Appendix A (FIG. A1). Map of study area in the Republic of Congo, Africa. The inset maps show the area within Africa (upper left panel) and within the region (lower left panel). The study area is in a multi-use landscape that includes logging concessions and protected areas. Thirty sites, designated by black squares, were positioned in a random stratified manner in the Kabo concession and Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park (NNNP). Each site includes a 1 ha tree plot, and all sites are separated by at least 2.5 km.