Ecological Archives E094-185-A3

Seth M. Munson, Esteban H. Muldavin, Jayne Belnap, Debra P. C. Peters, John P. Anderson, M. Hildegard Reiser, Kirsten Gallo, Alicia Melgoza-Castillo, Jeffrey E. Herrick, Tim A. Christiansen. 2013. Regional signatures of plant response to drought and elevated temperature across a desert ecosystem. Ecology 94:2030–2041. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1586.1

Appendix C. A table summarizing hierarchical partitioning results that explain the changes in cover of plant species/functional types with year of measurement and climate variables.

Table C1. The independent effects (% of R²) of year of measurement, annual and seasonal temperature, precipitation, and aridity to explain changes in cover of plant species/functional types in different plant communities as determined by hierarchical partitioning. Arrows represent positive (↑) or negative (↓) effects. Only relationships found to be significant (P < 0.05) by zero-order correlations are shown. Abbreviations: sum = summer, win = winter, ann = annual, P = precipitation, meanT = mean temperature, minT = mean minimum temperature, maxT = mean maximum temperature, PMDI = Palmer modified drought index.

 

Tobosa Grassland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Annual Grasses

44.70 ↑

36.60 ↑

18.70 ↓

0.38

< 0.01

32

Bouteloua barbata

44.16 ↑

34.64 ↑

21.20 ↓

0.41

< 0.01

26

 

 

Perennial Forbs

 

Hoffmannseggia glauca

67.83 ↑

32.17 ↓

0.48

< 0.01

16

 

 

Annual Forbs

56.21 ↑

43.79 ↑

0.32

< 0.05

17

 

 

Species Richness

44.61 ↑

 

10.61 ↑

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.26 ↓

 

 

22.52 ↑

 

 

0.27

< 0.05

45

Vine Mesquite Grassland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Perennial Forbs

 

Solanum elaeagnifolium

38.77 ↑

37.49 ↑

23.74 ↑

0.25

0.07

28

 

 

Annual Grasses

65.14 ↑

34.86 ↑

0.33

0.07

16

 

 

All Herbaceous Vegetation

25.00 ↑

 

43.84 ↑

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.16 ↑

 

 

0.21

0.12

18

Black Grama Grassland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Perennial Grasses

34.55 ↑

31.54 ↑

21.28 ↓

5.95 ↓

6.68 ↑

0.24

< 0.0001

148

Bouteloua eriopoda

34.76 ↑

32.69 ↑

10.53 ↓

22.02 ↑

0.20

< 0.0001

148

Sporobolus flexuosus

36.06 ↑

63.94 ↑

0.08

< 0.01

127

Aristida purpurea

31.79 ↑

11.06 ↑

46.48 ↑

10.67 ↑

0.09

< 0.01

140

Dasyochloa pulchella

27.09 ↑

14.38 ↑

17.24 ↓

41.29 ↑

0.10

< 0.01

134

Pleuraphis jamesii

33.14 ↑

14.68 ↑

29.35 ↓

14.99 ↑

7.84 ↑

0.33

< 0.05

42

 

 

Annual Grasses

30.08 ↑

13.58 ↓

7.04 ↓

20.19 ↑

29.11 ↑

0.29

< 0.0001

122

Bouteloua barbata

36.53 ↑

11.16 ↓

6.15 ↓

24.86 ↑

21.30 ↑

0.23

< 0.0001

107

Aristida adscensionis

24.92 ↑

17.36 ↓

40.65 ↑

17.07 ↑

0.35

< 0.0001

85

Bouteloua aristidoides

100.00 ↑

0.14

< 0.05

28

 

 

