Ecological Archives E092-193-A1

Matthew L. Forister, Joshua P. Jahner, Kayce L. Casner, Joseph S. Wilson, and Arthur M. Shapiro. 2011. The race is not to the swift: Long-term data reveal pervasive declines in California’s low-elevation butterfly fauna. Ecology 92:2222–2235.

Appendix A. Species-specific values for various natural history categories and other variables used in analyses at our three focal sites. A complete matrix is given for each site, though many species overlap sites.

TABLE A1. Biological and natural history values for each species at each site. See main text for a discussion of the ruderal/nonruderal category. The number of broods is the number of generations per year. Overwintering is the life history stage in which individuals spend the winter months (for a small number of species the mode is unknown, shown as “unkn.”). Abbreviations for habitat associations as follows: G = grassland, R = ruderal, T = tule marsh (a few species have an “accidental” or transitory presence at sites, coded as “acc.”). Wingspan is in centimeters, and geographic range is in square kilometers. Host genera is our estimate of the number of native hosts used in California.

 

Ruderal / nonruderal

Broods

Over-wintering

Habitat

Wing-span

Geographic range

Host genera

West Sacramento

Atalopedes campestris

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

38

3973088.695

7

Atlides halesus

non

multiple

pupa

R

35.5

1892647.397

1

Battus philenor

non

multiple

pupa

R

90

3284617.408

1

Brephidium exile

ruderal

multiple

unkn.

G

16

2299429.368

2

Coenonympha tullia

non

two

larva

G

29.5

3238045.588

unkn.

Colias eurytheme

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

49.5

6701998.752

5

Danaus plexippus

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

95

6463445.112

1

Erynnis tristis

non

multiple

larva

R

36.5

827631.9123

1

Euchloe ausonides

non

two

pupa

G

35.5

2096685.684

1

Everes comyntas

ruderal

multiple

larva

GR

23.5

3887564.21

5

Heliopetes ericetorum

non

two

larva

acc.

32

1448469.971

2

Hylephila phyleus

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

35

3007334.02

1

Junonia coenia

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

47

4493232.469

6

Leptotes marina

ruderal

multiple

unkn.

acc.

22.5

2266312.655

3

Lerodea eufala

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

30.5

1887516.534

2

Limenitis lorquini

non

multiple

larva

R

57

1255176.33

3

Lycaena helloides

ruderal

multiple

egg

GT

28.5

3070415.575

3

Lycaena xanthoides

non

one

egg

GT

38.5

383337.696

2

Nymphalis antiopa

non

one

adult

R

77.5

5560078.365

2

Nymphalis californica

non

two

adult

acc.

49.5

2218705.742

1

Ochlodes sylvanoides

non

two

larva

GTR

24.5

2359390.175

2

Papilio rutulus

non

two

pupa

R

76.5

2637126.067

5

Papilio zelicaon

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

66

2629001.372

15

Pholisora catullus

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

24.5

4811809.547

1

Phyciodes campestris

non

multiple

larva

GT

31.5

2551292.728

1

Phyciodes mylitta

ruderal

multiple

larva

GT

31.5

2367359.672

1

Pieris rapae

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

44.5

6072437.852

5

Plebjus acmon

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

21.5

539991.2199

3

Poanes melane

non

multiple

larva

R

31

376077.388

6

Polites sabuleti

ruderal

multiple

pupa

G

24

1709072.317

6

Polygonia satyrus

non

two

adult

R

49

2743113.201

1

Pontia protodice

ruderal

multiple

pupa

G

44

5247745.062

 

Pyrgus communis

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

27

5278007.109

2

Pyrgus scriptura

non

multiple

pupa

G

19

1297578.383

1

Satyrium sylvinus

non

one

egg

R

26

2003031.079

1

Strymon melinus

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

26.5

5800493.274

6

Vanessa annabella

ruderal

multiple

all

R

43

3022944.216

3

Vanessa atalanta

ruderal

multiple

adult

R

56.6

6277217.293

1

Vanessa cardui

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

55

5985080.096

11

Vanessa virginiensis

non

multiple

adult

GTR

50.5

5075310.833

3

North Sacramento

Atalopedes campestris

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

38

3973088.695

7

Atlides halesus

non

multiple

pupa

R

35.5

1892647.397

1

Battus philenor

non

multiple

pupa

R

90

3284617.408

1

Brephidium exile

ruderal

multiple

unkn.

G

16

2299429.368

2

Coenonympha tullia

non

two

larva

G

29.5

3238045.588

Unkn.

Colias eurytheme

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

49.5

6701998.752

5

Danaus plexippus

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

95

6463445.112

1

Erynnis tristis

non

multiple

larva

R

36.5

827631.9123

1

Euchloe ausonides

non

two

pupa

G

35.5

2096685.684

1

Everes comyntas

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

23.5

3887564.21

5

Glaucopsyche lygdamus

ruderal

one

pupa

R

26

3614616.486

4

Hylephila phyleus

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

35

3007334.02

1

Junonia coenia

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

47

4493232.469

6

Lerodea eufala

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

30.5

1887516.534

2

Limenitis lorquini

non

multiple

larva

R

57

1255176.33

3

Lycaena helloides

ruderal

multiple

egg

GT

28.5

3070415.575

3

Lycaena xanthoides

non

one

egg

GT

38.5

383337.696

2

Nymphalis antiopa

non

one

adult

R

77.5

5560078.365

2

Nymphalis californica

non

two

adult

acc.

