Ecological Archives E091-252-A5

Jennifer K. O'Leary and Timothy R. McClanahan. 2010. Trophic cascades result in large-scale coralline algae loss through differential grazer effects. Ecology 91:3584–3597.

Appendix E. Survey of world-wide studies reporting (Table E1) herbivorous fish associations with CCA and (Table E2) parrotfish (Scaridae) bioerosion rates. We did not include studies found where urchin and fish abundance both important and influence and their influence could not be separated. *Determined by data in paper, not reported by original authors. NR = not reported.

TABLE E1. Survey of world-wide studies reporting herbivorous fish associations with CCA.

Fish Family (Fish Species) Region Associations with CCA High Densities (/100m2) or Biomass Size (cm) Mean (range) Habitat Paper
Acanthuridae   Caribbean Positive 4.9 Only ≥ 12 measured Mid-depth reefs Williams and Polunin 2001  
Western Indian Ocean Positive* 4.2–44  MPA densities   Back reef McClanahan 1997
Acanthuridae, Scaridae   Caribbean Positive 12 and 9 NR Forereef Belliveau and Paul 2002
Positive 16.1, 15.9 mean NR Back reef Lewis 1986
Indo-Pacific Positive 37–819 mt/km2 biomass NR NR Sabater and Tofaeono 2007
Scaridae Caribbean Positive   13.3 ≥ 12 measured Mid-depth reefs Williams and Polunin 2001  
Positive ~4 NR Fore reef Burkepile and Hay 2009
Scaridae (Scarus viride) Indo-Pacific Positive NR NR Fore reef Steneck and Adey 1976


TABLE E2. Survey of world-wide studies reporting parrotfish (Scaridae) bioerosion rates.

Fish Species Region Bioerosion (kg/m2/yr) Mean unless specified High Densities /100 m2 Unless other measure specified Size (cm) Mean (range) Habitat Paper
Bolbometopon muricatum Great Barrier Reef 28 NR NR Outer reef Bellwood et al.. 2003
Chlorurus microrhinos Great Barrier Reef 19 NR NR Outer reef Bellwood et al.. 2003
Scarus vetula Caribbean 2.42 NR (2–40+) Shallow reef Bruggemann et al. 1994
Sparisoma viride Caribbean 5.38 NR (2–40+) Shallow reef Bruggemann et al. 1994
S. viride Caribbean 0.17 6.5 (0.049 kg/m2) NR NR Frydl and Stearn 1978
Great Barrier Reef   2.002 High NR NR Leeward slope Kiene and Hutchings 1994
2.8 high NR NR Cross-shelf transects Tribollet et al. 2002
Chlorurus gibbus, C. sordidus, B. muricatum, Cetoscarus bicolor Great Barrier Reef 1.85 NR NR Barrier reef Osorno et al. 2005
Chlorurus sordidus, Scarus psittacus, Scarus scaber W. Indian Ocean 0.12 1–11 11.8 Inner reef flat Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000
7 spp Pacific (French Polynesia) 3.30 13–41 14.8 Fringing reef Peyrot-Clausade et al. 2000



Belliveau, S. A., and V. J. Paul. 2002. Effects of herbivory and nutrients on the early colonization of crustose coralline and fleshy algae. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 232:105–114.

Bellwood, D. R., A. S. Hoey, and J. H. Choat. 2003. Limited functional redundancy in high diversity systems: resilience and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Ecology Letters: 6: 281–285.

Burkepile, D. E., and M. E. Hay. 2009. Nutrient versus herbivore control of macroalgal community development and coral reef growth on a Caribbean reef. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 389:71–84.

Bruggemann, J. H., J. Begeman, E. M. Bosma, P. Verburg, and A. M. Breeman. 1994. Forating by the stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride. 2. Intake and assimilation of food, protein, and energy. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 106:57–71.

Frydl, P., and C. W. Stearn. 1978. Rate of bioerosion by parrotfish in Barbados reef environments. Journal of Sedimentary Research 48:1149–1157.

Kiene, W. E., and P. A. Hutchings. 1994. Bioerosion experiments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 13:91–98.

Lewis, S. M. 1986. The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean reef community. Ecological Monographs 56:183–200.

McClanahan, T. R. 1997. Primary succession of coral-reef algae: Differing patterns on fished versus unfished reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218:77–102.

Morrison, D. 1988. Comparing fish and urchin grazing in shallow and deeper coral reef algal communities. Ecology 69(5): 1367–1382.

Osorno, A., M. Peyrot-Clausade, and P. A. Hutchings. 2005. Patterns and rates of erosion in dead Porites across the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) after 2 years and 4 years of exposure. Coral Reefs 24:292–303.

Russo, A. R. 1977. Water flow and the distribution and abundance of echinoids (Genus Echinometra) on an Hawaiian reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 28:693–702.

Sabater, M. G., and S. P. Tofaeono. 2007. Scale and benthic composition effects on biomass and trophic group distribution of reef fishes in American Samoa. Pacific Science 61:503–520.

Steneck, R. S., and W. H. Adey. 1976. Role of environment in control of morphology in lithophyllum-congestum, a Caribbean algal ridge builder. Botanica Marina 19:197–215.

Tribollet, A., G. Decherf, P. A. Hutchings, and M. Peyrot-Clausade. 2002. Large-scale spatial variability in bioerosion of experimental coral substrates on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia): importance of microborers. Coral Reefs 21:424–432.

Williams, I. D., and N. V. C. Polunin. 2001. Large-scale associations between macroalgal cover and grazer biomass on mid-depth reefs in the Caribbean. Coral Reefs 19:358–366.

[Back to E091-252]