Perennial Forbs

18.41 ↑

59.42 ↑

9.60 ↑

12.57 ↑

0.18

< 0.01

87

Croton pottsii

25.96 ↑

15.16 ↑

24.81 ↓

16.66 ↓

17.41 ↑

0.36

< 0.05

36

Allionia incarnata

23.34 ↑

13.79 ↓

13.46 ↓

10.25 ↑

39.16 ↑

0.27

< 0.05

49

Bahia absinthifolia

45.45 ↑

54.55 ↑

0.24

< 0.01

38

Senna bauhinioides

42.33 ↑

10.34 ↑

8.12 ↓

10.01 ↓

29.20 ↑

0.55

< 0.01

24

Oenothera caespitosa

27.38 ↑

47.05 ↑

25.57 ↑

0.34

< 0.05

24

Hoffmannseggia drepanocarpa

15.12 ↑

53.54 ↑

11.35 ↑

19.99 ↑

0.29

< 0.05

44

Machaeranthera pinnatifida

44.89 ↑

7.46 ↑

16.64 ↑

19.13 ↑

11.88 ↑

0.39

< 0.01

42

Sphaeralcea hastulata

68.63 ↑

31.37 ↑

0.17

< 0.05

46

 

 

Annual Forbs

35.73 ↑

23.56 ↑

8.44 ↓

22.33 ↑

9.94 ↑

0.19

< 0.01

96

Machaeranthera gracilis

44.90 ↑

9.37 ↑

8.82 ↑

24.42 ↑

12.49 ↑

0.44

< 0.01

28

Eriogonum abertianum

48.95 ↑

36.15 ↑

14.90 ↑

0.49

< 0.001

27

Chamaesyce serpyllifolia

35.77 ↑

11.28 ↓

10.62 ↓

27.39 ↑

14.94 ↑

0.20

< 0.05

56

Chamaesyce serrula

63.35 ↑

36.65 ↑

0.22

< 0.01

52

Tidestromia lanuginosa

52.3 ↑

8.38 ↑

10.00 ↓

29.32 ↑

0.34

< 0.001

49

 

 

Subshrubs

36.34 ↑

7.93 ↑

7.68 ↑

25.90 ↑

22.15 ↑

0.25

< 0.0001

147

Gutierrezia sarothrae

46.13 ↑

5.99 ↑

27.61 ↑

20.27 ↑

0.20

< 0.0001

138

Gutierrezia microcephala

18.52 ↑

24.74 ↑

25.89 ↑

30.85 ↑

0.49

< 0.01

23

Ephedra trifurca

60.88 ↑

39.12 ↑

0.17

< 0.05

31

Zinnia grandiflora

100.00

0.21

< 0.01

34

 

 

All Woody Vegetation

14.01 ↑

38.12 ↑

30.01 ↑

17.86 ↑

0.25

< 0.0001

148

All Herbaceous Vegetation

22.67 ↑

9.33 ↑

26.80 ↑

9.63 ↓

8.63 ↓

12.86 ↑

10.08 ↑

0.39

< 0.01

148

All Vegetation

32.52 ↑

30.34 ↑

12.25 ↓

10.85 ↓

14.04 ↑

0.21

< 0.001

148

Species Richness

36.18 ↑

 

11.09 ↑

18.42 ↓

 

 

 

 

 

14.32 ↓

 

 

19.99 ↑

 

 

0.27

< 0.0001

148

Mixed Grassland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Perennial Grasses

56.82 ↑

43.18 ↓

0.15

< 0.05

68

Aristida purpurea

10.23 ↑

12.21 ↑

36.99 ↑

22.35 ↓

18.22 ↓

0.57

< 0.001

44

Bouteloua eriopoda

70.98 ↑

29.02 ↑

0.21

< 0.01

57

Sporobolus flexuosus

100.00 ↑

0.13

< 0.05

41

 

 

Annual Grasses

73.07 ↑

26.93 ↑

0.30

< 0.05

28

Aristida adscensionis

40.34 ↑

27.52 ↑

32.14 ↑

0.46

< 0.05

20

 

 

Annual Forbs

 

Eriogonum abertianum

40.51 ↑

59.49 ↑

0.80

< 0.01

19

 

