Ecological Archives E095-271-A4
Junpeng Mu, Youhong Peng, Xinqiang Xi, Xinwei Wu, John N. Griffin, Karl J. Niklas, Shucun Sun. 2014. Domesticated honey bees evolutionarily reduce flower nectar volume in a Tibetan lotus. Ecology 95:3161–3172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-2055.1
Appendix D. A figure showing white anthers as an indicator of maximum flower nectar volume of Saussurea nigrescens.
Fig. D1. White anthers/pollens are an indicator of maximum flower nectar volume of Saussurea nigrescens. An independent pre-measurement experiment at the intermediate site of Transect 1 showed that the nectar volume increased from the beginning of flowering (not detectable on the first day after flower opening) and reaches its maximum on the second day when pollen grains are mature and available for dispersal (N = 241, mean = 0.315 mL, SE = 0.02) and when anthers became white (see the following photo) and then declined on the third day (N = 241, mean = 0.04 mL, SE = 0.01) when abscission of the floral parts occurs (mean longevity of individual flowers is 2.6±0.5 d). Photo credit: Junpeng Mu.
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