Ecological Archives M077-002-A1

Fabien Quétier, Aurélie Thébault, and Sandra Lavorel. 2007. Plant traits in a state and transition framework as markers of ecosystem response to land-use change. Ecological Monographs 77:33–52.

Appendix A. Ecological variables describing each grassland state.

Ecological variables describing grassland states
Trajectories 2, 3, 6, 8, and 10 of Table 1
Trajectories 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 of Table 1
State A1
State A2
State A3
State B1
State B2
State C1
State C2
Overall
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Mean
Standard mean of error
N
Topography
Altitude (m) 2004 2004 1880.00 23.09 3 1846.67 6.67 3 1865.83 11.43 6 1936.67 4.41 3 1853.33 14.53 3 1993.33 6.67 3 1978.33 15.05 9 1917.67 11.97 30
Slope (%) 2004 2004 15.33 2.85 3 16.33 3.28 3 20.00 1.67 6 16.33 0.67 3 22.67 1.76 3 20.00 2.31 3 25.44 1.06 9 20.70 0.93 30
Aspect/south (°) 2004 2004 207.33 14.62 3 207.67 18.59 3 207.00 12.37 6 239.33 11.92 3 231.67 1.67 3 210.00 15.28 3 191.11 4.84 9 208.33 4.69 30
Disturbance regime
Time of disturbance (degree days) 2004 2004 974.38 42.00 3 1006.27 37.97 3 418.24 183.98 3 1063.66 17.80 3 424.49 0.00 3 1202.50 16.28 3 551.95 10.23 3 805.93 72.11 21
Intensity (% standing above-ground living dw biomass) 2004   32.79 1.98 3 9.09 1.88 3 61.90 14.05 3             49.96 1.97 3 16.43 1.97 3 34.03 5.84 15
Intensity (% height loss) 2004 2004 82.08 3.13 3 73.86 5.73 3 24.05 14.26 6 73.15 2.47 3 73.97 2.71 3 83.59 0.53 3 19.02 9.97 9 49.18 6.59 30
Soil characteristics and nutrient availability
pH 2003 2004 6.82 0.38 3 7.26 0.05 3 7.68 0.31 6 7.32 0.43 3 6.10 0.18 3 5.35 0.47 3 6.20 0.40 9 6.68 0.82 30
Soil N (g/kg) 2003 2004 0.82 0.22 3 0.68 0.11 3 0.50 0.09 6 0.49 0.02 3 0.69 0.13 3 0.70 0.05 3 0.59 0.11 9 0.61 0.14 30
Soil C (g/kg) 2003 2004 8.00 1.66 3 7.93 1.30 3 6.86 1.03 6 5.12 0.24 3 6.96 1.60 3 7.56 0.62 3 6.31 1.25 9 6.82 1.35 30
Soil C:N 2003 2004 9.80 0.75 3 11.75 0.73 3 13.68 1.04 6 10.40 0.20 3 10.04 0.51 3 10.88 0.48 3 10.77 0.68 9 11.25 1.48 30
P_Olsen (g/kg) 2003 2004 0.05 0.02 3 0.04 0.01 3 0.02 0.01 6 0.02 0.00 3 0.02 0.01 3 0.02 0.00 3 0.02 0.00 9 0.02 0.01 30
P_HF (g/kg) 2003 2004 0.30 0.05 3 0.30 0.02 3 0.26 0.02 6 0.23 0.02 3 0.19 0.02 3 0.19 0.03 3 0.19 0.03 9 0.23 0.05 30
NNI (%) 2003 2004 70.33 1.53 3 58.33 11.24 3 53.83 6.18 6 54.00 3.61 3 61.33 9.61 3 68.67 2.52 3 70.78 12.77 9 63.27 11.14 30
PNI (%) 2003 2004 66.33 31.21 3 50.33 7.64 3 45.67 6.92 6 58.33 7.09 3 53.00 17.69 3 49.00 6.24 3 49.78 5.95 9 51.77 12.39 30
KNI (%) 2003 2004 86.00 45.92 3 82.00 9.00 3 81.83 15.35 6 69.33 13.05 3 77.00 19.08 3 47.67 15.37 3 50.89 11.35 9 67.83 22.71 30