 

Subshrubs

66.61 ↑

33.39 ↑

0.15

< 0.05

46

Gutierrezia sarothrae

60.85 ↑

39.15 ↑

0.15

< 0.05

46

 

 

All Woody Vegetation

82.69 ↑

17.31 ↑

0.17

< 0.01

68

All Herbaceous Vegetation

100.00 ↑

0.12

< 0.05

68

All Vegetation

43.21 ↑

23.27 ↑

18.54 ↑

14.98 ↑

0.32

< 0.001

68

Species Richness

52.90 ↑

 

35.88 ↑

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.22 ↑

 

 

0.25

< 0.01

68

Sideoats Grama Grassland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Perennial Grasses

 

Bouteloua gracilis

100 ↓

0.77

< 0.05

5

Bouteloua eriopoda

100.00 ↑

0.58

< 0.05

9

Bouteloua hirsuta

24.12 ↓

25.61 ↑

24.35 ↑

25.92 ↑

0.98

< 0.05

7

 

 

Subshrubs

47.04 ↓

52.96 ↓

0.39

0.09

13

 

 

All Woody Vegetation

49.28 ↓

 

 

 

 

50.72 ↓

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.41

0.07

13

Blue Grama Grassland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Perennial Grasses

100.00 ↑

0.45

< 0.05

10

Bouteloua gracilis

56.67 ↑

43.33 ↑

0.64

< 0.05

10

Muhlenbergia arenicola

100.00 ↑

0.59

< 0.05

7

Scleropogon brevifolius

100.00 ↑

0.70

< 0.01

8

Dasyochloa pulchella

44.44 ↑

55.56 ↑

0.82

< 0.05

7

 

 

Annual Grasses

45.47 ↓

54.53 ↓

0.71

0.08

7

 

 

Annual Forbs

100.00 ↓

0.50

< 0.05

8

Chamaesyce serpyllifolia

43.29 ↓

56.71 ↓

0.74

< 0.05

7

 

 

Perennial Forbs

 

Chamaesyce albomarginata

49.25 ↓

50.75 ↓

0.61

0.10

7

Senna bauhinioides

42.94 ↓

57.06 ↑

0.83

< 0.05

7

 

 

Subshrubs

100.00 ↑

0.58

< 0.05

10

Zinnia grandiflora

39.52 ↑

31.84 ↓

28.64 ↓

0.83

0.11

7

 

 

All Vegetation

62.97 ↑

 

 

37.03 ↓

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.66

< 0.05

10

Creosote Bush Shrubland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Shrubs

37.01 ↓

62.99 ↑

0.19

< 0.01

68

Larrea tridentata

100.00 ↑

0.07

< 0.05

68

Flourensia cernua

49.47 ↑

26.19 ↑

24.34 ↓

0.18

0.17

30

Parthenium incanum

44.34 ↑

21.44 ↑

34.22 ↓

0.18

< 0.05

42

 

 

Subshrubs

34.94 ↑

9.43 ↑

27.39 ↑

28.24 ↑

0.35

< 0.01

66

Gutierrezia sarothrae

41.81 ↑

11.69 ↑

23.18 ↑

23.32 ↑

0.22

< 0.01

42

Gutierrezia microcephala

50.25 ↑

8.60 ↑

41.15 ↑

0.35

< 0.01

33

Zinnia acerosa

16.30 ↑

62.32 ↑

21.38 ↑

0.22

< 0.05

33

 

 

Perennnial Grasses

22.47 ↑

28.91 ↑

14.60 ↓

34.02 ↑

0.31

< 0.001

68

Muhlenbergia porteri

42.73 ↑

30.52 ↑

26.75 ↑

0.17

< 0.05

58

Aristida purpurea

10.56 ↑

14.39 ↑

31.07 ↑

14.33 ↓

12.57 ↓

17.08 ↑

0.25

< 0.01

55

Dasyochloa pulchella

15.51 ↑

31.90 ↑

18.41 ↓

34.18 ↑

0.24

< 0.01

64

Scleropogon brevifolius

37.18 ↑

62.82 ↑

0.18

< 0.01

47

 