49.5

2218705.742

1

Nymphalis milberti

non

one

adult

R

44.5

3712903.117

1

Ochlodes sylvanoides

non

two

larva

GTR

24.5

2359390.175

2

Papilio rutulus

non

two

pupa

R

76.5

2637126.067

5

Papilio zelicaon

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

66

2629001.372

15

Pholisora catullus

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

24.5

4811809.547

1

Phyciodes mylitta

ruderal

multiple

larva

GT

31.5

2367359.672

1

Pieris rapae

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

44.5

6072437.852

5

Plebjus acmon

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

21.5

539991.2199

3

Poanes melane

non

multiple

larva

R

31

376077.388

6

Polites sabuleti

ruderal

multiple

pupa

G

24

1709072.317

6

Polygonia satyrus

non

two

adult

R

49

2743113.201

1

Pontia protodice

ruderal

multiple

pupa

G

44

5247745.062

2

Pyrgus communis

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

27

5278007.109

2

Pyrgus scriptura

non

multiple

pupa

G

19

1297578.383

1

Satyrium californica

non

one

egg

R

27

1413309.208

3

Satyrium sylvinus

non

one

egg

R

26

2003031.079

1

Strymon melinus

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

26.5

5800493.274

6

Vanessa annabella

ruderal

multiple

all

R

43

3022944.216

3

Vanessa atalanta

ruderal

multiple

adult

R

56.5

6277217.293

1

Vanessa cardui

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

55

5985080.096

11

Vanessa virginiensis

non

multiple

adult

GTR

50.5

5075310.833

3

Zerene eurydice

non

two

adult

R

52.5

291627.4393

1

Rancho Cordova

Adelpha bredowii

non

two

larva

R

67

525570.116

1

Anthocharis sara

non

one

pupa

R

33.5

527521.1443

3

Atalopedes campestris

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

38

3973088.695

7

Atlides halesus

non

multiple

pupa

R

35.5

1892647.397

1

Battus philenor

non

multiple

pupa

R

90

3284617.408

1

Brephidium exile

ruderal

multiple

unkn.

G

16

2299429.368

2

Callophrys dumetorum

non

one

pupa

GR

28.5

66251.7118

2

Celastrina ladon

non

one

pupa

R

27.5

4044754.136

7

Coenonympha tullia

non

two

larva

G

29.5

3238045.588

unkn.

Colias eurytheme

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

49.5

6701998.752

5

Danaus plexippus

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

95

6463445.112

1

Erynnis persius

non

multiple

larva

GR

29.5

2473582.982

3

Erynnis propertius

non

one

larva

R

36.5

567068.5435

1

Erynnis tristis

non

multiple

larva

R

36.5

827631.9123

1

Euchloe ausonides

non

two

pupa

G

35.5

2096685.684

1

Euphydryas chalcedona

non

one

larva

acc.

42

2531085.683

4

Everes comyntas

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

23.5

3887564.21

5

Glaucopsyche lygdamus

ruderal

one

pupa

R

26

3614616.486

4

Hylephila phyleus

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

35

3007334.02

1

Incisalia iroides

non

one

pupa

GR

22.5

2534025.003

6

Junonia coenia

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

47

4493232.469

6

Lerodea eufala

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

30.5

1887516.534

2

Limenitis lorquini

non

multiple

larva

R

57

1255176.33

3

Lycaena helloides

ruderal

multiple

egg

GT

28.5

3070415.575

3

Nymphalis antiopa

non

one

adult

R

77.5

5560078.365

2

Nymphalis californica

non

multiple

adult

acc.

49.5

2218705.742

1

Nymphalis milberti

non

one

adult

R

44.5

3712903.117

1

Ochlodes sylvanoides

non

two

larva

GTR

24.5

2359390.175

2

Papilio multicaudatus

non

multiple

pupa

R

78

3130433.928

4

Papilio rutulus

non

two

pupa

R

76.5

2637126.067

5

Papilio zelicaon

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

66

2629001.372

15

Pholisora catullus

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

24.5

4811809.547

1

Phyciodes mylitta

ruderal

multiple

larva

GT

31.5

2367359.672

1

Pieris rapae

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

44.5

6072437.852

5

Plebjus acmon

ruderal

multiple

larva

G

21.5

539991.2199

3

Poanes melane

non

multiple

larva

R

31

376077.388

6

Polygonia satyrus

non

two

adult

R

49

2743113.201

1

Pontia protodice

non

multiple

pupa

G

44

5247745.062

2

Pyrgus communis

ruderal

multiple

larva

GTR

27

5278007.109

2

Satyrium auretorum

non

one

egg

R

26.5

390165.2848

1

Satyrium californica

non

one

egg

R

27

1413309.208

3

Satyrium sylvinus

non

one

egg

R

26

2003031.079

1

Strymon melinus

ruderal

multiple

pupa

GTR

26.5

5800493.274

6

Vanessa annabella

ruderal

multiple

all

R

43

3022944.216

3

Vanessa atalanta

non

multiple

adult

R

56.5

6277217.293

1

Vanessa cardui

ruderal

multiple

adult

GTR

55

5985080.096

11

Vanessa virginiensis

non

multiple

adult

GTR

50.5

5075310.833

3

Zerene eurydice

non

two

adult

R

52.5

291627.4393

1


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