Ecological Archives E095-266-A2

Shannon R. White, Edward W. Bork, James F. Cahill Jr.. 2014. Direct and indirect drivers of plant diversity responses to climate and clipping across northern temperate grassland. Ecology 95:3093–3103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0144.1

Appendix B. Additional results from SEMs: Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values.

Table B1. Standardized and unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for richness response variable at AB. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Richness

0.222

0.169

0.068

2.476

0.013

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.239

-0.057

0.038

-1.502

0.133

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.038

0.119

0.403

0.296

0.767

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.147

-0.018

0.027

-0.681

0.496

Air temperature to Richness

-0.366

-0.067

0.027

-2.485

0.013

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.527

0.409

0.092

4.456

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.072

-0.191

0.45

-0.424

0.672

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.141

0.251

0.212

1.185

0.236

Clipping to Air temperature

0.203

1.513

0.756

2.002

0.045

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.501

-11.553

2.071

-5.579

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.076

0.071

0.151

0.47

0.638

Clipping to Richness

0.253

0.344

0.262

1.314

0.189

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.125

-0.723

0.595

-1.216

0.224

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.148

-2.914

2.685

-1.085

0.278

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.057

0.163

0.374

0.436

0.663

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.443

0.008

0.003

3.143

0.002

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.12

-0.009

0.005

-2.016

0.044

Precipitation to Litter biomass

0.111

0.027

0.042

0.646

0.519

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.164

0.002

0.001

1.362

0.173

Precipitation to Richness

-0.331

-0.005

0.003

-1.844

0.065

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.141

-0.009

0.004

-2.041

0.041

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.216

0.045

0.019

2.377

0.017

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.134

-0.004

0.002

-1.638

0.101

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.026

0.001

0.008

0.13

0.896

Litter biomass to Richness

-0.187

-0.011

0.01

-1.151

0.25

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.48

-0.12

0.031

-3.868

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.209

-0.179

0.143

-1.252

0.21

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.073

-0.009

0.019

-0.469

0.639

Root biomass to Richness

0.106

0.154

0.103

1.494

0.135

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.031

-0.009

0.036

-0.262

0.793

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.209

0.034

0.033

1.014

0.311

Soil temperature to Richness

-0.034

-0.008

0.032

-0.248

0.804

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.529

-1.804

0.564

-3.2

0.001

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.087

-0.043

0.071

-0.602

0.547

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.007

-0.001

0.006

-0.102

0.919

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.336

0.016

0.008

1.931

0.053

Soil moisture to Richness

0.038

0.003

0.006

0.451

0.652

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.046

0.007

0.015

0.435

0.547

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.044

-0.027

0.049

-0.564

0.572

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.131

0.043

0.048

0.888

0.375

Nitrogen to Richness

-0.262

-0.125

0.048

-2.574

0.01

 

Table B2. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for richness response variable at SK. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Richness