 

Annual Grasses

58.24 ↑

9.45 ↑

8.14 ↓

24.17 ↑

0.36

< 0.001

47

Bouteloua barbata

70.35 ↑

29.65 ↑

0.36

< 0.001

40

Bouteloua aristidoides

55.41 ↑

21.07 ↑

7.97 ↓

15.55 ↑

0.38

< 0.05

28

 

 

Perennial Forbs

25.98 ↑

46.48 ↑

9.67 ↓

17.87 ↑

0.24

< 0.01

68

Baileya multiradiata

44.92 ↑

28.22 ↑

26.86 ↑

0.24

< 0.05

30

Solanum elaeagnifolium

78.26 ↑

21.74 ↑

0.29

< 0.01

40

Bahia absinthifolia

30.69 ↑

47.56 ↑

21.75 ↑

0.22

< 0.01

48

Croton pottsii

23.48 ↑

59.58 ↑

16.94 ↓

0.23

< 0.05

36

Oenothera caespitosa

59.22 ↑

27.23 ↑

13.55 ↑

0.34

< 0.01

32

Senna bauhinioides

100.00 ↑

0.20

< 0.01

34

 

 

Annual Forbs

36.61 ↑

31.24 ↑

16.20 ↑

15.95 ↑

0.34

< 0.001

57

Tidestromia lanuginosa

42.23 ↑

17.41 ↑

24.95 ↑

15.41 ↑

0.48

< 0.001

34

Eriogonum abertianum

34.47 ↑

38.25 ↑

27.28 ↑

0.56

< 0.001

26

Eriogonum rotundifolium

34.41 ↑

9.00 ↑

22.56 ↑

34.03 ↑

0.32

< 0.01

36

Chamaesyce serpyllifolia

62.06 ↑

9.09 ↑

6.69 ↓

22.16 ↑

0.50

< 0.0001

45

Chamaesyce serrula

61.15 ↑

9.56 ↑

6.33 ↓

22.96 ↑

0.51

< 0.0001

49

 

 

All Woody Vegetation

61.65 ↓

38.35 ↑

0.11

< 0.05

68

All Herbaceous Vegetation

29.51 ↑

34.68 ↑

9.00 ↓

19.10 ↑

7.71 ↑

0.31

< 0.001

68

All Vegetation

43.11 ↑

42.42 ↑

14.47 ↑

0.25

< 0.001

68

Species Richness

37.39 ↑

 

32.45 ↑

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.00 ↓

 

 

23.16 ↑

 

 

0.29

< 0.001

68

Mesquite Shrubland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Shrubs

24.37 ↑

52.23 ↑

23.40 ↑

0.36

< 0.001

58

Prosopis glandulosa

24.68 ↑

9.12 ↑

44.57 ↑

21.63 ↑

0.33

< 0.001

58

 

 

Subshrubs

26.36 ↑

55.55 ↑

18.09 ↑

0.28

< 0.01

49

Gutierrezia sarothrae

47.27 ↑

52.73 ↑

0.13

0.06

42

 

 

Perennial Grasses

14.82 ↑

24.64 ↑

42.75 ↑

17.79 ↑

0.20

< 0.05

58

Setaria leucopila

36.42 ↑

22.96 ↑

13.06 ↓

27.56 ↑

0.50

< 0.05

23

Muhlenbergia porteri

45.24 ↑

29.67 ↑

25.09 ↑

0.22

< 0.05

34

Sporobolus flexuosus

36.80 ↑

33.78 ↑

29.42 ↑

0.34

< 0.01

40

Dasyochloa pulchella

15.74 ↑

28.51 ↑

26.08 ↓

29.67 ↑

0.40

< 0.01

36

Aristida purpurea

26.19 ↑

15.63 ↑

26.34 ↑

31.84 ↑

0.34

< 0.05

30

 

