogden 1977
Caribbean (pre- disease)   9.7 23 NR NR Hunter 1977
5 .3 23 mean 25 (5–60) NR Scoffin et al. 1980
0.755 kg/ind/yr NR NR NR Lewis 1964
Diadema savignyi Indo-Pacific 0.009 4.8 mean 60 (10–70) Back reef Bak 1990
W. Indian Ocean 0.11 0.43 59.9 mean (41–80) Back reef Carreiro-Silva and McClanahan 2001
Diadema setosum Red Sea 0.724 6.4   30.1 mean Reef slope Mokady et al. 1996
W. Indian Ocean 0.072   0.11   67.1 mean (45–85) Back reef (fished sites) Carreiro-Silva and McClanahan 2001  
Echinometra spp. Indo-Pacific 8.3 73.60 NR Reef flat Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000
Echinometra aciculatus Indo-Pacific 0.073 0.50 24 mean Back reef Russo 1980
Echinometra mathaei Indo-Pacific 0.0078 6.5 22 mean Back reef Russo 1980
Red Sea 0.46 10.5 23.1 Reef flat Mokady et al. 1996
Indo-Pacific 0.001 7.4 mean 25 (0–40) Back reef Bak 1990
Echinometra lucunter Caribbean   3.9 100 NR Patch reef Ogden 1977
0.024 kg/ind/year NR 30 NR McLean 1967  
Echinometra viridis Caribbean   4.0 60 20 mean Patch reef Griffin et al. 2003
0.3 40 13.3 Coral ridge Brown-Saracino et al. 2007
1.4 16.8 28.6 Patch reef Brown-Saracino et al. 2007
Echinothrix spp. Indo-Pacific 6.4 15 NR Barrier reef Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000
Echinothrix diadema W. Indian Ocean 0.13   0.065 96.2 mean (78–120) Back reef (fished) Careiro-Silva and McClanahan 2001
Indo-Pacific 0.002 0.65 mean 65–70 (55–90) Back reef Bak 1990  
Eucidaris thourarsii Eastern Pacific 3.5 32 mean NR NR Reaka-Kudla et al. 1996


TABLE G3. Sea urchin densities.

Urchin Species Locality High Density / m2 Unless specified Size mm: mode (range) Habitat Reference
Diadema antillarum Caribbean   ~0 NR Reef crest (lee) Macintyre et al. 2007
< 0.01/m2 mean NR NR Williams and Polunin 2001
0.1 mean NR Shallow forereef Woodley et al. 1999
1.8 NR Shallow fore reef Woodley et al. 1999
2.9 (55.9–78.6) Shallow fore reef Haley and Solandt 2001
11.7 NR Patch reef and fore reef Hughes et al. 1985
Caribbean (pre- disease)   0.002 NR Back reef Lewis 1986
72.8 NR Lagoon patch reef Sammarco 1982b
Diadema savignyi Indo-Pacific 6.2 NR Reef flat Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000
W. Indian Ocean 9.8 biomass 1145.8 kg/ha Back reef (fished) McClanahan 1997
Diadema setosum Indo-Pacific 17.5   NR Reef flat (barrier reef) Done et al. 1991
W. Indian Ocean 2.2 biomass 331.1 kg/ha Back reef (fished) McClanahan 1997
Echinometra mathaei GBR 0.3 NR Reef flat (outer) Done et al. 1991
Indo-Pacific 6.7 NR Fringing reef Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000
Echinometra mathaei and E. oblonga Hawaii 12.7–97.5 (1.85–4.85) Inner and outer fringing algal reef Russo 1977
Echinometra viridus Caribbean   25.5 NR Lagoon patch reef Sammarco 1982b
0.91 NR Fore reef Haley and Solandt 2001



Aronson, R. B., and W. F. Precht. 2000. Herbivory and algal dynamics on the coral reef at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Limnology and Oceanography 45:251–255.

Bak, R. P. M. 1990. Patterns of echinoid bioerosion 2: Pacific coral-reef lagoons. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 66:267–272.

Bak, R. P. M., M. J. E. Carpay, and E. D. Deruytervansteveninck. 1984. Densities of the sea-urchin Diadema antillarum before and after mass mortalities on the coral reefs of Curacoa. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 17:105–108.

Brown-Saracino, J., P. Peckol, H. A. Curran, and M. L. Robbart. 2007. Spatial variation in sea urchins, fish predators, and bioerosion rates on coral reefs of Belize. Coral Reefs 26:71–78.

Carreiro-Silva, M., and T. R. McClanahan. 2001. Echinoid bioerosion and herbivory on Kenyan coral reefs: the role of protection from fishing. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 262:133–153.

Carpenter, R. C., and P. J. Edmunds. 2006. Local and regional scale recovery of Diadema promotes recruitment of scleractinian corals. Ecology Letters 9:268–277.

Done, T. J., P. K. Dayton, A. E. Dayton, and R. Steger. 1991. Regional and local variability in recovery of shallow coral communities: Moorea, French Polynesia and central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 9:183–192.

Eakin, C. M. 1996. Where have all the carbonates gone? A model comparison of calcium carbonate budgets before and after the 1982–1983 El Nino at Uva Island in the eastern Pacific. Coral Reefs 15:109–119.

Edmunds, P. J., and R. C. Carpenter. 2001. Recovery of Diadema antillarum reduces macroalgal cover and increases abundance of juvenile corals on a Caribbean reef. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98:5067–5071.

