Ecological Archives E093-099-A1

Michael A. Sams and Michael J. Keough. 2012. Contrasting effects of variable species recruitment on marine sessile communities. Ecology 93:1153–1163.

Appendix A. Table of taxa found in experimental communities.

List of taxa found colonising settlement plates during Williamstown Experiment 1 (W1), Williamstown Experiment 2 (W2), St Leonards (SL) and Santa Cruz (SC). Shaded squares in each site column represent taxa that occurred on plates during each experiment. Where present, taxa are broadly classified based on average % cover per plate over the whole experiment as either: rare (R), where they were recorded only once over the whole experiment or occupying < 1% (VL), 1–5 % (L), 5–10 % (LM), 10–40 % (M), 40–60 % (MH), 60–80 % (H), or 80% + (H) of cover. Taxa are also identified (to the best of our knowledge) as being native (N), cosmopolitan (C), invasive (I) or origin unknown/unclear (U) to either Port Phillip Bay (PPB), which encompasses Williamstown and Saint Leonards, or Santa Cruz (SC) in the columns under "Distribution".

Taxa Group Abundance Distribution
Algae Algae VL R VL R - -
Ascidia ceratodes Ascidian       L   N
Ascidiella aspersa Ascidian VL VL VL   C/I  
Ascidiella sp. Ascidian       VL   U
Botrylloides leachii Ascidian L L   R C  
Botryllus schlosseri Ascidian L LM VL LM C/I C/I
Ciona intestinalis Ascidian VL VL VL VL C/I C/I
Didemnid (2 spp belonging to  Trididemnum and Didemnum) Ascidian LM LM L   U/C  
Didemnid 2 (1 to 2 spp belonging to genus Trididemnum/Didemnum) Ascidian       VL   U/C
Lissoclinum sp. Ascidian     VL   U  
Diplosoma listerianum Ascidian LM LM VL VL C/I C/I
Pyura dalbyi Ascidian L VL VL   N  
Styela clava Ascidian VL VL     C/I  
Styela plicata Ascidian VL VL R   C/I  
Colonial ascidian sp 1 Ascidian VL R     U  
Colonial ascidian sp 4 Ascidian       VL   U
Colonial ascidian sp 3 Ascidian     VL   U  
Colonial ascidian sp 2 (orange) Ascidian VL VL     U  
Solitary ascidian sp 1 Ascidian VL VL     U  
Solitary ascidian sp 2 Ascidian     VL   U  
Solitary ascidian sp 3 Ascidian       VL   U
Electroma georgiana Mollusc
VL VL VL   N  
Bugula dentata Bryozoan LM VL L   N  
Bugula flabellata Bryozoan LM VL VL VL C/I, C/I
Bugula neritina Bryozoan L VL VL VL C/I C/I
Bugula stolonifera Bryozoan L VL VL VL C/I C/I
Celleporaria sp. Bryozoan VL VL     U  
Conopeum seurati Bryozoan VL VL VL   C/I  
Membranipora membranacea Bryozoan     VL   C  
Microporella sp. Bryozoan   R     U  
Celleporaria fusca Bryozoan     VL   N  
Biflustra perfragilis Bryozoan     VL   N  
Schizoporella errata Bryozoan VL VL VL R C/I  
Tricellaria occidentalis Bryozoan VL   M LM C/I  
Arborescent bryozoan sp 1 Bryozoan VL       U  
Arborescent bryozoan sp 2 Bryozoan     VL   U  
Arborescent bryozoan sp 3 Bryozoan       VL U  
Encrusting bryozoan sp 1 Bryozoan       VL U  
Watersipora subtorquata Bryozoan LM M VL M C/I C/I
Zoobotryon verticillatum Bryozoan VL VL     C/I  
Hydroid spp. -
Williamstown complex
VL VL     C  
Hydroid spp. -
St Leonards complex
    LM   N  
Hydroid spp. -
Santa Cruz complex
      LM   U
Anemone sp 1 Cnidarian
VL VL     U  
Cyanea capillata Cnidarian
LM LM VL   C  
Corophiid amphipods
(tube building)
LM MH VL   U  
Amphibalanus variegatus Crustacean
L L     C/I  
Balanus crenatus Crustacean
      L   N
Balanus glandula Crustacean
      VL   N
Balanus trigonus Crustacean
VL L   VL C/I  
Amphibalanus/Balanus recruit Crustacean
VL   VL VL C/I  
Elminius modestus Crustacean
VL VL     N  
Barnacle sp 1 Crustacean
      VL   U
Other phyla Other   VL R VL U U
Serpulid sp 1 (possibly
Ficopomatus enigmaticus)
      VL   U
Ficopomatus enigmaticus Polychaete
VL LM VL   N  
Hydroides elegans Polychaete
      VL   C/I
Hydroides ezoensis Polychaete
VL VL VL   C/I  
Medium serpulids
(mixture of all spp < 5mm length)
Pomatoceros taeniata Polychaete
VL VL VL   N  
Small serpulids
(mixture of all spp < 1mm length)
Serpulid sp 2 Polychaete
      VL   U
Spirorbid Polychaete
VL VL VL   U  
Spirorbid 2 Polychaete
      R   U
Clear tube sponge 1 Sponge
    VL   U  
Glass sponge 1 Sponge
    VL     U
Pale or clear sponge 1 Sponge
VL VL R     U
Pale or clear sponge 2 Sponge
      VL   U
Purple sponge Sponge
  R     U  
Round glass sponge 1 Sponge
    VL   U  
Sycon sp. Sponge
VL LM VL   C/I  
Yellow sponge Sponge
VL VL R   U  


  1. Uncommon species often only appeared in photographs, and were not present for identification by the end of the experiment.  This applies particularly to small individuals.
  2. Pyura dalby is listed in other publications for this area as P. stolonifera  (Rius and Teske 2011)
  3. Hydroids at each site were a mix of species, some of which could not be distinguished from photographs, but based on sampling done by Fitridge (2011), this group includes the following. During Williamstown Experiment 1, the most commonly recruiting species were the non-native Obelia dichotoma and the native Eudendrium generale and in the second Williamstown experiment, Eudendrium generale and the non-native Bougainvillea muscus were the most common.  During the St Leonards experiment, the non-native Phialella quadrata recruited, along with the non-native Halecium delicatulum in the early stages and the native Monotheca flexuosa in the later stages.

Literature Cited

Fitridge, I.  2011.  The ecology of hydroids (Hydrozoa: Cnidaria) in Port Phillip Bay, Australia, and their impacts as fouling species in longline mussel culture.  PhD dissertation, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Rius M, Teske PR (2011) A revision of the Pyura stolonifera species complex (Tunicata, Ascidiacea), with a description of a new species from Australia. Zootaxa 2754, 27-40

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