CaCO3 (g/kg) 2003 2004 4.03 3.16 3 5.40 4.57 3 12.31 2.69 6 1.33 1.27 3 0.00 0.00 3 7.30 0.00 3 2.49 3.61 9 5.02 4.97 30
Humidity (g/kg) 2003 2004 26.67 6.66 3 25.00 3.46 3 20.92 2.33 6 24.50 1.32 3 30.67 6.25 3 26.00 1.00 3 29.06 4.29 9 26.18 4.86 30
Clay (g/kg) 2003 2004 35.27 5.65 3 35.27 4.03 3 24.70 2.84 6 33.75 1.23 3 37.55 2.77 3 30.00 4.45 3 33.42 5.10 9 32.15 5.62 30
Fine loam (g/kg) 2003 2004 31.40 3.24 3 33.27 3.55 3 30.00 3.74 6 33.97 4.48 3 38.52 1.89 3 26.22 3.18 3 35.18 5.94 9 32.89 5.26 30
Coarse Loam (g/kg) 2003 2004 11.77 1.03 3 11.30 1.04 3 11.37 0.80 6 10.90 1.69 3 11.35 1.30 3 12.60 0.65 3 10.31 1.78 9 11.16 1.41 30
Fine Sand (g/kg) 2003 2004 8.87 1.24 3 8.87 2.35 3 9.80 2.13 6 7.90 0.79 3 6.65 0.83 3 12.67 0.55 3 7.82 2.32 9 8.80 2.34 30
Coarse Sand (g/kg) 2003 2004 16.03 5.35 3 11.30 5.68 3 19.78 6.26 6 13.07 12.48 3 9.73 1.33 3 25.28 4.19 3 14.67 9.50 9 15.90 8.22 30
Prop Sand (g/g) 2003 2004 0.45 0.03 3 0.43 0.04 3 0.39 0.03 6 0.50 0.03 3 0.48 0.02 3 0.39 0.09 3 0.47 0.05 9 0.45 0.06 30
Prop Clay (g/g) 2003 2004 0.35 0.06 3 0.35 0.04 3 0.25 0.03 6 0.34 0.01 3 0.38 0.03 3 0.30 0.04 3 0.33 0.05 9 0.32 0.06 30
% organic Carbon (%) 2003 2004 13.79 2.86 3 13.67 2.25 3 11.83 1.78 6 8.83 0.42 3 12.00 2.76 3 13.05 1.07 3 10.88 2.15 9 11.77 2.34 30
Gravel (%) 2003   0.37 0.13 3 0.46 0.05 3 0.32 0.28 6 0.10 0.00 3 0.10 0.00 3 0.13 0.03 3 0.11 0.02 9 0.21 0.18 30
Claire's Field capacity (%vol) 2003 2004 13.46 2.59 3 13.35 2.01 3 11.67 1.61 6 8.99 0.37 3 11.86 2.49 3 12.77 0.95 3 10.84 1.94 9 11.63 2.10 30
Wilting point (%vol) 2003 2004 0.27 0.03 3 0.27 0.01 3 0.21 0.02 6 0.24 0.00 3 0.27 0.02 3 0.24 0.02 3 0.25 0.03 9 0.25 0.03 30
Field capacity (%vol) 2003 2004 0.41 0.02 3 0.42 0.01 3 0.39 0.02 6 0.37 0.01 3 0.40 0.02 3 0.41 0.01 3 0.39 0.02 9 0.40 0.02 30
Saturation (%vol) 2003 2004 0.60 0.04 3 0.62 0.07 3 0.68 0.04 6 0.53 0.01 3 0.55 0.03 3 0.67 0.09 3 0.57 0.05 9 0.60 0.07 30
Bulk density   (g/cm3) 2003 2004 1.36 0.04 3 1.41 0.24 3 1.15 0.22 6 1.31 0.03 3 1.26 0.08 3 0.97 0.27 3 1.22 0.13 9 1.23 0.19 30
plant available water (%vol) 2003 2004 0.12 0.00 3 0.11 0.02 3 0.15 0.02 6 0.12 0.00 3 0.13 0.01 3 0.16 0.03 3 0.13 0.02 9 0.14 0.02 30
Hydraulic conductivity (%vol) 2003 2004 12.63 8.58 3 15.50 12.56 3 42.71 10.26 6 8.81 1.14 3 7.34 3.52 3 44.19 39.17 3 15.36 12.33 9 22.00 19.74 30
Depth (cm) 2003   30.00 0.00 3 30.00 0.00 3 30.00 0.00 3             50.00 0.00 3 50.00 0.00 3 38.00 10.14 15
Plant functional traits
Plant stature (cm) 2003 2004 26.35 0.24 3 18.37 0.49 3 13.75 6.99 6 13.81 1.49 3 21.00 2.11 3 27.37 5.54 3 38.94 4.66 9 25.12 11.11 30
Inflorescence height (cm) 2003 2004 61.82 2.07 3 47.51 0.71 3 37.68 21.92 6 32.70 2.47 3 50.82 4.63 3 57.12 12.07 3 58.60 20.13 9 50.11 17.68 30
