Selected Pubblications
(Indexed by Scopus, updated on May, 2020)

Riccardo Berta

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Kobeissi A, Berta R, Bellotti F and De Gloria A (2020), "IoT Ubiquitous Edge Engine Implementation on the Raspberry PI", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 627, pp. 469-475.
Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, sensors and actuators represent the edge that is the source of data. The amount of data being generated by edge devices is exploding. Storage and processing of all the data in the cloud has become too slow and costly to meet the requirements of the end user. Edge computing presents a substantial solution through facilitating the processing of device data closer to the source. However, computing data from various and different sources is a formidable challenge for edge programming. This abstract presents lab experiments for testing versions of a multi-purpose generic edge engine on open-hardware edge devices, specifically the Raspbersry Pi 3 as a test bed with a standard Operating System (OS) and the STMxx as an MCU with Real-Time Operating System (RTOS). © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Kobeissi2020469,
    author = {Kobeissi, A. and Berta, R. and Bellotti, F. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {IoT Ubiquitous Edge Engine Implementation on the Raspberry PI},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {627},
    pages = {469-475},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85083304197&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-37277-4_54&partnerID=40&md5=55ed51eef49bc01723f10006faca85d0},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-37277-4_54}
  }
  
Falbo V, Apicella T, Aurioso D, Danese L, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2020), "Analyzing Machine Learning on Mainstream Microcontrollers", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 627, pp. 103-108.
Abstract: Machine learning in embedded systems has become a reality, with the first tools for neural network firmware development already being made available for ARM microcontroller developers. This paper explores the use of one of such tools, namely the STM X-Cube-AI, on mainstream ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers, analyzing their performance, and comparing support and performance of other two common supervised ML algorithms, namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN). Results on three datasets show that X-Cube-AI provides quite constant good performance even with the limitations of the embedded platform. The workflow is well integrated with mainstream desktop tools, such as Tensorflow and Keras. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Falbo2020103,
    author = {Falbo, V. and Apicella, T. and Aurioso, D. and Danese, L. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Analyzing Machine Learning on Mainstream Microcontrollers},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {627},
    pages = {103-108},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85083313953&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-37277-4_12&partnerID=40&md5=7bd64258e10d8d66f89a87c9e4f34328},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-37277-4_12}
  }
  
Cirimele V, La Ganga A, Colussi J, Gloria A, Diana M, Bellotti F, Berta R, Sayed N, Kobeissi A, Guglielmi P, Ruffo R and Khalilian M (2020), "The Fabric ICT Platform for Managing Wireless Dynamic Charging Road Lanes", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. Vol. 69(3), pp. 2501-2512.
Abstract: As dynamic inductive power transfer for electric vehicles is growing in relevance, it is important to analyze solutions towards its deployment and integration in the cloud-based services for electric mobility. In this paper we present an Internet-enabling platform for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment, which features a high-level Charging Station Control Unit and a Power Electronics Controller. The platform is a middleware that controls the charging process taking into account outside world information. Tests were performed in a safe driving track, in Italy, to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the installation, for one year, for a total of 120 drive hours, under various weather conditions. Tests showed the suitability of the platform in terms of ability to authenticate and authorize a vehicle even through a remote service, sequentially control each coil in a lane, monitor the charging process, assist the driver in keeping the vehicle aligned so as to maximize the energy exchange and deliver charging session information to the cloud (e.g. for billing). © 1967-2012 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @article{Cirimele20202501,
    author = {Cirimele, V. and La Ganga, A. and Colussi, J. and Gloria, A.D. and Diana, M. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Sayed, N.E. and Kobeissi, A. and Guglielmi, P. and Ruffo, R. and Khalilian, M.},
    title = {The Fabric ICT Platform for Managing Wireless Dynamic Charging Road Lanes},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {69},
    number = {3},
    pages = {2501-2512},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082054930&doi=10.1109%2fTVT.2020.2968211&partnerID=40&md5=06b62f20000bf3e6a68c37d895815e00},
    doi = {10.1109/TVT.2020.2968211}
  }
  
Bellitto J, Schenone V, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2020), "Fine-Grain Traffic Control for Smart Intersections", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 627, pp. 349-354.
Abstract: As connected and, even more, autonomous vehicles are expected to bring significant novelties in the future road traffic patterns, we have investigated the control of a specific, yet very common topology, such as the intersection between two 2-lane roads. We have addressed the issue with a novel, fine-grain control approach, and proposed an adaptive prioritization algorithm which weights length of the queue and arrival order for each lane. From an Uppaal simulation, we deduce that the second factor looks more important, at higher arrival rates. Compared to a fixed Round-robin schedule, our algorithm achieves quite a better performance, especially at high traffic volumes, also with inhomogeneous traffic flow cases. In order to guarantee robustness to our design, we made a model checking analysis, considering safety and liveness requirements. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellitto2020349,
    author = {Bellitto, J. and Schenone, V. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Fine-Grain Traffic Control for Smart Intersections},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {627},
    pages = {349-354},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85083328733&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-37277-4_40&partnerID=40&md5=a0c8bef369503c4f606fc560857c326f},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-37277-4_40}
  }
  
