Ecological Archives E093-242-A2

Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, John W. McNutt, Lindsay A. Turnbull, David W. Macdonald, Bernhard Schmid. 2012. Fear of the dark or dinner by moonlight? Reduced temporal partitioning among Africa's large carnivores. Ecology 93:2590–2599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-0017.1

Appendix B. A table including the detailed mixed-effect models used to investigate partitioning of activity within the 24-h cycle.

TABLE B1. Mixed effects models to investigate how the activity in a given period of the 24-h cycle is influenced by the activity during previous periods. For each case, the best (final) model is given, as well as: the effect of each explanatory variable on the response (positive (+), or negative (-) effect), F values (F), p values (p), numerator and denominator degrees of freedom (ndf, ddf). Interactions between explanatory variable are expressed by ‘:’


AFRICAN WILD DOGS

Morning.twilight.activity ~ Individual+Moon+Night.activity+Individual:Moon

Ind

Moon

Night

Ind:Moon

effect:

(-)

(-)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

NS

F =

9.95

32.00

47.54

ndf,ddF =

6,14

1,34

1,360

 

Morning.activity ~  Individual+Moon+Morning.twilight.activity+Night.activity+Temperature+
                                    Individual:Morning.twilight.activity+Moon:Temperature+Morning.twilight.activity:Temperature

Ind

Moon

Mtwl

Night

Temp

Ind:Mtwl

Moon:Temp

Mtwl:Temp

effect:

(-)

(+)

(-)

(-)

(+)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

NS

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

F =

5.50

77.04

467.39

73.25

10.64

18.11

31.56

ndf,ddF =

6,100

1,1204

1,1205

1,1207

 

6,1204

1,1202

1,1208

Afternoon.activity ~ Individual+Moon+Morning.activity+Night.activity+Temperature+Morning.activity:Temperature

Ind

Moon

Morn

Night

Temp

Morn:Temp

effect:

(-)

(-)

(-)

(-)

(-)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

0.002

F =

6.01

27.74

46.41

24.64

13.34

9.27

ndf,ddF =

6,109

1,613

1,1210

1,1201

1,253

1,1208

Evening.twilight.activity ~ Individual+Moon+Afternoon.activity+Morning.activity+Temperature+
                                                 Individual:Moon+ Afternoon.activity:Temperature

Ind

Moon

After

Morn

Temp

Ind:Moon

After:Temp

effect:

(-)

(+)

(-)

(+)

(-)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

NS

< 0.001

F =

8.12

15.29

481,04

26.63

20.07

16.16

ndf,ddF =

6;97

1,551

1,1128

1,1207

1,55

 

1,1130


                 

CHEETAHS

Morning.twilight.activity ~  Individual+Moon+Night.activity+Individual:Moon

Ind

Moon

Night

Ind:Moon

effect:

(-)

(+)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

0.008

< 0.001

F =

21.29

57.59

7.10

6.51

ndf,ddF =

5,69

1,623

1,983

5,793

Morning.activity ~ Individual+Moon+Morning.twilight.activity+Temperature+
                                   Individual:Moon+Individual:Morning.twilight.activity

Ind

Moon

Mtwl

Temp

Ind:Moon

Ind:Mtwl

effect:

(-)

(+)

(-)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

NS

< 0.001

F =

9.08

53.22

378.38

17.55

10.91

ndf.,ddf. =

5,62

1,580

1,991

1,54

 

5.983

Afternoon.activity ~Individual+Moon+Morning.activity+Temperature+
                                      Individual:Morning.activity+Moon:Morning.activity+Moon:Temperature

Ind

Moon

Morn

Temp

Ind:Morn

Moon:Morn

Moon:Temp

effect:

(-)

(+)

(-)

(+) (-)

(-)

p =

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

0.021

< 0.001

0.047

0.004

F =

7.74

38.54

306.29

5.60

4.49

3.96

8.14

ndf,ddF =

5,60

1,990

1,996

1,67

5,993

1,989

1,997

Evening.twilight.activity ~ Individual+Moon+Afternoon.activity+Temperature+
                                                 Individual:Moon+Individual:Afternoon.activity

Ind

Moon

After

Temp

Ind:Moon

Ind:After

effect:

(+)

(+)

p =

< 0.001

NS

< 0.001

0.043

NS

0.021

F =

23.73

143.43

5.98

2.72

ndf,ddF =

5,12

 

1,172

1,7

 

5,185



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