LDMC (mg/g) 2003 2004 303.13 20.68 3 361.49 14.46 3 332.62 53.44 6 277.61 12.52 3 278.49 7.19 3 374.97 2.70 3 315.94 33.08 9 320.88 42.13 30
LNC (%) 2003 2004 2.29 0.13 3 1.75 0.05 3 1.52 0.11 6 1.25 0.07 3 1.58 0.13 3 1.43 0.10 3 1.59 0.22 9 1.61 0.30 30
SLA (m²/kg) 2003 2004 18.05 3.23 3 13.82 1.32 3 10.15 0.57 6 10.50 0.32 3 10.88 0.26 3 11.59 2.04 3 10.19 1.05 9 11.57 2.75 30
LCC (%) 2003 2004 44.76 0.37 3 43.96 0.14 3 42.94 2.34 6 39.19 0.77 3 41.27 0.57 3 45.19 0.62 3 44.76 1.69 9 43.45 2.30 30
Seed mass (g for 100 seed) 2003 2004 0.41 0.10 3 0.53 0.11 3 0.33 0.09 6 0.30 0.07 3 0.26 0.05 3 0.45 0.08 3 0.42 0.07 9 0.39 0.11 30
Onset of flowering (Sum of day degree) 2003 2004 467.98 40.64 3 402.37 41.60 3 383.51 43.30 6 350.05 10.21 3 357.42 5.07 3 396.64 38.70 3 398.65 43.77 9 393.74 46.25 30
CN ratio 2003 2004 21.29 1.70 3 27.59 0.85 3 29.36 2.98 6 31.16 1.99 3 24.23 2.69 3 33.86 2.42 3 27.58 5.81 9 27.96 4.84 30
Toughness (g/cm) 2003   691.13 238.07 3 2870.37 422.37 3 4183.88 220.34 3             9498.23 3573.38 3 12262.86 1335.27 3 5901.29 4688.43 15
LPC (%) 2003   0.17 0.04 3 0.12 0.01 3 0.11 0.01 3             0.10 0.01 3 0.08 0.00 3 0.12 0.04 15
Dispersal mode (Anemochorous) 2004 2004 0.17 0.08 3 0.02 0.02 3 0.06 0.03 6 0.05 0.04 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.05 0.06 3 0.01 0.01 9 0.04 0.06 30
Dispersal mode (Epizoochorous) 0.69 0.02 3 0.77 0.05 3 0.73 0.12 6 0.61 0.04 3 0.75 0.04 3 0.79 0.08 3 0.80 0.14 9 0.75 0.11 30
Dispersal mode (Barochorous) 0.14 0.05 3 0.21 0.04 3 0.13 0.07 6 0.21 0.08 3 0.12 0.05 3 0.15 0.04 3 0.09 0.10 9 0.14 0.08 30
Dispersal mode (Myrmechorous) 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 6 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 9 0.00 0.00 30
Floristic data
Specific richness (Number of species ) 2003 2004 31.67 5.86 3 25.67 1.15 3 25.00 4.29 6 43.67 7.23 3 23.67 4.93 3 26.00 1.00 3 24.11 5.69 9 27.30 7.46 30
Shannon index 2003 2004 2.48 0.19 3 2.24 0.30 3 2.01 0.38 6 2.61 0.07 3 1.74 0.14 3 1.94 0.30 3 1.60 0.40 9 1.98 0.46 30
Simpson inverse 2003 2004 0.85 0.03 3 0.83 0.06 3 0.77 0.09 6 0.86 0.03 3 0.70 0.05 3 0.75 0.12 3 0.64 0.15 9 0.74 0.13 30
Specific density (Nb of contacts ) 2003 2004 744.33 94.16 3 511.00 42.04 3 549.67 122.82 6 807.67 87.69 3 718.00 113.93 3 669.00 4.36 3 850.56 147.54 9 710.10 166.14 30
% graminoïdes (%) 2003 2004 47.21 0.62 3 62.25 6.23 3 64.93 10.35 6 65.84 5.84 3 86.65 5.03 3 61.88 10.40 3 81.88 9.22 9 69.93 14.23 30
% tall leafy dicots (%) 2003 2004 27.06 1.51 3 5.01 2.61 3 8.06 2.32 6 6.27 3.98 3 5.83 2.00 3 5.08 3.36 3 8.62 8.48 9 9.12 7.91 30
% tall leafy rosets (%) 2003 2004 3.59 2.61 3 3.02 1.63 3 3.79 3.66 6 3.52 1.03 3 0.96 1.28 3 6.20 5.54 3 0.65 0.93 9 2.68 2.97 30
