Appendix F. Effect of temperature and nitrogen on herbivore phenology (i.e., three-way interaction between temperature, nitrogen, and time).
FIG. F1. Multiple plots representing the larval abundance in control and nitrogen plots through time. The sequence of plots shows the three-way interaction between temperature, nitrogen and time, i.e., nitrogen and temperature show a time-dependent interactive effect on larval abundance. It interesting to note that control plots behave similarly to the nitrogen, but with a time delay: from Time 1 through to Time 5, the effect of temperature in nitrogen plots transitions from positive to negative, returning to a strong positive effect at time 8. In control plots, the temperature effect remains more constant from Time 1 to Time 4, and then equals the negative effect as in nitrogen Time 5. From here, the effect of temperature becomes more positive, but is slower and less steep than the effect of temperature in the nitrogen plots. Note that Time 1 to Time 5 corresponds to October 2008 to February 2009 (Spring and Summer), Time 6 and 7 correspond to April and May 2009 (Fall) and Time 8 correspond to September 2009 (early Spring), therefore representing a full year cycle excluding the months of snow cover in Winter.