Ecological Archives E095-166-A1

Guadalupe Peralta, Carol M. Frost, Tatyana A. Rand, Raphael K. Didham, Jason M. Tylianakis. 2014. Complementarity and redundancy of interactions enhance attack rates and spatial stability in host–parasitoid food webs. Ecology 95:1888–1896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1569.1

Appendix A. Study region, sampling, molecular identification technique, and species collected.

Study region

The Nelson and Marlborough area (South Island, New Zealand) was originally covered by native southern beech (Nothofagus spp., Fagaceae) forest from the coast to the alpine tree-limit. However, conversion to agriculture, plantation forestry and urbanization have greatly reduced the area of natural forest, and edges have proliferated (Ewers et al. 2006). Exotic plantation species are used for timber, and commercial forestry is increasingly concentrated on a single species: Pinus radiata. Nowadays, juxtaposition of native and production forests is common in this region and worldwide.

We selected eight sites, each of them composed of two adjacent forest types representative of the two predominant forest types in the region (native southern beech and Pinus radiata monoculture plantation), with a minimum distance between sites of at least 2.7 km (maximum distance 94.6 km). At each site we established four sampling plots, with two in each forest type (Fig. A1).

Sampling

In each sampling plot we collected Lepidoptera larvae along a 50 × 2 m transect. All the transects within a site fell within an elevation range of 100 m to avoid potential confounding effects caused by altitudinal differences within sites (De Sassi et al. 2012), even though elevation varied from 70 – 637 m across sites. In order to minimize the depletion of herbivore numbers on consecutive sampling rounds, we moved each transect 1 m away from the transect used in the previous month, so that the same plants were not sampled on multiple occasions. Also, to better quantify the number of interactions between herbivores (hosts) and parasitoids (that is, to make webs more representative of the diverse interactions occurring at a site), we sampled extra plants in sites for which the total number of herbivores collected was less than 50. These samples were taken as close to the transect as possible, and allowed us to increase our sample size of herbivores and parasitoids.

Molecular identification of parasitoid specimens

For molecular identification of parasitoids, particularly males, we sequenced a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) used in previous studies for parasitoid identification (Kaartinen et al. 2010), and related male sequences to those of female specimens that had been identified morphologically. Specimens that had COI sequences which were > 96 % similar were considered to be the same species, as this captured most of the species defined without molecular means (Smith et al. 2013). All specimens were identified to species or morphospecies (for the undescribed species) level (Table A1) with the help of expert taxonomists (see acknowledgments). For the morphospecies, both herbivores (hosts) and parasitoids were at least identified to genus level according to current taxonomic classification (with the exception of the lepidopteran family Psychidae for which only two species could be identified and the remaining 4 specimens could not be assigned to a species and were lumped into the morphospecies 'Psychidae sp.').

FigA1

Fig. A1. Sampling design at each of our eight sites formed by native beech forest (left) and adjacent exotic pine plantation (right). At each site we sampled host-parasitoid food webs in four sampling plots (white squares), two in the native area and two in the plantation area of the site. In total, 32 subplots were sampled.


 

Table A1. List of (A) host and (B) parasitoid families and species. Species are listed by family alphabetically. Voucher specimens of Ichneumonidae and Tachinidae parasitoids have been deposited at the New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) in Auckland; Braconidae, Campopleginae, Chalcididae, and Eulophinae parasitoids at the Te Papa Museum Entomology Collection in Wellington, New Zealand.

 

Family

Species

A) Host

Arctiidae

Nyctemera annulata (Boisduval, 1832)

 

Carposinidae

Heterocrossa gonosemana Meyrick, 1882

 

 

Heterocrossa Meyrick, 1882 sp. 'indet A'

 

 

Paramorpha marginata (Philpott, 1931)

 

Crambidae

Deana hybreasalis (Walker, 1859)

 

 

Musotima nitidalis (Walker, 1866)

 

Erebidae

Rhapsa scotosialis Walker, 1866

 

Gelechiidae

Thiotricha Meyrick, 1886 sp.

 

 

Thiotricha lindsayi Philpott, 1927

 

Geometridae

Austrocidaria Dugdale, 1971 sp.

 

 

Chalastra pellurgata Walker, 1862

 

 

Chloroclystis Hubner, [1825] sp.