0.251

0.169

0.068

2.476

0.013

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.153

-0.057

0.038

-1.502

0.133

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.025

0.119

0.403

0.296

0.767

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.051

-0.018

0.027

-0.681

0.496

Air temperature to Richness

-0.265

-0.067

0.027

-2.485

0.013

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.309

0.409

0.092

4.456

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.027

-0.191

0.45

-0.424

0.672

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.162

0.251

0.212

1.185

0.236

Clipping to Air temperature

-0.07

-0.288

0.901

-0.32

0.749

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.589

-11.553

2.071

-5.579

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.048

0.071

0.151

0.47

0.638

Clipping to Richness

-0.075

-0.078

0.244

-0.32

0.749

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.132

-0.723

0.595

-1.216

0.224

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.099

-2.914

2.685

-1.085

0.278

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.55

1.881

0.66

2.85

0.004

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

-0.183

-0.003

0.002

-1.228

0.22

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.216

-0.009

0.005

-2.016

0.044

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.168

-0.035

0.018

-1.897

0.058

Precipitation to Root biomass

-0.159

-0.003

0.003

-0.753

0.451

Precipitation to Richness

-0.111

-0.001

0.001

-0.955

0.339

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.148

-0.009

0.004

-2.041

0.041

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.144

0.045

0.019

2.377

0.017

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.111

-0.004

0.002

-1.638

0.101

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.014

0.001

0.008

0.13

0.896

Litter biomass to Richness

-0.207

-0.011

0.01

-1.151

0.25

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.713

-0.199

0.049

-4.07

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.119

-0.179

0.143

-1.252

0.21

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.052

-0.009

0.019

-0.469

0.639

Root biomass to Richness

0.22

0.154

0.103

1.494

0.135

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.033

-0.009

0.036

-0.262

0.793

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.124

0.034

0.033

1.014

0.311

Soil temperature to Richness

-0.042

-0.008

0.032

-0.248

0.804

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.335

-1.804

0.564

-3.2

0.001

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.069

-0.043

0.071

-0.602

0.547

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.012

-0.001

0.006

-0.102

0.919

Soil moisture to Root biomass

-0.244

-0.012

0.011

-1.153

0.249

Soil moisture to Richness

0.074

0.003

0.006

0.451

0.652

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.057

0.007

0.015

0.435

0.663

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.061

-0.027

0.049

-0.564

0.572

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.098

0.043

0.048

0.888

0.375

Nitrogen to Richness

-0.409

-0.125

0.048

-2.574

0.01

 

Table B3. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for richness response variable at MB. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Richness

0.443

0.169

0.068

2.476

0.013

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.09

-0.057

0.038

-1.502

0.133

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.027

0.119

0.403

0.296

0.767

Air temperature to Root biomass

0.321

0.069

0.045

1.546

0.122

Air temperature to Richness

-0.274

-0.067

0.027

-2.485

0.013

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.39

0.409

0.092

4.456

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.043

-0.191

0.45

-0.424

0.672

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.087

0.251

0.212

1.185

0.236

Clipping to Air temperature

0.333

1.513

0.756

2.002

0.045

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.579

-11.553

2.071

-5.579

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.073

0.071

0.151

0.47

0.638

Clipping to Richness

-0.282

-0.313

0.226

-1.384

0.166

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.152

-0.723

0.595

-1.216

0.224

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.144

-2.914

2.685

-1.085

0.278

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.09

0.163

0.374

0.436

0.663

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.436

0.008

0.003

3.143

0.002

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.315

-0.009

0.005

-2.016

0.044

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.264

-0.035

0.018

-1.897

0.058

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.252

0.002

0.001

1.362

0.173

Precipitation to Richness

-0.168

-0.001

0.001

-0.955

0.339

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.273

-0.009

0.004

-2.041

0.041

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.335

0.045

0.019

2.377

0.017

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.336

-0.004

0.002

-1.638

0.101

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.021

0.001

0.008

0.13

0.896

Litter biomass to Richness

-0.199

-0.011

0.01

-1.151

0.25

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.504

-0.12

0.031

-3.868

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.176

-0.179

0.143

-1.252

0.21

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.099

-0.009

0.019

-0.469

0.639

Root biomass to Richness

0.135

0.154

0.103

1.494

0.135

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.015

-0.009

0.036

-0.262

0.793

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.165

0.034

0.033

1.014

0.311

Soil temperature to Richness

-0.034

-0.008

0.032

-0.248

0.804

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.424

-1.804

0.564

-3.2

0.001

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.113

-0.043

0.071

-0.602

0.547

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.194

-0.028

0.027

-1.038

0.299

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.332

0.016

0.008

1.931

0.053

Soil moisture to Richness

0.048

0.003

0.006

0.451

0.652

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.075

0.007

0.015

0.435

0.663

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.017

-0.027

0.049

-0.564

0.572

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.08

0.043

0.048

0.888

0.375

Nitrogen to Richness

-0.204

-0.125

0.048

-2.574

0.01

 

Table B4. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for evenness response variable at AB. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Evenness

