Ecological Archives M080-018-A1

Pälvi Salo, Peter B. Banks, Chris R. Dickman, and Erkki Korpimäki. 2010. Predator manipulation experiments: impacts on populations of terrestrial vertebrate prey. Ecological Monographs 80:531–546.

Appendix A. Predator manipulation studies included in the meta-analysis.

TABLE A1. Predator manipulation studies included in the meta-analysis. Replication of the experiment RU: r = replicated or u = unreplicated experiment. Type of response, Rtype: R= reproduction, P = population size or both. Experiment type: SEC = simultaneous experimental and control areas, BA = before-and-after design, NE = natural experiment. Treatment: rem = removal of predators, add = increase in predator density. Experiment manipulation type, Mtype: open or exclosure. Efficiency of the predator manipulation (i.e., demonstrated change in predator densities), E: high or low. Cyclicity of prey species, C: yes or no. Predator/prey mass ratio, Pw. Effect size is calculated as ln(Xe/Xc), where Xe and Xc are the treatment and control prey responses. GLM denotes those experiments that were included in the generalised linear model selection process.

No

Reference

RU

Rtype

Location

Experi-ment type

Treat-ment

Mtype

E

Prey origin

Prey type

Pred. origin

Predator type

C

Pw

Spatial scale
(km2)

Temporal scale (months)

Effect size ln(Xe/Xc)

GLM

1

Ahola et al 2006

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

frog

intro

mink

no

38.65

1.07

72

0.51

x

2

Baines 1991

r

R

Europe

SEC

rem

open

.

native

grouse

native

.

no

.

.

24

0.55

.

3

Balser et al. 1968

r

both

N America

BA/ SEC

rem

open

high

native

ducks

native

corvids, raptors, mesopredators, weasel etc.

no

3.20

77.47

36

-0.10

x

4

Banks et al 1998

r

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

intro

rabbit

intro

red fox

no

2.57

10

19

1.83

.

5

Banks et al 1999

r

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodent

intro

red fox

no

61.67

10

19

0.62

x

6

Banks et al 2000

r

both

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

large marsupial

intro

red fox

no

0.11

10

19

3.09

x

7

Banks et al. 2004

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents

intro

mink

yes

31.83

1.07

60

1.44

x

8

Bartmann et al. 1992

u

R

N America

BA

rem

open

.

native

deer

native

coyote

no

0.21

140

36

0.26

x

9

Beasom 1974

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

deer

native

coyote, bobcat

no

0.15

21.86

18

0.93

x

10

Blackwell 2003

u

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

intro

small rodent

intro

stoat

yes

3.59

7.5

35

0.59

.

11

Bolton et al. 2007

r

both

Europe

BA

rem

open

low

native

wader

native

red fox, crow

no

17.41

2.16

42

0.09

x

13

Boonstra et al. 2001a

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

lynx, coyote, red fox

no

38.23

1

89

-0.91

x

12

Boonstra et al. 2001b

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

lynx, coyote, red fox

yes

347.58

1

80

-0.14

x

14

Byrom et al. 2000

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

lynx, coyote, red fox

yes

24.05

1

63

1.17

x

15

Chesness et al. 1968

u

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

.

intro

grouse

native

mesopredators, corvids

no

1.86

10.36

28

0.51

.

16

Clark et al. 1995

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

low

native

ducks

native

crow

no

0.58

10.2

4

0.18

x

17

Cuthbert 2002

u

R

N Zealand

BA

rem

open

.

native

seabird

intro

stoat

no

0.56

4.2

18

-0.51

x

18

Desy and Batzli 1989

r

both

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

carnivores, raptors, owls, snakes

yes

87.87

0.0013

6

0.89

x

19

Dilks 1999

u

P

N Zealand

SEC

rem

open

high

native

passerine

intro

stoat

no

7.40

0.5

51

0.20

x

20

Dion et al. 1999

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

.

native

passerines

native

mesopredators

no

121.47

41

24

0.03

x

21

Duebbert and Lokemoen 1980

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

open

.

native

ducks

native

mesopredators

no

6.39

259

28

0.43

x

22

Edminster 1939

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

open

low

native

grouse

native

raptors, owls, mesopredators etc.

no

2.50

8.61

42

-0.03

x

23

Ekerholm et al. 2004

u

P

Europe

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

both

weasels, red fox

yes

51.91

0.02

7.5

0.26

.

