Ecological Archives E095-286-A5

Sandrine Pavoine, Michel Baguette, Virginie M. Stevens, Mathew A. Leibold, Camille Turlure, Michael B. Bonsall. 2014. Life history traits, but not phylogeny, drive compositional patterns in a butterfly metacommunity. Ecology 95:3304–3313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-2036.1

Appendix E. Supplementary results on phylogenetic signal in traits.

One of the main arguments against using traits instead of phylogeny is that we have to choose those traits, whereas phylogeny is likely to predict a large variety of traits. However, our results demonstrate that focussing on phylogeny alone might in some case lose part of the biology of communities: the impact of environmental filtering (or limiting similarity) in trait evolution. The traits we used in our analysis are given in Table C1 Appendix C . There were various, but generally moderate correlations among these traits (Pearson correlations among distances varied from -0.08 to 0.50 with a mean of 0.08) (Pavoine et al. 2009), and traits were defined with different coding systems (most variables were ordinal with 7 to 9 levels, nominal variables had 2, 5, or 7 levels, and one trait was continuous).

Given the type of data we had (only 1 ratio-scaled trait, 13 ordinal traits and 4 nominal traits), we analysed phylogenetic signal with Mantel test ( Appendix C ). The results of the Mantel tests applied per trait are given in Table E1. P values were adjusted for multiple tests using Benjamini and Yekutieli (2001). Traits were plotted in front of the phylogenetic tree in Fig. 2 of the main text.

Table E1. Mantel tests applied between each trait-based distance and phylogenetic distance among species (see Appendix C for distance metrics). Here phylogenetic distances are based on the molecular tree obtained with ten genes and relative divergence time (as in the main text).

Trait

Pearson ρ

SES

P

Adjusted P

Adult Size

0.343

13.259

0.0001

0.0008

Male behaviour

0.156

5.733

0.0001

0.0008

Female oviposition

0.158

5.950

0.0001

0.0008

Female maturation

0.059

2.330

0.0221

0.1100

Capital breeder

-0.014

-0.447

0.6374

1.0000

Ripe egg load

0.107

4.050

0.0006

0.0033

Potential fecundity

0.182

6.884

0.0001

0.0008

Mobility

0.111

4.308

0.0004

0.0028

Tolerance

0.020

0.773

0.2123

0.7548

Larval growth rate

0.108

4.194

0.0006

0.0033

Generation number

0.036

1.484

0.0768

0.3185

Adult flight period

0.050

1.583

0.0682

0.3086

Overwintering stage

0.187

7.230

0.0001

0.0008

Developmental flexibility

0.019

0.808

0.1888

0.7229

Trophic group

0.274

12.402

0.0001

0.0008

 

Literature Cited

Benjamini, Y., and D. Yekutieli. 2001. The control of the false discovery rate in multiple testing under dependency. Annals of Statistics 29:1165–1188.

Pavoine, S., J. Vallet, A.-B. Dufour, S. Gachet, and H. Daniel. 2009. On the challenge of treating various types of variables: application for improving the measurement of functional diversity. Oikos 118:391–402.


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