-0.068

-0.028

0.052

-0.546

0.585

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.239

-0.057

0.038

-1.502

0.133

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.038

0.119

0.403

0.296

0.767

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.147

-0.018

0.027

-0.681

0.496

Air temperature to Evenness

-0.273

-0.027

0.021

-1.317

0.188

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.527

0.409

0.092

4.456

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.072

-0.191

0.45

-0.424

0.672

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.141

0.251

0.212

1.185

0.236

Clipping to Air temperature

0.203

1.513

0.756

2.002

0.045

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.501

-11.553

2.071

-5.579

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.076

0.071

0.151

0.47

0.638

Clipping to Evenness

0.217

0.16

0.138

1.158

0.247

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.125

-0.723

0.595

-1.216

0.224

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.148

-2.914

2.685

-1.085

0.278

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.057

0.163

0.374

0.436

0.663

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.443

0.008

0.003

3.143

0.002

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.12

-0.009

0.005

-2.016

0.044

Precipitation to Litter biomass

0.111

0.027

0.042

0.646

0.519

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.164

0.002

0.001

1.362

0.173

Precipitation to Evenness

-0.055

0

0.001

-0.462

0.644

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.141

-0.009

0.004

-2.041

0.041

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.216

0.045

0.019

2.377

0.017

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.134

-0.004

0.002

-1.638

0.101

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.026

0.001

0.008

0.13

0.896

Litter biomass to Evenness

0.104

0.003

0.007

0.483

0.629

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.48

-0.12

0.031

-3.868

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.209

-0.179

0.143

-1.252

0.21

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.073

-0.009

0.019

-0.469

0.639

Root biomass to Evenness

-0.011

-0.009

0.119

-0.074

0.941

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.031

-0.009

0.036

-0.262

0.793

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.209

0.034

0.033

1.014

0.311

Soil temperature to Evenness

0.286

0.037

0.024

1.545

0.122

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.529

-1.804

0.564

-3.2

0.001

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.087

-0.043

0.071

-0.602

0.547

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.007

-0.001

0.006

-0.102

0.919

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.336

0.016

0.008

1.931

0.053

Soil moisture to Evenness

0

0

0.005

0

1

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.046

0.007

0.015

0.435

0.663

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.044

-0.027

0.049

-0.564

0.572

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.131

0.043

0.048

0.888

0.375

Nitrogen to Evenness

0.141

0.037

0.035

1.039

0.299

 

Table B5. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for evenness response variable at SK. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Evenness

