Ecological Archives M080-010-A2

Steven P. Campbell, Jack W. Witham, and Malcolm L. Hunter, Jr. 2010. Stochasticity as an alternative to deterministic explanations for patterns of habitat use in birds. Ecological Monographs 80:287–302.

Appendix B (TABLE B1). Frequency distributions of occupied quads based on observed data and various null models and P values from goodness-of-fit tests (see text) comparing each distribution to the observed distribution.

   

Number of years occupied

 

Bird Species

Model†

0

1

2

3

4

5

P

                 

Hairy Woodpecker

Observed

107

43

9

1

0

0

.

 

Free

106

45

8

1

0

0

0.877

 

Occupied free

121

21

13

5

1

0

0.000

 

Regular

106

45

8

1

0

0

0.880

 

Occupied regular

128

14

8

6

3

1

0.000

 

Irregular

106

46

8

1

0

0

0.851

 

Occupied irregular

125

16

11

6

1

0

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

106

46

8

1

0

0

0.863

 

Site fidelity

118

27

10

3

1

0

0.008

 

Habitat

137

3

7

8

5

1

0.000

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Observed

74

35

29

11

6

5

.

 

Free

47

64

37

11

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

80

21

31

21

7

1

0.024

 

Regular

46

66

37

10

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

84

20

27

20

9

1

0.003

 

Irregular

47

65

36

11

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

82

20

29

20

8

1

0.008

 

Dispersed regular

49

62

37

11

2

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

62

49

28

14

5

2

0.026

 

Habitat

69

38

30

15

6

1

0.555

Black-capped Chickadee

Observed

4

18

45

54

26

13

.

 

Free

5

19

40

51

34

9

0.402

 

Occupied free

9

17

38

49

37

11

0.124

 

Regular

4

21

41

51

34

10

0.455

 

Occupied regular

10

19

36

47

36

13

0.057

 

Irregular

4

19

42

51

34

10

0.503

 

Occupied irregular

7

18

41

49

35

11

0.345

 

Dispersed regular

5

21

39

50

35

10

0.262

 

Site fidelity

11

25

34

37

31

22

0.000

 

Habitat

6

20

40

48

35

11

0.225

Brown Creeper

Observed

20

29

44

40

24

3

.

 

Free

11

35

52

42

17

3

0.081

 

Occupied free

26

22

41

43

23

5

0.457

 

Regular

11

36

52

41

17

3

0.076

 

Occupied regular

28

23

39

39

24

7

0.378

 

Irregular

10

35

54

42

16

3

0.023

 

Occupied irregular

26

23

42

43

23

5

0.509

 

Dispersed regular

12

36

51

40

18

4

0.145

 

Site fidelity

23

33

39

32

24

9

0.284

 

Habitat

16

34

45

41

20

4

0.698

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Observed

51

55

30

16

7

1

.

 

Free

39

64

41

14

2

0

0.005

 

Occupied free

63

33

37

22

6

1

0.000

 

Regular

39

64

42

13

2

0

0.003

 

Occupied regular

66

32

32

21

8

1

0.000

 

Irregular

38

66

41

13

2

0

0.001

 

Occupied irregular

64

33

36

21

6

1

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

39

64

42

13

2

0

0.002

 

Site fidelity

57

45

31

18

7

1

0.475

 

Habitat

51

50

38

18

4

0

0.502

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Observed

93

40

15

8

4

0

.

 

Free

76

61

20

3

0

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

101

22

23

11

2

0

0.004

 

Regular

76

62

19

3

0

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

103

21

22

11

3

0

0.002

 

Irregular

77

61

20

3

0

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

104

20

22

12

3

0

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

77

60

20

3

0

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

87

47

18

7

1

0

0.248

 

Habitat

105

20

19

11

4

0

0.001

Veery

Observed

68

40

21

18

7

6

.

 

Free

41

63

39

14

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

75

21

30

23

9

1

0.001

 

Regular

42

61

41

14

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

78

21

26

21

11

3

0.001

 

Irregular

41

62

40

14

3

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

78

20

27

22

11

2

0.001

 

Dispersed regular

43

61

39

14

3

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

64

40

28

17

9

3

0.558

 

Habitat

63

39

31

18

8

2

0.358

Hermit Thrush

Observed

26

35

40

43

13

3

.

 

Free

16

43

53

34

13

2

0.009

 

Occupied free

34

25

42

37

18

4

0.097

 

Regular

15

43

55

35

12

2

0.003

 

Occupied regular

35

26

40

35

20

4

0.054

 

Irregular

16

43

52

35

12

2

0.009

 

Occupied irregular

33

26

43

37

18

4

0.116

 

Dispersed regular

17

42

50

36

13

2

0.036

 

Site fidelity

33

36

35

29

18

9

0.022

 

Habitat

20

40

49

34

14

3

0.090

Nashville Warbler

Observed

58

50

27

18

6

1

.

 

Free

42

66

41

11

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

67

30

38

20

4

0

0.001

 

Regular

41

67

42

10

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

68

30

37

21

4

0

0.001

 

Irregular

42

67

40

11

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

69

30

37

21

4

0

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

42

66

41

11

1

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

55

50

35

18

2

0

0.539

 

Habitat

56

48

37

16

3

0

0.389

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Observed

16

32

28

45

26

13

.

 

Free

8

27

47

48

25

6

0.004

 

Occupied free

21

18

38

46

30

8

0.025

 

Regular

7

27

48

48

24

5

0.002

 

Occupied regular

20

19

38

46

29

9

0.042

 

Irregular

7

27

48

48

24

5

0.001

 

Occupied irregular

20

18

38

47

29

8

0.034

 

Dispersed regular

9

28

46

46

26

7

0.031

 

Site fidelity

18

28

35

37

28

14

0.337

 

Habitat

12

29

40

41

28

9

0.165

Black-and-white Warbler

Observed

35

48

34

27

14

2

.