% legumes (%) 2003 2004 17.85 2.38 3 21.85 6.05 3 17.60 6.33 6 14.23 3.14 3 4.58 4.50 3 7.86 3.92 3 3.26 1.46 9 11.14 8.04 30
% small leafy dicots (%) 2003 2004 3.48 2.77 3 7.33 5.33 3 5.27 3.75 6 8.69 4.08 3 1.94 0.81 3 17.63 1.67 3 5.33 3.17 9 6.56 5.13 30
% small leafy rosets (%) 2003 2004 0.80 1.14 3 0.53 0.46 3 0.31 0.69 6 1.45 0.71 3 0.04 0.07 3 1.35 1.19 3 0.22 0.32 9 0.55 0.76 30
% Clonal species (%) 2003 2004 46.23 13.89 3 63.93 9.65 3 78.32 7.92 3             82.90 3.76 3 90.84 4.70 3 72.45 17.92 15
% Non Clonal Species (%) 2003 2004 46.95 13.51 3 11.73 14.88 3 3.88 1.13 3             1.70 0.04 3 0.00 0.00 3 12.85 19.66 15
% Plastic species (%) 2003 2004 5.35 2.13 3 24.33 10.16 3 17.80 8.95 3             14.82 4.75 3 9.16 4.70 3 14.29 8.96 15
% Anemochorous species (%) 2003 2004 17.36 7.51 3 1.55 2.50 3 6.80 3.35 6 5.67 4.57 3 0.00 0.00 3 5.30 6.27 3 0.95 1.61 9 4.63 6.03 30
% Epizoochorous species (%) 2003 2004 69.07 2.30 3 77.25 4.73 3 78.03 8.29 6 70.18 5.13 3 86.44 5.91 3 79.29 8.08 3 88.66 11.28 9 80.43 10.44 30
% Barochorous species (%) 2003 2004 13.57 5.23 3 21.20 4.39 3 14.53 8.20 6 24.15 8.97 3 13.56 5.91 3 15.40 3.78 3 10.38 11.89 9 14.81 9.08 30
% Myrmechorous species (%) 2003 2004 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.64 1.56 6 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 9 0.13 0.70 30
% Entomogame species (%) 2003 2004 37.65 0.74 3 25.14 9.88 3 24.25 6.15 6 21.87 3.77 3 2.18 3.78 3 23.37 7.33 3 9.76 8.97 9 18.80 12.05 30
% Anemogame species (%) 2003 2004 51.10 1.12 3 70.88 6.34 3 71.11 8.32 6 73.55 6.97 3 95.71 7.28 3 69.04 11.18 3 89.83 8.88 9 77.20 15.09 30
% Entomogame or Autogame species (%) 2003 2004 8.60 2.51 3 3.98 3.74 3 1.53 2.66 6 4.57 3.22 3 2.10 3.50 3 7.59 6.16 3 0.40 0.61 9 3.11 3.91 30
% Entomogame or Anémogame species (%) 2003 2004 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 2.14 4.06 6 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 9 0.43 1.90 30
% Apogame species (%) 2003 2004 2.66 3.74 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.97 2.38 6 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 9 0.46 1.63 30
% species with akene (%) 2003 2004 19.98 10.52 3 2.79 2.25 3 10.30 4.54 6 11.72 6.08 3 0.00 0.00 3 27.79 8.76 3 6.36 7.15 9 10.20 9.83 30
% species with capsule (%) 2003 2004 9.88 6.07 3 3.13 2.75 3 0.64 1.56 6 3.71 0.89 3 2.18 3.78 3 0.00 0.00 3 4.74 10.78 9 3.44 6.67 30
% species with Caryopse (%) 2003 2004 51.10 1.12 3 70.88 6.34 3 71.11 8.32 6 71.67 6.38 3 95.71 7.28 3 64.24 12.19 3 87.87 9.44 9 75.94 15.10 30
% species with gousse (%) 2003 2004 19.04 3.84 3 23.20 7.18 3 17.96 7.51 6 12.90 3.22 3 2.10 3.50 3 7.97 4.12 3 1.03 1.36 9 10.42 9.47 30