-0.05

-0.028

0.052

-0.546

0.585

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.153

-0.057

0.038

-1.502

0.133

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.025

0.119

0.403

0.296

0.767

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.051

-0.018

0.027

-0.681

0.496

Air temperature to Evenness

-0.127

-0.027

0.021

-1.317

0.188

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.309

0.409

0.092

4.456

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.027

-0.191

0.45

-0.424

0.672

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.162

0.251

0.212

1.185

0.236

Clipping to Air temperature

-0.07

-0.288

0.901

-0.32

0.749

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.589

-11.553

2.071

-5.579

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.048

0.071

0.151

0.47

0.638

Clipping to Evenness

-0.482

-0.425

0.186

-2.284

0.022

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.132

-0.723

0.595

-1.216

0.224

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.099

-2.914

2.685

-1.085

0.278

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.55

1.881

0.66

2.85

0.004

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

-0.183

-0.003

0.002

-1.228

0.22

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.216

-0.009

0.005

-2.016

0.044

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.168

-0.035

0.018

-1.897

0.058

Precipitation to Root biomass

-0.159

-0.003

0.003

-0.753

0.451

Precipitation to Evenness

-0.046

0

0.001

-0.462

0.644

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.148

-0.009

0.004

-2.041

0.041

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.144

0.045

0.019

2.377

0.017

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.111

-0.004

0.002

-1.638

0.101

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.014

0.001

0.008

0.13

0.896

Litter biomass to Evenness

0.074

0.003

0.007

0.483

0.629

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.713

-0.199

0.049

-4.07

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.119

-0.179

0.143

-1.252

0.21

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.052

-0.009

0.019

-0.469

0.639

Root biomass to Evenness

0.437

0.258

0.108

2.396

0.017

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.033

-0.009

0.036

-0.262

0.793

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.124

0.034

0.033

1.014

0.311

Soil temperature to Evenness

0.227

0.037

0.024

1.545

0.122

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.335

-1.804

0.564

-3.2

0.001

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.069

-0.043

0.071

-0.602

0.547

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.012

-0.001

0.006

-0.102

0.919

Soil moisture to Root biomass

-0.244

-0.012

0.011

-1.153

0.249

Soil moisture to Evenness

0

0

0.005

0

1

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.057

0.007

0.015

0.435

0.663

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.061

-0.027

0.049

-0.564

0.572

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.098

0.043

0.048

0.888

0.375

Nitrogen to Evenness

0.142

0.037

0.035

1.039

0.299

 

Table B6. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for evenness response variable at MB. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Evenness

-0.105

-0.028

0.052

-0.546

0.585

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.09

-0.057

0.038

-1.502

0.133

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.027

0.119

0.403

0.296

0.767

Air temperature to Root biomass

0.321

0.069

0.045

1.546

0.122

Air temperature to Evenness

-0.555

-0.096

0.037

-2.602

0.009

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.39

0.409

0.092

4.456

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.043

-0.191

0.45

-0.424

0.672

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.087

0.251

0.212

1.185

0.236

Clipping to Air temperature

0.333

1.513

0.756

2.002

0.045

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.579

-11.553

2.071

-5.579

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.073

0.071

0.151

0.47

0.638

Clipping to Evenness

0.204

0.16

0.138

1.158

0.247

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.152

-0.723

0.595

-1.216

0.224

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.144

-2.914

2.685

-1.085

0.278

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.09

0.163

0.374

0.436

0.663

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.436

0.008

0.003

3.143

0.002

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.315

-0.009

0.005

-2.016

0.044

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.264

-0.035

0.018

-1.897

0.058

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.252

0.002

0.001

1.362

0.173

Precipitation to Evenness

-0.082

0

0.001

-0.462

0.644

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.273

-0.009

0.004

-2.041

0.041

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.335

0.045

0.019

2.377

0.017

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.336

-0.004

0.002

-1.638

0.101

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.021

0.001

0.008

0.13

0.896

Litter biomass to Evenness

0.084

0.003

0.007

0.483

0.629

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.504

-0.12

0.031

-3.868

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.176

-0.179

0.143

-1.252

0.21

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.099

-0.009

0.019

-0.469

0.639

Root biomass to Evenness

-0.011

-0.009

0.119

-0.074

0.941

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.015

-0.009

0.036

-0.262

0.793

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.165

0.034

0.033

1.014

0.311

Soil temperature to Evenness

0.223

0.037

0.024

1.545

0.122

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.424

-1.804

0.564

-3.2

0.001

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.113

-0.043

0.071

-0.602

0.547

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.194

-0.028

0.027

-1.038

0.299

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.332

0.016

0.008

1.931

0.053

Soil moisture to Evenness

0

0

0.005

0

1

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.075

0.007

0.015

0.435

0.663

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.017

-0.027

0.049

-0.564

0.572

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.08

0.043

0.048

0.888

0.375

Nitrogen to Evenness

0.084

0.037

0.035

1.039

0.299

 

Table B7. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model with for richness response variable at AB, with missing values estimated. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Richness