24

Erlinge 1987

u

P

Europe

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

weasels, mesopredators, owls, raptors

no

55.90

0.005

8

0.68

x

25

Evans et al. 2006

u

P

N America

BA

rem

open

high

native

ungulate

native

wolf

no

0.25

1 500

110

0.48

x

26

Frey et al. 2003

r

P

N America

SEC

rem

open

low

intro

grouse

native

coyote, mesopredators

no

4.92

25.95

31

0.52

.

27

Garrettson and Rohwer 2001

r

both

N America

SEC

rem

open

low

native

ducks

native

coyote, mesopredators, weasel etc.

no

5.90

41.5

5

0.41

x

28

Garrettson et al. 1996

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

low

native

ducks, coot, passerine

native

coyote, mesopredators

no

8.22

41.5

5

0.40

x

29

Gasaway et al. 1992

u

both

N America

BA

rem

open

low

native

ungulate

native

wolf, grizzly bear

no

0.21

9 700

108

0.58

x

30

Graham and Lambin 2002

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

small rodent

native

weasel

yes

2.81

0.085

25

0.00

x

31

Greenwood 1986

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

ducks

native

skunk

no

2.04

2.21

28

1.68

x

32

Greenwood et al. 1990

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

ducks

native

mesopredators, ground squirrel

no

5.11

0.1

65

3.37

x

33

Guthery and Beasom 1977

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

ungulate, grouse, small rodents

native

coyote, bobcat, mesopredators

no

43.09

2.25

19

0.34

x

34

Hambäck et al. 2004

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodent

native

weasels, raptors, foxes

yes

61.35

0.0095

36

0.64

x

35

Harris and Wanless 1997

u

P

Europe

BA

rem

open

high

native

wader

native

gulls

no

1.76

0.57

180

1.23

x

36

Hatter and Janz 1994

u

both

N America

BA

rem

open

high

native

ungulate

native

wolf

no

0.57

2 400

96

0.57

x

37

Hayes et al. 2003

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

ungulates

native

wolf

no

0.16

20 000

50

-0.01

x

38

Henke and Bryant 1999

r

P

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents, rabbits

native

coyote

no

9.03

50

22

2.05

x

39

Hodges et al 2001

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

hare

native

lynx, coyote, red fox

yes

6.71

1

108

0.17

x

40

Huitu et al. 2005

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

4.48

0.005

13

-0.22

x

41

Imber et al. 2000

u

R

N Zealand

BA

rem

open

.

native

seabird

intro

rat

no

0.55

0.014

120

0.40

x

42

Innes et al. 1999

u

both

N Zealand

SEC

rem

open

high

native

passerine

intro

weasels, rat, mesopredators

no

5.46

9.14

96

0.57

x

43

Jackson 2001

r

R

Europe

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

waders

intro

hedgehog

no

5.79

0.59

3

1.63

x

44

Janermo and Liberg 2005

u

P

Europe

BA/NE

rem

open

high

native

deer

native

red fox

no

0.30

3

60

0.84

x

45

Kauhala 2004

r

R

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

ducks

both

mesopredators

no

5.01

82.83

48

0.46

.

46

Kauhala et al. 1999

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

hare

both

mesopredators

no

1.25

82.83

48

-0.40

.

47

Kauhala et al. 2000

r

both

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

grouse

both

mesopredators

no

2.80

79.75

48

0.86

.

48

Kay et al. 1994

r

P

Australia

SEC

add

open

high

intro

small rodent

native

raptors

no

42.78

0.69

6

0.57

.

49

Kinnear et al. 1998

r

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

medium marsupial

intro

red fox

no

0.77

2.95

108

2.29

x

50

Kinnear et al. 2002, case 1

u

P

Australia

BA

rem

open

.

native

medium marsupial

intro

red fox

no

0.77

32.03

72

3.38

x

50

Kinnear et al. 2002, case 2a

u

P

Australia

BA

rem

open

.

native

medium marsupials

intro

red fox

no

1.74

22

96

2.86

x

50

Kinnear et al. 2002, case 2b

u

P

Australia

BA

rem

open

.

native

medium marsupial

intro

red fox

no

1.39

1.14

102

2.50

x

50

Kinnear et al. 2002, case 3

u

P

Australia

BA

rem

open

.

native

medium marsupials

intro

red fox

no

1.39

.

52

0.87

.