Relative abundance of F.paniculata (June) (%) 2003 2004 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 6 6.85 7.73 3 8.59 2.85 3 43.79 26.44 3 60.99 14.88 9 24.22 29.54 30
Ecosystem properties
ANPP (May-July) (TDM/ha/day) 2004   0.0547 0.0019 3 0.043 0.006 3 0.0350 0.0030 3             0.0533 0.0028 3 0.0530 0.0091 3 0.0477 0.0028 15
Early ANPP (May-June) (TDM/ha/day) 2004   0.0733 0.0041 3 0.048 0.005 3 0.0397 0.0062 3             0.0743 0.0039 3 0.0563 0.0088 3 0.0583 0.0043 15
SANPP   (May-July) (%DM/ha/day) 2004   0.0693 0.0083 3 0.053 0.005 3 0.0637 0.0224 3             0.1423 0.0424 3 0.0710 0.0133 3 0.0799 0.0121 15
Early SANPP (May-June) (%DM/ha/day) 2004   0.1013 0.0139 3 0.065 0.006 3 0.0600 0.0061 3             0.2660 0.0594 3 0.0800 0.0195 3 0.1145 0.0233 15
Total standing biomass (July) (T/ha) 2004   4.5067 0.2635 3 4.053 0.211 3 5.9400 1.4719 3             3.4533 0.0561 3 8.1000 1.1082 3 5.2107 0.5455 15
Green biomass in total standing Biomass (July) (%) 2004   83.7767 4.4526 3 76.720 6.334 3 56.1333 12.3954 3             77.8200 0.3121 3 50.7267 4.7847 3 69.0353 4.3562 15
Minimum vegetative height (cm) 2004   10.1000 0.5255 3 8.697 0.871 3 10.8667 1.5749 3             8.2167 1.0338 3 10.4233 1.9422 3 9.6607 0.5600 15
Maximum vegetative height (cm) 2004   41.0667 2.8846 3 25.350 6.695 3 25.7533 1.9337 3             28.8167 2.8914 3 38.1067 1.9446 3 31.8187 2.2385 15
Accumulated litter at snowmelt (T/ha) 2004   0.5667 0.0240 3 1.337 0.115 3 2.2333 0.2941 3             1.1667 0.1855 3 6.5200 0.5636 3 2.3647 0.5845 15
'Litter SANPP' (May-July) (%DM/ha/day) 2004   30.7733 34.9778 3 -23.983 25.228 3 19.5000 51.4855 3             -30.6133 12.5155 3 -38.9233 7.8330 3 -8.6493 13.8553 15
Maximum light interception (July) (% incoming light) 2004   0.7167 0.0219 3 0.373 0.085 3 0.4067 0.0291 3             0.4133 0.0684 3 0.5333 0.0426 3 0.4887 0.0396 15
Minimum light interception (May) (% incoming light) 2004   0.2467 0.0088 3 0.060 0.029 3 0.1100 0.0416 3             0.1333 0.0517 3 0.3867 0.0418 3 0.1873 0.0343 15
native litter mass loss during winter (May) (%) 2004   37.7897 2.7606 3 32.520 2.301 3 32.5533 5.9691 3             35.5545 2.6396 3 24.7449 0.8380 3 32.6324 1.7312 15
standard litter mass loss during winter (May) (%) 2004   40.3339 3.2596 3 40.254 0.597 3 39.8260 1.0585 3             41.8747 2.0694 3 47.0787 7.1572 3 41.8734 1.5652 15
native litter mass loss after 1 year (September) (%) 2004   60.8000 2.1633 3 55.500 0.153 3 49.0000 7.9731 3             53.7333 5.2935 3 44.1333 4.1563 3 52.6333 2.3565 15
standard litter mass loss after 1 year (September) (%) 2004   51.6667 2.5667 3 51.767 1.146 3 54.2333 0.4055 3             56.0333 1.8478 3 55.3333 1.7372 3 53.8067 0.8037 15


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