0.282

0.173

0.069

2.519

0.012

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

0.127

0.035

0.042

0.836

0.403

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.123

0.364

0.378

0.964

0.335

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.094

-0.011

0.025

-0.448

0.654

Air temperature to Richness

-0.502

-0.085

0.023

-3.654

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.445

0.353

0.09

3.905

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.225

-0.584

0.42

-1.39

0.164

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.015

0.032

0.235

0.135

0.893

Clipping to Air temperature

0.096

0.746

0.58

1.285

0.199

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.56

-12.844

2.035

-6.311

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.031

0.028

0.152

0.186

0.853

Clipping to Richness

0.338

0.443

0.223

1.986

0.047

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.109

-0.673

0.618

-1.089

0.276

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.12

-2.411

2.773

-0.87

0.385

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.101

0.292

0.385

0.759

0.448

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.328

0.007

0.002

3.32

<0.001

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.135

-0.011

0.005

-2.315

0.021

Precipitation to Litter biomass

0.143

0.034

0.038

0.894

0.371

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.143

0.001

0.001

1.244

0.213

Precipitation to Richness

-0.307

-0.004

0.002

-1.929

0.054

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.133

-0.009

0.004

-2.011

0.044

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.201

0.042

0.019

2.205

0.027

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.113

-0.003

0.002

-1.412

0.158

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.011

0

0.008

0.053

0.958

Litter biomass to Richness

-0.129

-0.007

0.009

-0.842

0.4

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.601

-0.161

0.033

-4.824

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.198

-0.174

0.149

-1.165

0.244

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.016

-0.002

0.019

-0.109

0.914

Root biomass to Richness

0.1

0.142

0.097

1.468

0.142

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.288

-0.1

0.048

-2.07

0.038

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.093

0.014

0.031

0.455

0.649

Soil temperature to Richness

0.047

0.01

0.03

0.337

0.736

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.415

-1.36

0.544

-2.501

0.012

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.031

-0.015

0.069

-0.212

0.832

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.107

-0.011

0.009

-1.207

0.227

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.28

0.013

0.008

1.649

0.099

Soil moisture to Richness

0.02

0.001

0.006

0.23

0.818

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.046

0.007

0.015

0.456

0.648

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.007

-0.005

0.073

-0.068

0.946

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.056

0.018

0.047

0.381

0.703

Nitrogen to Richness

-0.228

-0.103

0.044

-2.35

0.019

 

Table B8. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for richness response variable at SK, with missing values estimated. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Richness

0.304

0.173

0.069

2.519

0.012

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

0.075

0.035

0.042

0.836

0.403

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.078

0.364

0.378

0.964

0.335

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.03

-0.011

0.025

-0.448

0.654

Air temperature to Richness

-0.32

-0.085

0.023

-3.654

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.285

0.353

0.09

3.905

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.089

-0.584

0.42

-1.39

0.164

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.016

0.032

0.235

0.135

0.893

Clipping to Air temperature

0.171

0.746

0.58

1.285

0.199

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.625

-12.844

2.035

-6.311

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.017

0.028

0.152

0.186

0.853

Clipping to Richness

-0.194

-0.224

0.181

-1.241

0.214

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.124

-0.673

0.618

-1.089

0.276

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.084

-2.411

2.773

-0.87

0.385

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.507

1.697

0.637

2.664

0.008

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

-0.183

-0.004

0.004

-1.075

0.282

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.24

-0.011

0.005

-2.315

0.021

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.138

-0.03

0.019

-1.589

0.112

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.082

0.001

0.001

1.244

0.213

Precipitation to Richness

-0.078

-0.001

0.001

-0.74

0.46

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.151

-0.009

0.004

-2.011

0.044

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.141

0.042

0.019

2.205

0.027

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.098

-0.003

0.002

-1.412

0.158

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.005

0

0.008

0.053

0.958

Litter biomass to Richness

-0.131

-0.007

0.009

-0.842

0.4

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.61

-0.161

0.033

-4.824

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.124

-0.174

0.149

-1.165

0.244

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.013

-0.002

0.019

-0.109

0.914

Root biomass to Richness

0.199

0.142

0.097

1.468

0.142

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.265

-0.1

0.048

-2.07

0.038

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.047

0.014

0.031

0.455

0.649

Soil temperature to Richness

0.047

0.01

0.03

0.337

0.736

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.257

-1.36

0.544

-2.501

0.012

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.024

-0.015

0.069

-0.212

0.832

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.16

-0.011

0.009

-1.207

0.227

Soil moisture to Root biomass

-0.369

-0.021

0.011

-1.888

0.059

Soil moisture to Richness

0.033

0.001

0.006

0.23

0.818

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.057

0.007

0.015

0.456

0.648

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.008

-0.005

0.073

-0.068

0.946

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.037

0.018

0.047

0.381

0.703

Nitrogen to Richness

-0.297

-0.103

0.044

-2.35

0.019

 