50

Kinnear et al. 2002, case 4

u

P

Australia

BA

rem

open

.

native

medium marsupials

intro

red fox

no

1.74

120

120

3.05

x

50

Kinnear et al. 2002, case 5

u

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

medium marsupials

intro

red fox

no

1.39

31

56

3.13

x

51

Klemola et al. 1997

r

R

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

4.48

2.58

10

1.13

x

52

Klemola et al. 2000

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodents

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

4.48

0.005

9

1.39

x

53

Korpimäki and Norrdahl 1998

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

small rodents

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

5.61

2.5

10

0.47

x

54

Korpimäki et al. 2002

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

6.43

2.5

21

0.95

x

55

Korpimäki et al. 2005

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents, shrew

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

6.83

2.5

21

0.47

x

56

LaGrange et al. 1995

u

R

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

ducks

native

weasels, mesopredators

no

4.07

0.21

96

1.23

x

57

Lindell and Forsman 1996

r

P

Europe

SEC

both

open

.

native

small rodent

native

snake

yes

1.48

0.01

12

0.21

x

58

Lokemoen and Woodward 1993

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

fence

high

native

ducks

native

mesopredators

no

4.80

0.1215

50

1.83

.

59

Lokemoen et al. 1982

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

excl

.

native

ducks

native

mesopredators, ground squirrel

no

6.62

0.0853

40

1.00

x

60

Lomolino 1984

r

both

N America

SEC

add

open

low

native

small rodent

native

shrew

no

0.46

0.0025

4

0.22

x

61

Lovegrove 1996

u

both

N Zealand

SEC

rem

open

high

native

passerine

intro

rat

no

4.00

16.3

60

0.62

x

62

Mahon 1999

u

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small marsupials and rodents

intro

red fox, cat

yes

120.07

12

21

0.65

x

63

Major et al. 2006

u

both

N America

SEC/ NE

(rem)

open

high

native

seabird

intro

rat

no

3.13

.

28

-0.12

.

64

Marcström et al. 1988

r

both

Europe

BA/ SEC

rem

open

high

native

grouse

native

red fox, marten

no

3.28

21

48

0.50

x

65

Marcström et al. 1989

r

P

Europe

BA/ SEC

rem

open

high

native

hare

native

red fox, marten

no

1.47

21

48

0.33

x

66

Martin et al. 2001

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

grouse

native

lynx, coyote, red fox

yes

16.99

0.36

101

-0.81

x

67

Martin and Joron 2003

u

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

passerines

intro

red squirrel

no

6.22

2.49

72

0.79

x

68

Mayer and Ryan 1991

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

excl

low

native

wader

native

carnivores, small rodents

no

77.74

0.017

15

0.54

x

69

McKinney et al. 2006

u

P

N America

BA

rem

open

low

native

ungulate

native

cougar

no

0.69

87

54

0.93

x

70

Meserve et al. 1996

r

P

S America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

owls, fox

yes

19.87

0.0056

51

0.07

x

71

Millus et al. 2007

u

R

N America

BA

rem

open

high

native

seabird

native

deer mouse

no

0.19

0.0028

4

0.11

x

72

Moorhouse et al. 2003

r

both

N Zealand

SEC

rem

open

.

native

parrot

intro

stoat, possum, rats

no

1.75

34.8

48

0.24

x

73

Nie and Liu 2005

r

both

Asia

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

weasels, raptors, foxes

no

155.99

0.0015

30

0.66

x

74

Nordström et al. 2002

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

waterfowl

intro

mink

no

0.56

1.07

72

1.24

x

75

Nordström et al. 2003

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

passerines, gulls, waders

intro

mink

no

4.36

1.07

72

0.60

x

76

Nordström et al. 2004

r

R

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

seabird

intro

mink

no

11.33

1.07

72

1.23

x

77

Norrdahl and Korpimäki 1995

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents, shrew

native

kestrel, owl

yes

5.06

3

41

0.09

x

78

Norrdahl and Korpimäki 1996

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents

native

kestrel, owl

yes

2.91

3

41

0.04

x

79

Norrdahl and Korpimäki 2000

r

both

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

both

small rodents, grouse, shrew, passerines

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

0.78

3

25

0.67

.

80

Norrdahl et al. 2004

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodents

native

weasels, owls, kestrel

yes

3.98

2.5

31

0.81

x

81

Parker 1984

u

both

Europe

SEC

rem

open

high

native

grouse

native

corvids

no

0.73

3.72

40

0.61

x

82

Pearse and Ratti 2004

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

.

native

duck

native

coyote, mesopredators

no

6.21

41

17

0.37

x

83

Pech et al. 1992

u

P

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

intro

rabbit

intro

red fox, cat

no

2.37

160

25

0.97

.