 

Free

23

53

51

27

6

1

0.003

 

Occupied free

44

29

41

33

12

2

0.005

 

Regular

22

54

52

26

7

1

0.001

 

Occupied regular

46

29

39

31

13

3

0.009

 

Irregular

22

53

52

26

6

1

0.001

 

Occupied irregular

44

29

42

30

12

2

0.006

 

Dispersed regular

24

52

50

27

7

1

0.012

 

Site fidelity

39

43

36

25

13

5

0.693

 

Habitat

29

48

46

27

9

1

0.281

Blackburnian Warbler

Observed

33

27

32

23

25

20

.

 

Free

10

33

50

43

20

4

0.000

 

Occupied free

36

14

30

40

30

9

0.001

 

Regular

9

34

52

42

20

4

0.000

 

Occupied regular

37

16

29

37

31

11

0.002

 

Irregular

8

33

53

44

19

3

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

36

14

31

40

30

9

0.001

 

Dispersed regular

11

33

50

44

20

4

0.000

 

Site fidelity

23

32

36

32

24

13

0.044

 

Habitat

22

31

37

34

25

10

0.010

Black-throated Green Warbler

Observed

0

2

16

19

40

83

.

 

Free

0

2

8

24

57

70

0.002

 

Occupied free

0

2

7

23

57

70

0.002

 

Regular

0

1

6

25

60

68

0.000

 

Occupied regular

0

2

8

23

56

71

0.005

 

Irregular

0

1

6

25

61

67

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

0

1

6

25

60

68

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

0

1

6

26

62

66

0.000

 

Site fidelity

1

3

9

23

46

78

0.192

 

Habitat

0

2

8

24

55

72

0.005

Pine Warbler

Observed

125

19

8

6

1

1

.

 

Free

106

46

7

1

0

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

128

11

13

6

2

0

0.195

 

Regular

106

46

7

1

0

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

131

9

11

7

2

1

0.076

 

Irregular

106

47

7

0

0

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

132

7

12

8

2

0

0.013

 

Dispersed regular

106

46

7

1

0

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

118

28

9

3

1

0

0.112

 

Habitat

128

11

12

6

2

0

0.188

Canada Warbler

Observed

119

29

6

2

0

4

.

 

Free

103

47

9

1

0

0

0.001

 

Occupied free

125

14

13

7

2

0

0.000

 

Regular

103

48

8

1

0

0

0.001

 

Occupied regular

134

8

5

5

6

2

0.000

 

Irregular

104

47

9

1

0

0

0.001

 

Occupied irregular

132

7

9

7

5

1

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

104

46

10

1

0

0

0.001

 

Site fidelity

117

27

9

4

2

0

0.381

 

Habitat

130

9

9

7

3

1

0.000

Ovenbird

Observed

1

1

14

14

35

95

.

 

Free

0

1

6

19

52

82

0.001

 

Occupied free

1

1

6

18

52

83

0.002

 

Regular

0

1

5

20

57

78

0.000

 

Occupied regular

1

1

6

18

48

85

0.019

 

Irregular

0

1

5

20

57

78

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

1

1

4

18

57

79

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

0

1

4

20

58

77

0.000

 

Site fidelity

0

2

8

19

42

88

0.076

 

Habitat

0

2

7

18

49

84

0.006

Common Yellowthroat

Observed

83

37

12

6

9

13

.

 

Free

46

63

38

11

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

87

14

24

23

10

2

0.000

 

Regular

44

66

39

10

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

89

14

22

20

12

3

0.000

 

Irregular

45

65

37

11

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

88

14

23

22

11

2

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

46

63

37

12

2

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

60

49

30

13

6

2

0.000

 

Habitat

88

18

20

18

12

5

0.000

Scarlet Tanager

Observed

66

41

33

16

3

1

.

 

Free

49

64

35

10

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

77

27

31

19

6

1

0.041

 

Regular

50

64

34

11

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

81

24

27

19

8

1

0.002

 

Irregular

49

64

35

11

2

0

0.001

 

Occupied irregular

79

26

28

19

7

1

0.008

 

Dispersed regular

51

62

34

11

2

0

0.001

 

Site fidelity

69

44

26

13

6

3

0.405

 

Habitat

55

57

33

12

3

0

0.048

White-throated Sparrow

Observed

65

46

24

15

7

3

.

 

Free

45

64

38

12

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied free

74

25

32

22

6

1

0.000

 

Regular

43

66

39

11

2

0

0.000

 

Occupied regular

75

24

32

22

7

1

0.001

 

Irregular

43

66

39

11

1

0

0.000

 

Occupied irregular

74

25

32

21

7

1

0.001

 

Dispersed regular

45

62

39

12

2

0

0.000

 

Site fidelity

60

47

31

16

5

1

0.470

 

Habitat

64

40

33

17

5

1

0.293

Purple Finch

Observed

73

55

23

8

1

0

.

 

Free

67

63

25

5

1

0

0.304

 

Occupied free

88

32

27

11

2

0

0.001

 

Regular

70

59

25

6

1

0

0.758

 

Occupied regular

93

27

23

13

3

1

0.000

 

Irregular

67

63

25

5

1

0

0.280

 

Occupied irregular

91

29

25

12

3

0

0.000

 

Dispersed regular

68

61

25

5

1

0

0.432

 

Site fidelity

85

42

19

9

3

2

0.025

 

Habitat

67

63

24

5

1

0

0.318

† See text and Table 2 for model descriptions.


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