Table B9. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for richness response variable at MB, with missing values estimated. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Richness

0.345

0.173

0.069

2.519

0.012

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

0.072

0.035

0.042

0.836

0.403

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.079

0.364

0.378

0.964

0.335

Air temperature to Root biomass

0.371

0.077

0.044

1.761

0.078

Air temperature to Richness

-0.348

-0.085

0.023

-3.654

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.346

0.353

0.09

3.905

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.132

-0.584

0.42

-1.39

0.164

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.014

0.032

0.235

0.135

0.893

Clipping to Air temperature

0.164

0.746

0.58

1.285

0.199

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.614

-12.844

2.035

-6.311

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.03

0.028

0.152

0.186

0.853

Clipping to Richness

-0.202

-0.224

0.181

-1.241

0.214

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.145

-0.673

0.618

-1.089

0.276

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.119

-2.411

2.773

-0.87

0.385

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.158

0.292

0.385

0.759

0.448

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.5

0.007

0.002

3.32

<0.001

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.365

-0.011

0.005

-2.315

0.021

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.215

-0.03

0.019

-1.589

0.112

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.221

0.001

0.001

1.244

0.213

Precipitation to Richness

-0.13

-0.001

0.001

-0.74

0.46

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.279

-0.009

0.004

-2.011

0.044

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.319

0.042

0.019

2.205

0.027

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.284

-0.003

0.002

-1.412

0.158

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.009

0

0.008

0.053

0.958

Litter biomass to Richness

-0.139

-0.007

0.009

-0.842

0.4

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.552

-0.123

0.042

-2.918

0.004

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.18

-0.174

0.149

-1.165

0.244

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.023

-0.002

0.019

-0.109

0.914

Root biomass to Richness

0.122

0.142

0.097

1.468

0.142

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.209

-0.1

0.048

-2.07

0.038

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.068

0.014

0.031

0.455

0.649

Soil temperature to Richness

0.042

0.01

0.03

0.337

0.736

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.313

-1.36

0.544

-2.501

0.012

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.037

-0.015

0.069

-0.212

0.832

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.104

-0.011

0.009

-1.207

0.227

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.272

0.013

0.008

1.649

0.099

Soil moisture to Richness

0.024

0.001

0.006

0.23

0.818

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.073

0.007

0.015

0.456

0.648

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

-0.004

-0.005

0.073

-0.068

0.946

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.035

0.018

0.047

0.381

0.703

Nitrogen to Richness

-0.171

-0.103

0.044

-2.35

0.019

 

Table B10. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for evenness response variable at AB, with missing values estimated. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Evenness

