Ecological Archives M084-001-A3

D. Lee Taylor, Teresa N. Hollingsworth, Jack W. McFarland, Niall J. Lennon, Chad Nusbaum, Roger W. Ruess. 2014. A first comprehensive census of fungi in soil reveals both hyperdiversity and fine-scale niche partitioning. Ecological Monographs 84:3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-1693.1

Appendix C. Graphical and tabular views of fungal habitat preferences as revealed by ordinations and environmental correlations.

FigC1

Fig. C1. NMS ordinations of fungal communities in the organic horizon (a) and mineral horizon (b). Notice that the strongest distinction among sites for the organic horizon is related to site acidity, while moisture plays a somewhat more important role than pH in the mineral horizon. Vectors represent correlations between site scores on fungal community NMS ordination axes and site scores based on ordinations of plant communities and soil chemical factors. Organic and mineral horizon fungal communities are each more strongly related to different aspects of plant community composition and soil chemistry, as indicated by different axes for these factors.


 

FigC2

Fig. C2. Bar chart of the occurrence of two Cortinarius species across soil horizons in each of the 12 sites (1 = site TKN0001, etc).


Table C1. NMS ordination results. The proportion of the site-to-site variation explained is given for each axis, along with the cumulative proportion of variation explained by the final ordination.

Data set

Final stress

Instability

Iterations

Axis 1

Axis 2

Axis 3

Total

All fungi, horizons and years separate (N = 48)

11.97432

0.00000

108

0.252

0.310

0.218

0.780

Organic horizon fungi, years combined (N = 12)

6.35383

0.00000

158

0.608

0.108

0.157

0.873

Mineral horizon fungi, years combined (N = 12)

7.85283

0.00000

70

0.185

0.268

0.303

0.755

 

Table C2. Kendall correlations between environmental variables and fungal NMS ordination site scores on the first two axes.

Environmental factor

Kendall’s tau

Organic Horizon Fungi

Axis 1

In situ pH

-0.565

Na (meq/100)

-0.520

% bare soil

-0.450

Vegetation NMS Axis 1

0.455

% silt

0.431

Soil PCA Axis 1

-0.394

% clay

0.388

Range of microtopography (cm)

0.374

Vegetation NMS Axis 2

-0.364

K (ppm)

0.351

% lichen

0.350

% graminoid

-0.335

Density (trees/ha)

-0.333

% seedlings

-0.318

Axis 2

Elevation

0.515

Maximum microtopography

0.478

Oa (cm)

0.428

Mineral Horizon Fungi

Axis 1

Cation exchange capacity

0.727

% N

0.646

Diamter at breast height

-0.626

Soil PCA Axis 1

0.606

Mg (meq/100)

0.595

% C

0.595

Ca (meq/100)

0.576

Mean tree height

-0.576

Tree basal area cm2

-0.545

% loss on ignition

0.545

Vegetation NMS Axis 2

0.515

Elevation

-0.485

K  (meq/100)

0.481

Range of microtopography (cm)

-0.453

Oe depth (cm)

0.428

K (ppm)

0.412

% silt

0.400

% soil moisture

0.394

Bulk density

-0.364

Total organic depth (cm)

0.362

Axis 2

Active layer depth

-0.540

P (ppm)

-0.462

pH

0.362

 

Table C3. Eigenvalues for the environmental variables most strongly correlated to axes 1 and 2 in the principal components analysis (PCA) ordination of sites based on quantitative soil chemistry and site factors.

 

Eigenvalue

Axis 1

% C

0.2503

% loss on ignition

0.2389

% N

0.2382

% soil moisture

0.2368

Cation exchange capacity

0.2335

Surficial geomorphology

-0.2287

Bulk density

-0.2186

Soil moisture

0.2171

P ppm

0.2109

Total organic depth (cm)

0.1938

Oa (cm)

0.1920

Landform

-0.1912

Axis 2

In situ pH

0.3183

Na (meq)

0.2814

1-1 pH

0.2732

Mg (meq)

0.2678

Charcoal

0.2511

Ca (meq)

0.2303

Elevation

-0.2290

Thermokarst

-0.2203

% clay

-0.2171

% sand

0.2163

Topographic position

0.1967

Oe (cm)

0.1882

% silt

-0.1835


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