Ecological Archives E096-044-A1

Jana S. Petermann, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Merlijn Jocque, Pavel Kratina, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Paula M. de Omena, Gustavo C. O. Piccoli, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Gustavo Q. Romero, Martin Videla, Diane S. Srivastava. 2015. Dominant predators mediate the impact of habitat size on trophic structure in bromeliad invertebrate communities. Ecology 96:428–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0304.1

Appendix A. Figuresand tables showing the absolute biomass of organisms, the effect of latitudinal location, the relative biomass of predator species, habitat complexity, listing all species and statistical results.

FigA1

Fig. A1. Total biomass (log-transformed, in mg) of predators, detritivores, and resources along the habitat size gradient (log-transformed bromeliad volume in l) for (A) sites without and (B) sites with odonates in the regional species pool. Predator biomass is depicted by open symbols and dashed lines (significantly different slopes = 0.17 ± 0.09 and 0.78 ± 0.11 for sites without and with odonates, respectively. See Table S1 for statistical analysis.), detritivore biomass by gray-filled symbols and medium solid lines (slopes = 0.81 ± 0.05 and 0.26 ± 0.09) and resource biomass by black-filled symbols and thick solid lines (slopes = 0.75 ± 0.07 and 0.71 ± 0.06).


 

FigA2

Fig. A2. The latitudinal location of the sites and predator–detritivore biomass ratios in bromeliads at these sites. Data points represent individual bromeliads and are jittered along the x-axis for illustrative purposes.


 

FigA3

Fig. A3. Odonate presence in individual bromeliads along the habitat size gradient (log-transformed bromeliad volume in l) for those sites with odonates in the regional pool. Data points are jittered along the y-axis for illustrative purposes. The relationship was fitted using a generalized linear model with binomial errors.


 

FigA4

Fig. A4. Relative biomass for the different predator species, ranked by highest relative abundance per site. Relative biomass refers to the predator level only and was calculated per bromeliad, data were then averaged across bromeliads and years per site. Odonate species are shown in red. The species labels refer to the "working IDs" in Table A1. The Picinguaba site is not shown because it lacks species-specific biomass data (analyses for this small data set are based on species presence/absence and pooled biomass measurements at each trophic level).


 

 FigA5

Fig. A5. Habitat complexity in the bromeliad decreases with increasing habitat size (log-transformed bromeliad volume in l). Complexity is calculated as log10(number of green leaves/bromeliad volume).


 

Table A1. List of invertebrate species present in the bromeliads at our sites based on the surveys in this study. Many species were identified to species level but were distinguished using morphological characters and were assigned a unique "Working ID" (except for species in the small data set from the Picinguaba site). The morphological and molecular identification of those species is ongoing. Species were assigned to one of two trophic levels: P = Predator, D = Detritivore.

Site

Higher taxonomic group

Family/Subfamily

Species

Working ID

Trophic level

Cardoso, Brazil

Coleoptera

Dytiscidae

Copelatus bimaculatus

Coleoptera.46

P

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae/Omicrini

NA (adult)

Coleoptera.48a

D

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae/Omicrini

NA (larvae)

Coleoptera.48b

P

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.34

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.35

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Atrichopogon sp.

Diptera.349

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Dasyhelea sp.

Diptera.4

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Forcipomyia (Phytohelea) sp.

Diptera.353

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Limnophyes sp.

Diptera.351

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Monopelopia aff. caraguata

Diptera.175

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum marcondesi

Diptera.206

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum kaingang

Diptera.207

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus sp.

Diptera.263

D

Diptera

Chironomidae/Orthocladiinae

NA

Diptera.191

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella infuscata

Diptera.88

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Anopheles bellator

Diptera.10

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex (Microculex) sp.

Diptera.92

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex (Microculex) sp.

Diptera.350

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia sp.

Diptera.307

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.352

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.215

D

Diptera

Sciaridae

NA

Diptera.232

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

NA

Diptera.355

D

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.248

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.246

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia sp.

Diptera.274

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia sp.

Diptera.293

D

Hirudinea

NA

NA

Hirudinea.4

P

Odonata

Coenagrionidae

Leptagrion andromache

Odonata.5

P

 

Trichoptera

Calamoceratidae

Phylloicus bromeliarum

Trichoptera.1

D

Dominica

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae/Sphaeridiinae

NA

Coleoptera.38

P

Coleoptera

Ptilodactylidae

NA

Coleoptera.22

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.26

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.21

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.153

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Larsia/Monopelopia sp.

Diptera.161

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Metriocnemus sp.

Diptera.172

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.70

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.205

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus bromelicola

Diptera.262

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella caribbeana

Diptera.84

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex bisulcatus

Diptera.95

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia greyii

Diptera.304

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.182

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.183

D

Diptera

Sphaeroceridae

NA

Diptera.235

D

Diptera

Stratiomyidae

NA

Diptera.239

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Dolichopeza sp.

Diptera.126

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Limonia sp.

Diptera.165

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia dominicana

Diptera.292

D

Diptera

Tipulidae/Hexatominae

NA

Diptera.160

D

Oligochaeta

Enchytridae

NA

Oligochaeta.8

D

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.1

P

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.2

P

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.3

P

 

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.4

P

Honduras

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Ora sp.

Coleoptera.45

D

Diptera

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigaster

Diptera.346

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.323

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.324

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.325

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.318

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.319

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.320

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.321

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.322

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Aedes sp.

Diptera.328

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Aedes sp.

Diptera.329

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.327

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhychites sp.

Diptera.330

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomia sp.

Diptera.331

P

Diptera

Dolichopodidae

NA

Diptera.343

P

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.341

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.342

P

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.344

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.340

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

Telmatoscopus sp.

Diptera.339

D

Diptera

Sciaridae

NA

Diptera.345

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.335

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.336

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.337

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.338

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum sp.

Diptera.333

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Meromacrus sp.

Diptera.334

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Ocyptamus sp.

Diptera.332

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.347

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia sp.

Diptera.326

D

Oligochaeta

Enchytridae

NA

Oligochaeta.15

D

 

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.13

P

Macae, Brazil

Coleoptera

Elmidae

NA

Coleoptera.14

D

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae

NA

Coleoptera.18

P

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.27

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.28

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.29

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.30

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Atrichopogon sp.

Diptera.15

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.46

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.47

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.48

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.50

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Culicoides sp.

Diptera.45

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Forcypomyia sp.

Diptera.115

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.49

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.51

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Larsia sp.

Diptera.65

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.354

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.64

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.66

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.68

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus sp.

Diptera.67

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella sp.

Diptera.86

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.101

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.102

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.103

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.104

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.105

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.106

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Microculex sp.

Diptera.113

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhynchites sp.

Diptera.284

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia sp.

Diptera.300

D

Diptera

Empididae

NA

Diptera.133

D

Diptera

Empididae

NA

Diptera.134

D

Diptera

Empididae

NA

Diptera.135

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.143

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.144

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.219

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

NA

Diptera.355

D

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.251

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.252

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.253

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.278

D

 

Odonata

Coenagrionidae

Leptagrion sp.

Odonata.3

P

Picinguaba, Brazil

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

NA

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Chironomidae/Tanypodinae

NA

NA

P

Diptera

Corethrelidae

NA

NA

P