 

Annual Grasses

62.99 ↑

15.92 ↑

21.09 ↑

0.26

< 0.05

30

Bouteloua barbata

78.14 ↑

21.86 ↑

0.37

< 0.01

26

Bouteloua aristidoides

68.08 ↑

31.92 ↑

0.30

< 0.05

24

 

 

Perennial Forbs

23.96 ↑

76.04 ↑

0.20

< 0.05

39

Senna bauhinioides

62.17 ↑

37.83 ↑

0.25

< 0.05

28

Chamaesyce albomarginata

36.76 ↑

34.78 ↑

28.46 ↓

0.46

< 0.01

29

 

 

Annual Forbs

34.22 ↑

35.78 ↑

30.00 ↑

0.28

< 0.01

34

Tidestromia lanuginosa

63.18 ↑

36.82 ↑

0.36

< 0.001

26

 

 

All Woody Vegetation

24.64 ↑

54.25 ↑

21.11 ↑

0.42

< 0.0001

58

All Herbaceous Vegetation

21.26 ↑

36.52 ↑

42.22 ↑

0.21

< 0.01

58

All Vegetation

39.00 ↑

35.08 ↑

25.92 ↑

0.23

< 0.01

58

Species Richness

44.21 ↑

 

30.37 ↑

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.42 ↑

 

 

0.18

< 0.05

58

Tarbush Shrubland

 

Precipitation

Temperature

Drought Index

Functional Type/Species

Year

sumP

winP

annP

sum_meanT

win_meanT

ann_meanT

sum_minT

win_minT

ann_minT

sum_maxT

win_maxT

ann_maxT

sum_PMDI

win_PMDI

ann_PMDI

R²

P

N

Shrubs

13.87 ↑

40.38 ↑

19.37 ↑

26.38 ↑

0.51

< 0.01

29

Flourensia cernua

21.27 ↑

37.82 ↑

40.91 ↑

0.49

< 0.05

29

 

 

Perennial Grasses

44.18 ↑

34.10 ↑

21.72 ↑

0.31

< 0.05

29

Aristida purpurea

16.12 ↑

31.86 ↑

52.02 ↑

0.31

< 0.05

25

Bouteloua eriopoda

32.82 ↑

18.10 ↓

49.08 ↑

0.38

< 0.05

23

Muhlenbergia arenacea

41.64 ↑

38.80 ↑

19.56 ↑

0.38

< 0.05

21

 

 

Annual Grasses

19.84 ↑

80.16 ↑

0.65

< 0.05

11

 

 

Perennial Forbs

70.43 ↑

29.57 ↑

0.20

0.10

25

Oenothera caespitosa

46.80 ↑

24.33 ↑

28.87 ↑

0.34

< 0.05

22

Solanum elaeagnifolium

54.15 ↑

25.34 ↑

20.51 ↑

0.26

0.16

21

Hoffmannseggia glauca

100.00 ↑

0.26

< 0.05

21

Bahia absinthifolia

66.10 ↑

33.90 ↑

0.38

< 0.05

22

 

 

Annual Forbs

27.18 ↑

45.50 ↑

27.32 ↑

0.37

< 0.05

24

Chamaesyce serpyllifolia

48.24 ↑

51.76 ↑

0.29

0.09

17

 

 

All Woody Vegetation

31.15 ↑

46.04 ↑

22.81 ↑

0.38

< 0.01

29

All Herbaceous Vegetation

41.40 ↑

34.26 ↑

24.34 ↑

0.34

< 0.05

29

All Vegetation

37.91 ↑

36.55 ↑

25.54 ↑

0.26

< 0.05

29

Species Richness

39.57 ↑

 

23.47 ↑

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36.96 ↑

 

 

0.27

< 0.05

29


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