Ecological Archives E095-267-A5

Quinn H. Robinson, David Bustos, Gary W. Roemer. 2014. The application of occupancy modeling to evaluate intraguild predation in a model carnivore system. Ecology 95:3112–3123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1546.1

Appendix E. Model selection results from single-species single-season occupancy models used to identify covariates that influence the probability of occupancy (ψ) for both coyotes (Canis latrans) and kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) along with the model-averaged beta coefficients of the covariates.

Single-species, single-season occupancy models generated to identify environmental drivers of occupancy in coyote (Canis latrans, Tables E1–E2) and kit fox (Vulpes macrotis, Tables E3–E4) in White Sands National Monument, NM, USA, 2011–2012.We investigated the influence of covariates representing lagomorph density, rodent biomass, year, nighttime land surface temperature, nighttime land surface temperature squared, and wet vs. dry season (Feb. – May and Jun. – Jul. 2011; Jan. – Apr. and May – Jun. 2012) in coyote models; we included the same covariates in kit fox models, as well as a covariate representing invertebrate biomass. We used a fixed, species-specific detection model for each set of single-species models, using the detection model covariates determined to be important for each species (Appendix D).

 

Table E1. Model selection results from 36 single-species, single-season occupancy models developed to identify covariates influencing coyote probability of occupancy. ΔQAIC is the difference between the QAIC value of each model and the top model; K is the number of estimated parameters; QAIC weight specifies the relative quasi-Akaike support for each model; Deviance is the -2log(Likelihood) of each model. Model fit (c-hat) was 1.8707 using 200 parametric bootstraps.

Occupancy Model

 ΔQAIC

K

QAIC weight

Deviance

Rodent.Biomass

0.00

7

0.1743

852.65

Lagomorph.Density

0.58

7

0.1304

853.74

Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

1.12

8

0.0995

851.00

Year, Rodent.Biomass

1.96

8

0.0654

852.58

Season, Rodent.Biomass

2.00

8

0.0641

852.65

Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

2.23

8

0.0571

853.08

Year, Lagomorph.Density

2.55

8

0.0487

853.67

Season, Lagomorph.Density

2.58

8

0.0480

853.74

Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

3.10

9

0.0370

850.97

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

3.11

9

0.0368

850.99

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

3.12

9

0.0366

851.00

Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

3.26

9

0.0341

851.27

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass

3.96

9

0.0241

852.58

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

4.20

9

0.0213

853.02

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

4.23

9

0.0210

853.08

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density

4.55

9

0.0179

853.67

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.10

10

0.0136

850.96

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.10

10

0.0136

850.97

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

5.11

10

0.0135

850.99

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

5.23

10

0.0127

851.21

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

5.26

10

0.0126

851.27

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

6.20

10

0.0079

853.02

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

7.10

11

0.0050

850.96

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

7.23

11

0.0047

851.21

Temperature, Temperature²

20.35

8

0.0000

886.98

Temperature

21.53

7

0.0000

892.92

Year, Temperature, Temperature²

22.35

9

0.0000

886.98

Season, Temperature, Temperature²

22.35

9

0.0000

886.98

.

23.04

6

0.0000

899.48

Year, Temperature

23.52

8

0.0000

892.90

Season, Temperature

23.53

8

0.0000

892.92

Year, Season, Temperature, Temperature²

24.35

10

0.0000

886.98

Year

25.02

7

0.0000

899.46

Season

25.04

7

0.0000

899.48

Year, Season, Temperature

25.52

9

0.0000

892.90

Year, Season

27.02

8

0.0000

899.46

 

Table E2. Model-averaged covariate beta coefficients from 36 single-species, single-season occupancy models developed to identify covariates influencing coyote probability of occupancy. Variable is the covariate or model component; Beta Coefficient is the model-averaged log-scale coefficient of the parameter; Unconditional SE is the model-averaged log-scale unconditional standard error of the beta coefficient.

Variable

Beta Coefficient

Unconditional SE

Beta-naught (intercept)

3.9332

2.4170

Year

0.0432

0.3855

Season

1.11E-07

5.0880

Rodent.Biomass

4.6607

1.9168

Lagomorph.Density

1.6032

0.6045

Temperature (Non-quadratic)

0.7626

1.6035

Temperature (Linear component of quadratic)

0.0612

5.8389

Temperature² (Nonlinear component of quadratic)

0.4463

7.5725

 

Table E3. Model selection results from 72 single-species, single-season occupancy models developed to identify covariates influencing kit fox probability of occupancy. ΔQAIC is the difference between the QAIC value of each model and the top model; K is the number of estimated parameters; QAIC weight specifies the relative quasi-Akaike support for each model; Deviance is the -2log(Likelihood) of each model. Model fit (c-hat) was 1.0553 using 200 parametric bootstraps.