 

 

Cleora scriptaria (Walker, 1860)

 

 

Declana feredayi Butler, 1877

 

 

Declana floccosa Walker, 1858

 

 

Declana hermione Hudson, 1898

 

 

Declana junctilinea (Walker, 1865)

 

 

Declana leptomera (Walker, 1858)

 

 

Declana niveata Butler, 1879

 

 

Elvia glaucata Walker, 1862

 

 

Gellonia Meyrick, 1884 sp.

 

 

Helastia Guenée, 1868 sp.

 

 

Hydriomena deltoidata (Walker, 1862)

 

 

Ischalis gallaria (Walker, 1860)

 

 

Ischalis variabilis (Warren, 1895)

 

 

Pasiphila sandycias (Meyrick, 1905)

 

 

Poecilasthena Warren, 1894 sp.

 

 

Pseudocoremia ampla (Hudsonb, 1923)

 

 

Pseudocoremia fascialata (Philpott, 1903)

 

 

Pseudocoremia fenerata (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)

 

 

Pseudocoremia fluminea (Philpott, 1926)

 

 

Pseudocoremia leucelaea (Meyrick, 1909)

 

 

Pseudocoremia lupinata (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)

 

 

Pseudocoremia productata (Walker, 1862)

 

 

Pseudocoremia Butler, 1877 sp.

 

 

Sarisa muriferata (Walker, 1863)

 

 

Sestra Walker, 1862 sp.

 

 

Tatosoma lestevata (Walker, 1862)

 

 

Tatosoma tipulata (Walker, 1862)

 

 

Xyridacma alectoraria (Walker, 1860)

 

 

Xyridacma ustaria (Walker, 1863)

 

Gracillariidae

Caloptilia linearis (Butler, 1877)

 

 

Caloptilia selenitis (Meyrick, 1909)

 

Noctuidae

Austramathes purpurea (Butler, 1879)

 

 

Andesia pessota (Meyrick, 1887)

 

 

Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday, 1843)

 

 

Feredayia graminosa (Walker, 1857)

 

 

Graphania insignis (Walker, 1865)

 

 

Graphania mutans (Walker, 1857)

 

 

Graphania plena (Walker, 1865)

 

 

Graphania ustistriga (Walker, 1857)

 

 

Meterana dotata (Walker, 1857)

 

 

Meterana pascoi (Howes, 1912)

 

 

Meterana vitiosa (Butler, 1877)

 

 

Physetica prionistis Meyrick, 1887

 

 

Physetica sequens Howes, 1912

 

Nolidae

Celama parvitis Howes, 1917

 

Oecophoridae

Eutorna phaulocosma Meyrick, 1906

 

 

Gymnobathra Meyrick, 1883 sp.

 

 

Nymphostola galactina (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)

 

 

Phaeosaces Meyrick, 1886 sp.

 

 

Proteodes profunda Meyrick, 1905

 

Plutellidae

Orthenches Meyrick, 1886 sp.

 

Psychidae

Grypotheca pertinax Dugdale, 1987

 

 

Liothula omnivora Fereday, 1878

 

 

Psychidae sp.

 

Stathmopodidae

Stathmopoda Herrich-Schaffer, 1853 sp. 'chocolate'

 

Tineidae

Erechthias externella (Walker, 1864)

 

 

Sagephora phortegella Meyrick, 1888

 

Tortricidae

Apoctena Dugdale, 1990 sp.

 

 

Catamacta gavisana (Walker, 1863)

 

 

Cnephasia jactatana (Walker, 1863)

 

 

Ctenopseustis Meyrick, 1885 sp.

 

 

Dipterina imbriferana Meyrick, 1881

 

 

Ecclitica torogramma (Meyrick, 1897)

 

 

Epalxiphora axenana Meyrick, 1881

 

 

Epichorista emphanes (Meyrick, 1901)

 

 

Epichorista hemiona (Meyrick, 1882)

 

 

Epiphyas postvittana (Walker, 1863)

 

 

Harmologa amplexana (Zeller, 1875)

 

 

Holocola emplasta Meyrick, 1901

 

 

Holocola parthenia Meyrick, 1888

 

 

Holocola zopherana Meyrick, 1881

 

 

Leucotenes coprosmae (Dugdale, 1988)

 

 

Planotortrix excessana (Walker, 1863)

 

 

Planotortrix notophaea (Turner, 1926)

 

 

Planotortrix octo Dugdale, 1990

 

 

Pyrgotis Meyrick, 1881 sp.