Glynn, P. W., G. M. Wellington, and C. Birkeland. 1979. Coral reef growth in Galapagos: limitation by sea urchins. Science 203:47–49.

Griffin, S. P., R. P. Garcia, and E. Weil. 2003. Bioerosion in coral reef communities in southwest Puerto Rico by the sea urchin Echinometra viridis. Marine Biology 143:79–84.

Haley, M. P., and J. L. Solandt. 2001. Population fluctuations of the sea urchins Diadema antillarum and Tripneustes ventricosus at Discovery Bay, Jamaica: A case of biological succession? Caribbean Journal of Science 37:239–245.

Harney, J. N., and C. H. Fletcher. 2003. A budget of carbonate framework and sediment production, Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Journal of Sedimentary Research 73:856–868.

Hibino, K., and R. van Woesik. 2000. Spatial differences and seasonal changes of net carbonate accumulation on some coral reefs of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 252:1–14.

Hughes, T. P., B. D. Keller, J. B. C. Jackson, and M. J. Boyle. 1985. Mass mortality of the echinoid Diadema antillarum Philippi in Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 36:377–384.

Hunter, I. G. 1977. Sediment production by Diadema antillarum on a Barbados fringing reef. In “Proceedings, Third International Coral Reefs Symposium.” (D.L. Taylor ed.) Vol 2 pp. 106–109.

Lessios, H. A. 1988. Mass Mortality of Diadema Antillarum in the Caribbean: What Have We Learned? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19:371–393.

Lewis, J. B. 1964. Feeding and digestion in the tropical sea urchin Diadema antillarum Phillippi. Canadian Journal of Zoology 42:549–557.

Lewis, S. M. 1986. The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean reef community. Ecological Monographs 56:183–200.

Liddell, W. D., and S. L. Ohlhorst. 1986. Changes in benthic community composition following the mass mortality of Diadema at Jamaica. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 95:271–278.

Macintyre, I. G., P. W. Glynn, and M. A. Toscano. 2007. The demise of a major Acropora palmata bank-barrier reef off the southeast coast of Barbados, West Indies. Coral Reefs 26:765–773.

Mallela, J., and C. T. Perry. 2007. Calcium carbonate budgets for two coral reefs affected by different terrestrial runoff regimes, Rio Bueno, Jamaica. Coral Reefs 26:129–145.

McClanahan, T. R. 1997. Primary succession of coral-reef algae: Differing patterns on fished versus unfished reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218:77–102.

McClanahan, T. R., and N. A. Muthiga. 1988. Changes in Kenyan coral reef community structure and function due to exploitation. Hydrobiologia 166:269–276.

McLean, R. F. 1967. Erosion of burrows in beachrock by the tropical sea urchin, Echinometra lucunter. Canadian Journal of Zoology 45:586–588.

Mokady, O., B. Lazar, and Y. Loya. 1996. Echinoid bioerosion as a major structuring force of Red Sea coral reefs. Biological Bulletin 190:367–372.

Morrison, D. 1988. Comparing fish and urchin grazing in shallow and deeper coral reef algal communities. Ecology 69(5): 1367–1382.

Ogden, J. C. 1977. Carbonate-sediment production by parrot fish and sea urchins on Caribbean reefs. Pages 281–288 in S. H. Frost, Weiss, M.P., Sauders, J.B., editor. Reefs and Related Carbonates - Ecology and Sedimentology. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.

Pari, N., M. Peyrot-Clausade, and P. A. Hutchings. 2002. Bioerosion of experimental substrates on high islands and atoll lagoons (French Polynesia) during 5 years of exposure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 276:109–127.

Peyrot-Clausade, M., P. Chabanet, C. Conand, M. F. Fontaine, Y. Letourneur, and M. Harmelin-Vivien. 2000. Sea urchin and fish bioerosion on La Reunion and Moorea reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science 66:477–485.

Reaka-Kudla, M. L., J. S. Feingold, and W. Glynn. 1996. Experimental studies of rapid bioerosion of coral reefs in the Galapagos Islands. Coral Reefs 15:101–107.

Russo, A. R. 1980. Bioerosion by 2 rock-borring echinoids (Echinometra mataei and Echinostrephus aciculatus) on Enewatak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Journal of Marine Research 38:99–110.

Sammarco, P. W. 1982a. Echinoid grazing as a structuring force in coral communities – whole reef manipulations. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 61:31–55.

Sammarco, P. W. 1982b. Effects of grazing by Diadema antillarum Philippi (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) on algal diversity and community structure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 65:83–105.

Scoffin, T. P., C. W. Stearn, D. Boucher, P. Frydl, C. M. Hawkins, I. G. Hunter, and J. K. Macgeachy. 1980. Calcium-carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west-coast of Barbados. 2. Erosion, sediments and internal structure. Bulletin of Marine Science 30:475–508.

Toro-Farmer, G., J. R. Cantera, E. Londono-Cruz, C. Orozco, and R. Neira. 2004. Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida : Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific. Revista De Biologia Tropical 52:67–76.

van Steveninck, E. D. D., and R. P. M. Bak. 1986. Changes in the abundance of coral-reef bottom components related to mass mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 34:87–94.

Williams, I. D., and N. V. C. Polunin. 2001. Large-scale associations between macroalgal cover and grazer biomass on mid-depth reefs in the Caribbean. Coral Reefs 19:358–366.

Woodley, J. D., P. M. H. Gayle, and N. Judd. 1999. Sea-urchins exert top-down control of macroalgae on Jamaican coral reefs (2). Coral Reefs 18:193–193.

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