Occupancy Model

 ΔQAIC

K

QAIC weight

Deviance

.

0.00

7

0.0850

824.05

Temperature

0.90

8

0.0542

822.89

Temperature, Temperature²

1.39

9

0.0424

821.30

Invertebrate.Biomass

1.40

8

0.0422

823.42

Year

1.43

8

0.0416

823.45

Lagomorph.Density

1.68

8

0.0367

823.71

Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

1.89

10

0.0330

819.71

Rodent.Biomass

1.95

8

0.0321

824.00

Season

2.00

8

0.0313

824.05

Year, Temperature

2.36

9

0.0261

822.32

Year, Invertebrate.Biomass

2.66

9

0.0225

822.64

Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

2.72

9

0.0218

822.70

Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

2.86

9

0.0203

822.85

Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

2.87

9

0.0202

822.86

Season, Temperature

2.90

9

0.0199

822.89

Year, Lagomorph.Density

3.02

9

0.0188

823.02

Year, Temperature, Temperature²

3.10

10

0.0180

820.99

Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass

3.27

9

0.0166

823.28

Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

3.29

10

0.0164

821.19

Year, Rodent.Biomass

3.33

9

0.0161

823.35

Season, Temperature, Temperature²

3.39

10

0.0156

821.30

Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

3.39

10

0.0156

821.30

Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass

3.40

9

0.0155

823.42

Season, Invertebrate.Biomass

3.40

9

0.0155

823.42

Year, Season

3.43

9

0.0153

823.45

Year, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

3.55

11

0.0144

819.36

Season, Lagomorph.Density

3.68

9

0.0135

823.71

Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

3.84

11

0.0125

819.66

Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

3.89

11

0.0122

819.71

Season, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

3.89

11

0.0122

819.71

Season, Rodent.Biomass

3.95

9

0.0118

824.00

Year, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

4.10

10

0.0109

822.05

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

4.31

10

0.0099

822.27

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

4.34

10

0.0097

822.30

Year, Season, Temperature

4.36

10

0.0096

822.32

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass

4.48

10

0.0090

822.45

Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

4.63

10

0.0084

822.61

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass

4.64

10

0.0084

822.62

Year, Season, Invertebrate.Biomass

4.66

10

0.0083

822.64

Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

4.71

10

0.0081

822.69

Season, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

4.72

10

0.0080

822.70

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

4.86

10

0.0075

822.85

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

4.87

10

0.0074

822.86

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

4.99

11

0.0070

820.88

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density

5.02

10

0.0069

823.02

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.10

11

0.0066

820.99

Year, Season, Temperature, Temperature²

5.10

11

0.0066

820.99

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass

5.27

10

0.0061

823.28

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

5.29

11

0.0060

821.19

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass

5.33

10

0.0059

823.35

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.39

11

0.0057

821.30

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass

5.40

10

0.0057

823.42

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.52

12

0.0054

819.32

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.55

12

0.0053

819.36

Year, Season, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.55

12

0.0053

819.36

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.84

12

0.0046

819.66

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

5.89

12

0.0045

819.71

Year, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

6.06

11

0.0041

822.01

Year, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

6.09

11

0.0040

822.04

Year, Season, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

6.10

11

0.0040

822.05

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature

6.31

11

0.0036

822.27

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature

6.34

11

0.0036

822.30

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass

6.48

11

0.0033

822.45

Season, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

6.63

11

0.0031

822.61

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass

6.64

11

0.0031

822.62

Season, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

6.71

11

0.003

822.69

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Temperature, Temperature²

6.99

12

0.0026

820.88

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

7.1

12

0.0024

820.99

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

7.52

13

0.002

819.32

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature, Temperature²

7.55

13

0.0019

819.36

Year, Season, Rodent.Biomass, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

8.06

12

0.0015

822.01

Year, Season, Lagomorph.Density, Invertebrate.Biomass, Temperature

8.09

12

0.0015

822.04

 

Table E4. Model-averaged covariate beta coefficients from 72 single-species, single-season occupancy models developed to identify covariates influencing kit fox probability of occupancy. Variable is the covariate or model component; Beta Coefficient is the model-averaged log-scale coefficient of the parameter; Unconditional SE is the model-averaged log-scale unconditional standard error of the beta coefficient.

Variable

Beta Coefficient

Unconditional SE

Beta-naught (intercept)

2.4014

3.1560

Year

0.1793

0.3993

Season

2.2E-06

5.1856

Rodent.Biomass

-0.0068

0.2717

Lagomorph.Density

-0.0291

0.1592

Invertebrate Biomass

-0.0789

0.1901

Temperature (Non-quadratic)

0.2418

0.5200

Temperature (Linear component of quadratic)

0.6264

4.8867

Temperature² (Nonlinear component of quadratic)

0.8918

7.6316


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