-0.025

-0.009

0.052

-0.175

0.861

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

0.123

0.034

0.042

0.808

0.419

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.175

0.495

0.368

1.345

0.179

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.093

-0.011

0.025

-0.446

0.656

Air temperature to Evenness

-0.102

-0.01

0.019

-0.547

0.584

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.458

0.353

0.091

3.882

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.225

-0.584

0.422

-1.384

0.166

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.011

0.022

0.237

0.095

0.925

Clipping to Air temperature

0.096

0.746

0.58

1.285

0.199

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.612

-13.388

2.076

-6.449

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.028

0.026

0.155

0.168

0.867

Clipping to Evenness

0.168

0.131

0.134

0.978

0.328

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.113

-0.673

0.625

-1.077

0.282

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.12

-2.411

2.824

-0.854

0.393

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.101

0.292

0.386

0.758

0.449

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.329

0.007

0.002

3.307

<0.001

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.135

-0.011

0.005

-2.315

0.021

Precipitation to Litter biomass

0.148

0.034

0.034

0.995

0.32

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.143

0.001

0.001

1.244

0.213

Precipitation to Evenness

-0.05

0

0.001

-0.462

0.644

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.137

-0.009

0.004

-2.017

0.044

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.201

0.042

0.019

2.206

0.027

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.113

-0.003

0.002

-1.415

0.157

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.005

0

0.008

0.026

0.979

Litter biomass to Evenness

0.013

0

0.007

0.07

0.944

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.591

-0.161

0.034

-4.759

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.189

-0.174

0.15

-1.16

0.246

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.016

-0.002

0.018

-0.112

0.911

Root biomass to Evenness

0.177

0.149

0.082

1.825

0.068

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.27

-0.096

0.048

-1.988

0.047

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.09

0.014

0.031

0.453

0.651

Soil temperature to Evenness

0.221

0.029

0.022

1.287

0.198

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.403

-1.36

0.544

-2.501

0.012

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.03

-0.015

0.069

-0.212

0.832

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.108

-0.011

0.009

-1.202

0.229

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.279

0.013

0.008

1.645

0.1

Soil moisture to Evenness

-0.006

0

0.004

-0.053

0.958

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.046

0.007

0.015

0.456

0.648

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

0.002

0.002

0.072

0.023

0.982

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.056

0.018

0.047

0.381

0.703

Nitrogen to Evenness

0.184

0.049

0.034

1.468

0.142

 

Table B11. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for evenness response variable at SK, with missing values estimated. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Evenness

-0.022

-0.009

0.052

-0.175

0.861

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

0.072

0.034

0.042

0.808

0.419

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.1

0.495

0.368

1.345

0.179

Air temperature to Root biomass

-0.03

-0.011

0.025

-0.446

0.656

Air temperature to Evenness

-0.055

-0.01

0.019

-0.547

0.584

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.28

0.353

0.091

3.882

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.089

-0.584

0.422

-1.384

0.166

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.011

0.022

0.237

0.095

0.925

Clipping to Air temperature

0.171

0.746

0.58

1.285

0.199

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.616

-13.388

2.076

-6.449

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.016

0.026

0.155

0.168

0.867

Clipping to Evenness

-0.476

-0.394

0.178

-2.218

0.027

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.122

-0.673

0.625

-1.077

0.282

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.084

-2.411

2.824

-0.854

0.393

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.507

1.697

0.638

2.662

0.008

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

-0.175

-0.004

0.004

-1.023

0.306

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.24

-0.011

0.005

-2.315

0.021

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.123

-0.028

0.02

-1.397

0.163

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.082

0.001

0.001

1.244

0.213

Precipitation to Evenness

-0.047

0

0.001

-0.462

0.644

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.148

-0.009

0.004

-2.017

0.044

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.141

0.042

0.019

2.206

0.027

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.098

-0.003

0.002

-1.415

0.157

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.003

0

0.008

0.026

0.979

Litter biomass to Evenness

0.012

0

0.007

0.07

0.944

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.635

-0.161

0.034

-4.759

<0.001

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.132

-0.174

0.15

-1.16

0.246

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.013

-0.002

0.018

-0.112

0.911

Root biomass to Evenness

0.292

0.149

0.082

1.825

0.068

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.26

-0.096

0.048

-1.988

0.047

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.047

0.014

0.031

0.453

0.651

Soil temperature to Evenness

0.192

0.029

0.022

1.287

0.198

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.262

-1.36

0.544

-2.501

0.012

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.024

-0.015

0.069

-0.212

0.832

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.16

-0.011

0.009

-1.202

0.229

Soil moisture to Root biomass

-0.368

-0.021

0.011

-1.885

0.059

Soil moisture to Evenness

-0.008

0

0.004

-0.053

0.958

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.057

0.007

0.015

0.456

0.648

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

0.003

0.002

0.072

0.023

0.982

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.037

0.018

0.047

0.381

0.703

Nitrogen to Evenness

0.2

0.049

0.034

1.468

0.142

 

Table B12. Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients, the standard error of the unstandardized coefficients, t test results, and associated P values from the climate change and clipping structural equation model for evenness response variable at MB, with missing values estimated. Paths are from exogenous to endogenous variables.