 

 

Strepsicrates Meyrick, 1881 sp.

 

Yponomeutidae

Kessleria copidota (Meyrick, 1889)

B) Parasitoid

Braconidae

Aleiodes declanae van Achterberg, 2005

 

 

Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 sp.

 

 

Choeras Mason, 1981 sp.

 

 

Cotesia Cameron, 1891 sp.

 

 

Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 sp. 2

 

 

Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 'darklegs' sp. 4

 

 

Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 'lightly punct'

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 'dark'

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 2

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 3

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 4

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 5

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp.6

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 8

 

 

Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 sp. 9

 

 

Meteorus cinctellus (Spinolla, 1808)

 

 

Meteorus cobbus Huddleston, 1986

 

 

Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael, 1835)

 

Campopleginae

Diadegma Forster, 1868 'brown '

 

 

Diadegma Forster, 1868 'gold setae'

 

 

Diadegma Forster, 1868 sp. 1

 

 

Diadegma Forster, 1868 sp. 3

 

Eulophidae

Sympiesis Forster, 1856 sp.

 

 

Zealachertus Boucek, 1978 sp.

 

 

Zealachertus tortriciphaga Berry, 1999

 

Ichneumonidae

Aucklandella Cameron, 1909 sp.

 

 

Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 1

 

 

Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 4

 

 

Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 5

 

 

Campoletis Forster, 1868 sp. 9

 

 

Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 1

 

 

Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 13

 

 

Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 2

 

 

Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 3

 

 

Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 4

 

 

Campoplex Gravenhorst, 1829 sp. 9

 

 

Carria fortipes (Cameron, 1898)

 

 

Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 'no areolet'

 

 

Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 'petiolate areolet'

 

 

Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 sp. 2

 

 

Carria Schmiedeknecht, 1924 sp. 3

 

 

Casinaria Holmgren, 1858 sp. 3

 

 

Genus nov Hearthead

 

 

Ophion Fabricius, 1798 sp.

 

 

Phytodietus Gravenhorst, 1829 sp.

 

 

Sciron Fitton, 1984 sp.

 

Tachinidae

Calcager dubium Malloch, 1938

 

 

Calcageria incidens Curran, 1927

 

 

Genotrichia minor Malloch, 1938

 

 

Genotrichia Malloch, 1938 sp.

 

 

Montanarturia dimorpha (Malloch, 1938)

 

 

Pales atrox (Hutton, 1901)

 

 

Pales casta (Hutton, 1904)

 

 

Pales clathrata (Nowicki, 1875)

 

 

Pales feredayi (Hutton, 1901)

 

 

Pales funesta (Hutton, 1901)

 

 

Pales marginata (Hutton, 1901)

 

 

Plagiomyia longipes Malloch, 1938

 

 

Trigonospila brevifacies (Hardy, 1934)

 

 

Uclesiella Malloch, 1938 sp.

Literature cited

De Sassi, C., O. T. Lewis, and J. M. Tylianakis. 2012. Plant-mediated and nonadditive effects of two global change drivers on an insect herbivore community. Ecology 93:1892–1901.

Ewers, R. M., A. D. Kliskey, S. Walker, D. Rutledge, J. S. Harding, and R. K. Didham. 2006. Past and future trajectories of forest loss in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 133:312–325.

Kaartinen, R., G. N. Stone, J. Hearn, K. Lohse, and T. Roslin. 2010. Revealing secret liaisons: DNA barcoding changes our understanding of food webs. Ecological Entomology 35:623–638.

Smith, M. A., J. L. Fernández-Triana, E. Eveleigh, J. Gómez, C. Guclu, W. Hallwachs, P. D. N. Hebert, J. Hrcek, J. T. Huber, D. Janzen, P. G. Mason, S. Miller, D. L. J. Quicke, J. J. Rodriguez, R. Rougerie, M. R. Shaw, G. Várkonyi, D. F. Ward, J. B. Whitfield, and A. Zaldívar-Riverón. 2013. DNA barcoding and the taxonomy of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae): impacts after 8 years and nearly 20.000 sequences. Molecular Ecology 13:168–176.


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