Appendix E. Survey of world-wide studies reporting (Table E1) herbivorous fish associations with CCA and (Table E2) parrotfish (Scaridae) bioerosion rates. We did not include studies found where urchin and fish abundance both important and influence and their influence could not be separated. *Determined by data in paper, not reported by original authors. NR = not reported.
TABLE E1. Survey of world-wide studies reporting herbivorous fish associations with CCA.
|Fish Family (Fish Species)||Region||Associations with CCA||High Densities (/100m2) or Biomass||Size (cm) Mean (range)||Habitat||Paper|
|Acanthuridae||Caribbean||Positive||4.9||Only ≥ 12 measured||Mid-depth reefs||Williams and Polunin 2001|
|Western Indian Ocean||Positive*||4.2–44 MPA densities||Back reef||McClanahan 1997|
|Acanthuridae, Scaridae||Caribbean||Positive||12 and 9||NR||Forereef||Belliveau and Paul 2002|
|Positive||16.1, 15.9 mean||NR||Back reef||Lewis 1986|
|Indo-Pacific||Positive||37–819 mt/km2 biomass||NR||NR||Sabater and Tofaeono 2007|
|Scaridae||Caribbean||Positive||13.3||≥ 12 measured||Mid-depth reefs||Williams and Polunin 2001|
|Positive||~4||NR||Fore reef||Burkepile and Hay 2009|
|Scaridae (Scarus viride)||Indo-Pacific||Positive||NR||NR||Fore reef||Steneck and Adey 1976|
TABLE E2. Survey of world-wide studies reporting parrotfish (Scaridae) bioerosion rates.
|Fish Species||Region||Bioerosion (kg/m2/yr) Mean unless specified||High Densities /100 m2 Unless other measure specified||Size (cm) Mean (range)||Habitat||Paper|
|Bolbometopon muricatum||Great Barrier Reef||28||NR||NR||Outer reef||Bellwood et al.. 2003|
|Chlorurus microrhinos||Great Barrier Reef||19||NR||NR||Outer reef||Bellwood et al.. 2003|
|Scarus vetula||Caribbean||2.42||NR||(2–40+)||Shallow reef||Bruggemann et al. 1994|
|Sparisoma viride||Caribbean||5.38||NR||(2–40+)||Shallow reef||Bruggemann et al. 1994|
|S. viride||Caribbean||0.17||6.5 (0.049 kg/m2)||NR||NR||Frydl and Stearn 1978|
|Great Barrier Reef||2.002 High||NR||NR||Leeward slope||Kiene and Hutchings 1994|
|2.8 high||NR||NR||Cross-shelf transects||Tribollet et al. 2002|
|Chlorurus gibbus, C. sordidus, B. muricatum, Cetoscarus bicolor||Great Barrier Reef||1.85||NR||NR||Barrier reef||Osorno et al. 2005|
|Chlorurus sordidus, Scarus psittacus, Scarus scaber||W. Indian Ocean||0.12||1–11||11.8||Inner reef flat||Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000|
|7 spp||Pacific (French Polynesia)||3.30||13–41||14.8||Fringing reef||Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000|
Belliveau, S. A., and V. J. Paul. 2002. Effects of herbivory and nutrients on the early colonization of crustose coralline and fleshy algae. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 232:105–114.
Bellwood, D. R., A. S. Hoey, and J. H. Choat. 2003. Limited functional redundancy in high diversity systems: resilience and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Ecology Letters: 6: 281–285.
Burkepile, D. E., and M. E. Hay. 2009. Nutrient versus herbivore control of macroalgal community development and coral reef growth on a Caribbean reef. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 389:71–84.
Bruggemann, J. H., J. Begeman, E. M. Bosma, P. Verburg, and A. M. Breeman. 1994. Forating by the stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride. 2. Intake and assimilation of food, protein, and energy. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 106:57–71.
Frydl, P., and C. W. Stearn. 1978. Rate of bioerosion by parrotfish in Barbados reef environments. Journal of Sedimentary Research 48:1149–1157.
Kiene, W. E., and P. A. Hutchings. 1994. Bioerosion experiments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 13:91–98.
Lewis, S. M. 1986. The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean reef community. Ecological Monographs 56:183–200.
McClanahan, T. R. 1997. Primary succession of coral-reef algae: Differing patterns on fished versus unfished reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218:77–102.
Morrison, D. 1988. Comparing fish and urchin grazing in shallow and deeper coral reef algal communities. Ecology 69(5): 1367–1382.
Osorno, A., M. Peyrot-Clausade, and P. A. Hutchings. 2005. Patterns and rates of erosion in dead Porites across the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) after 2 years and 4 years of exposure. Coral Reefs 24:292–303.
Russo, A. R. 1977. Water flow and the distribution and abundance of echinoids (Genus Echinometra) on an Hawaiian reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 28:693–702.
Sabater, M. G., and S. P. Tofaeono. 2007. Scale and benthic composition effects on biomass and trophic group distribution of reef fishes in American Samoa. Pacific Science 61:503–520.
Steneck, R. S., and W. H. Adey. 1976. Role of environment in control of morphology in lithophyllum-congestum, a Caribbean algal ridge builder. Botanica Marina 19:197–215.
Tribollet, A., G. Decherf, P. A. Hutchings, and M. Peyrot-Clausade. 2002. Large-scale spatial variability in bioerosion of experimental coral substrates on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia): importance of microborers. Coral Reefs 21:424–432.
Williams, I. D., and N. V. C. Polunin. 2001. Large-scale associations between macroalgal cover and grazer biomass on mid-depth reefs in the Caribbean. Coral Reefs 19:358–366.