Path

Standardized coefficients

Unstandardized coefficients

Standard error

t value

P value

Shoot biomass to Evenness

-0.024

-0.009

0.052

-0.175

0.861

Air temperature to Shoot biomass

0.069

0.034

0.042

0.808

0.419

Air temperature to Litter biomass

0.102

0.495

0.368

1.345

0.179

Air temperature to Root biomass

0.372

0.078

0.044

1.761

0.078

Air temperature to Evenness

-0.472

-0.086

0.037

-2.317

0.02

Air temperature to Soil temperature

0.342

0.353

0.091

3.882

<0.001

Air temperature to Soil moisture

-0.132

-0.584

0.422

-1.384

0.166

Clipping to Shoot biomass

0.01

0.022

0.237

0.095

0.925

Clipping to Air temperature

0.164

0.746

0.58

1.285

0.199

Clipping to Litter biomass

-0.607

-13.388

2.076

-6.449

<0.001

Clipping to Root biomass

0.027

0.026

0.155

0.168

0.867

Clipping to Evenness

0.157

0.131

0.134

0.978

0.328

Clipping to Soil temperature

-0.143

-0.673

0.625

-1.077

0.282

Clipping to Soil moisture

-0.119

-2.411

2.824

-0.854

0.393

Clipping to Nitrogen

0.158

0.292

0.386

0.758

0.449

Precipitation to Shoot biomass

0.5

0.007

0.002

3.307

<0.001

Precipitation to Air temperature

-0.365

-0.011

0.005

-2.315

0.021

Precipitation to Litter biomass

-0.192

-0.028

0.02

-1.397

0.163

Precipitation to Root biomass

0.221

0.001

0.001

1.244

0.213

Precipitation to Evenness

-0.075

0

0.001

-0.462

0.644

Precipitation to Soil temperature

-0.275

-0.009

0.004

-2.017

0.044

Precipitation to Soil moisture

0.319

0.042

0.019

2.206

0.027

Precipitation to Nitrogen

-0.284

-0.003

0.002

-1.415

0.157

Litter biomass to Root biomass

0.005

0

0.008

0.026

0.979

Litter biomass to Evenness

0.012

0

0.007

0.07

0.944

Litter biomass to Soil temperature

-0.576

-0.123

0.04

-3.09

0.002

Litter biomass to Soil moisture

-0.19

-0.174

0.15

-1.16

0.246

Litter biomass to Nitrogen

-0.025

-0.002

0.018

-0.112

0.911

Root biomass to Evenness

-0.185

-0.163

0.168

-0.967

0.334

Soil temperature to Shoot biomass

-0.204

-0.096

0.048

-1.988

0.047

Soil temperature to Root biomass

0.069

0.014

0.031

0.453

0.651

Soil temperature to Evenness

0.162

0.029

0.022

1.287

0.198

Soil temperature to Soil moisture

-0.317

-1.36

0.544

-2.501

0.012

Soil temperature to Nitrogen

-0.037

-0.015

0.069

-0.212

0.832

Soil moisture to Shoot biomass

-0.103

-0.011

0.009

-1.202

0.229

Soil moisture to Root biomass

0.271

0.013

0.008

1.645

0.1

Soil moisture to Evenness

-0.006

0

0.004

-0.053

0.958

Soil moisture to Nitrogen

0.073

0.007

0.015

0.456

0.648

Nitrogen to Shoot biomass

0.001

0.002

0.072

0.023

0.982

Nitrogen to Root biomass

0.035

0.018

0.047

0.381

0.703

Nitrogen to Evenness

0.109

0.049

0.034

1.468

0.142


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