84

Potvin et al. 1992a

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

beaver

native

wolf

no

2.08

275

26

0.62

x

85

Potvin et al. 1992b

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

deer

native

wolf

no

0.47

745

36

-0.21

x

86

Rautiainen 2005

u

R

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

duck

intro

mink, raccoon dog

no

2.76

2.43

24

-0.84

x

87

Reid et al. 1995

u

both

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

carnivores, raptors

no

456.16

0.114

26

1.81

x

88

Rimmer and Deblinger 1992

u

R

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

seabird

native

mesopredators

no

104.57

.

8

0.77

.

89

Risbey et al. 2000

u

P

Australia

SEC

rem

fence

high

both

small rodent

intro

red fox, cat

no

119.23

12

42

0.88

.

90

Robertson et al. 1994

u

both

S Pacific

BA

rem

open

high

native

passerine

intro

rat, cat

no

90.74

1.5

54

0.22

x

91

Sargeant et al. 1995

r

R

N America

SEC

rem

open

.

native

duck

native

weasels, mesopredators, ground squirrel

no

3.66

1.42

41

0.88

x

92

Sinclair et al. 2003

u

P

Africa

BA/ SEC

rem

open

high

native

ungulates

native

lion, hyena, jackals

no

0.32

3 150

96

1.55

x

93

Sovada et al. 1995

r

R

N America

SEC/ NE

(rem)

open

high

native

duck

native

coyote, red fox

no

12.06

0.6

2

-0.15

x

94

Spencer et al 2002

r

R

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

turtle

intro

red fox

no

1.85

0.25

21

1.35

x

95

Spencer and Thompson 2005

u

both

Australia

SEC

rem

open

high

native

turtles

intro

red fox

no

1.23

0.245

21

0.03

x

96

Stout 1982

r

R

N America

SEC/ BA

rem

open

high

native

ungulate

native

coyote

no

0.17

123

36

0.93

x

97

Sullivan and  Sullivan 1980

u

P

N America

SEC

add

open

.

native

small rodent

native

weasel

no

6.26

0.01

7

-0.33

x

98

Summers et al. 2004

u

R

Europe

SEC

rem

open

low

native

grouse

native

red fox, corvids

no

1.84

14

72

0.58

x

99

Sundell 2003

r

P

Europe

SEC

add

open

low

native

small rodents

native

least weasel

yes

3.59

7.68

37

0.16

x

100

Taitt and Krebs 1983

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

open

high

native

small rodent

native

heron

yes

61.33

0.0025

3

0.09

x

101

Taitt et al. 1981

u

both

N America

SEC

.

open

high

native

small rodent

native

heron, raptor, owls

yes

24.77

0.0025

2

1.33

x

102

Tapper et al. 1996

r

both

Europe

BA/ SEC

rem

open

high

native

grouse

native

weasels, fox, corvids, rat

no

2.98

5.3

36

0.98

x

103

Tocher 2006

r

P

N Zealand

BA

rem

open

high

native

lizards

intro

weasels, mesopredators, raptor, other mammals

no

46.22

0.0175

37

-0.06

x

104

Towns 1991

u

P

N Zealand

SEC

rem

open

high

native

lizards

intro

rat

no

1.23

0.13

120

3.08

x

105

van Aarde et al. 1996

u

both

Indian Ocean

BA

rem

open

high

intro

small rodent

intro

cat

no

185.71

290

168

0.18

.

106

Vibe-Petersen et al. 2003

r

P

Africa

SEC

both

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

owls, raptors, mesopredators

yes

62.49

0.005

30

0.03

x

107

Wilson et al. 1999

u

P

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

raptors, owls, weasel, fox, etc.

yes

23.00

0.09

25

0.55

x

108

Wolff et al. 1999

r

both

N America

SEC

add

excl

low

native

small rodent

native

raptors

no

6.61

0.002

2.5

-0.13

x

109

Ylönen et al. 1991

r

P

Europe

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodent

native

owls, buzzard

yes

20.77

0.005

4

-0.43

x

110

Yunger 2004

r

P

N America

SEC

rem

excl

high

native

small rodents

native

coyote,fox, weasels, raptors, owls

no

68.86

0.006

9

-0.24

x

111

Zanette et al. 2006

r

R

N America

SEC/ NE

(rem)

open

high

native

passerine

both

cat, rat, raptor, passerine

no

35.91

1.5

30

0.14

.

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