Bajaj N, Requena Carrión J, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2020), "Automatic and tunable algorithm for EEG artifact removal using wavelet decomposition with applications in predictive modeling during auditory tasks", Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. Vol. 55
Abstract: Brain–computer interface (BCI) systems are becoming increasingly popular nowadays. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded by BCI systems are however frequently contaminated by artifacts and while applying any artifact removal algorithm, precautions should be taken not to remove useful information. Widely and most popular approaches to remove artifacts from EEG are based on independent component analysis (ICA), which relies on the multichannel EEG signal and needs an expert to manually pick the artifactual component to remove it or needs reference signals of artifacts. Recently, wavelet-based approaches have been proposed and demonstrated as well-suited for single channel EEG signal. However, control over the loss of information still remains an issue. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an algorithm based on wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) that allows controlling the suppression or removal of presumed artifacts, by tuning intuitive parameters. The proposed algorithm has three operating modes and two tuning parameters. We study the performance of the proposed algorithm and compare it with ICA-based approaches and a comparative wavelet-based approach on an EEG dataset collected for a study of auditory tasks. In addition to visual inspection, spectral response and distribution, the results of predictive tasks show that the proposed approach performs better than ICA-based approach and performance can be further improved by properly tuning the parameters for an individual predictive model. The proposed approach also performs better in terms of retention of neural information and removal of artifactual noise measured by mutual information and correlation coefficient, as compared to the comparative wavelet-based approach. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
BibTeX:
  @article{Bajaj2020,
    author = {Bajaj, N. and Requena Carrión, J. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Automatic and tunable algorithm for EEG artifact removal using wavelet decomposition with applications in predictive modeling during auditory tasks},
    journal = {Biomedical Signal Processing and Control},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {55},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85070706315&doi=10.1016%2fj.bspc.2019.101624&partnerID=40&md5=ea4e184efc06956330f3bf860aef3cd6},
    doi = {10.1016/j.bspc.2019.101624}
  }
  
Smiai O, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2019), "Exploring particle swarm optimization to build a dynamic charging electric vehicle routing algorithm", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 512, pp. 127-134.
Abstract: Electric vehicle (EV) limited range is a serious concern for its wide scale commercialization. Dynamic battery charging is being developed as a promising technology for increasing the range, vehicles are charged through inductive points placed in the net. The choice of a proper navigation route becomes essential, and algorithms must be identified for a run time identification of the better path. In this paper, we propose and explore the application of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve the problem of energy efficient routing problem for inductive dynamic charging EVs. The paper presents the results obtained in a simple simulation of a road network with 11 dynamic charging inductive lanes. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019.
BibTeX:
  @article{Smiai2019127,
    author = {Smiai, O. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Exploring particle swarm optimization to build a dynamic charging electric vehicle routing algorithm},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {512},
    pages = {127-134},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85050397876&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-93082-4_17&partnerID=40&md5=16a1f1deff49ea1ed33a8ce9748265f2},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-93082-4_17}
  }
  
Parodi A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2019), "Developing a machine learning library for microcontrollers", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 550(9783030119720), pp. 313-317.
Abstract: With the appearance of tools to support the emerging paradigm of edge computing, we expect that low cost microcontrollers will become appealing execution platforms also for machine learning. To explore this field, we implemented Machine Learning eMbedded Library (ML)2 and tested it in a simple case (classifying human movement as normal or not) and with a benchmark dataset to have a first comparison in performance with other implemented algorithms. Results—in terms of accuracy and of execution time, both for training and classification—are promising, and encourage the next steps of our work, in the direction of extending the set of implemented algorithms and going more in depth with the testing. In any case, we believe that these preliminary results should spur the Internet of Things research community in devising distributed computing algorithms able to support ML computation as close as possible to the source. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Parodi2019313,
    author = {Parodi, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Developing a machine learning library for microcontrollers},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {550},
    number = {9783030119720},
    pages = {313-317},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85066881686&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-11973-7_36&partnerID=40&md5=6eb76dac4d1c6810b338f024113d3174},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11973-7_36}
  }
  
Paranthaman P, Bellotti F, Berta R, Dange G and De Gloria A (2019), "User preferences for a serious game to improve driving", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 11385 LNCS, pp. 440-444.
Abstract: As automotive games are gaining interest, there is a lack in literature on specifications, user needs and requirements. We collected information from potential users on some basic features about two types of games for improving the driver performance: driver games and passenger games. In a survey with 18 respondents, both the typologies have been considered appealing, with drivers more interested in assessing performance and having suggestions, passengers in having fun. The greatest difference involves the requirement that a driver game should avoid distraction. Thus, the set-up phase should be doable when the vehicle is stopped, the visual feedback, if any, should be very limited (e.g., color spots), and most of the feedback should be provided through the audio channel. Passenger games might have more complex plots, with chance factors, and also support social interaction, for instance with passengers of other vehicles. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Paranthaman2019440,
    author = {Paranthaman, P.K. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Dange, G. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {User preferences for a serious game to improve driving},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {11385 LNCS},
    pages = {440-444},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85061397623&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-11548-7_45&partnerID=40&md5=0115d5d523634dead2a370bdbe8e7c47},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11548-7_45}
  }
  
Oliveri M, Hauge J, Bellotti F, Berta R and Gloria A (2019), "Designing an IoT-focused, Multiplayer Serious Game for Industry 4.0 Innovation", Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation, ICE/ITMC 2019.
Abstract: There is a trend in industries towards adoption of new technologies coming from Industry 4.0 to improve operational automation, efficiency, maintenance, by interconnecting sensors, devices, machines, and processes, increasing data availability for automation and decision support. These changing scenarios need to be addressed also in terms of instruction and training, for students, workers and stakeholders. In this paper, we explore as a case study the design of a Serious Game aimed at preparing undergraduate students to understand and cope with such new concepts, tools and practices, with a focus on the Internet of Things. © 2019 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Oliveri2019,
    author = {Oliveri, M. and Hauge, J.B. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Gloria, A.D.},
    title = {Designing an IoT-focused, Multiplayer Serious Game for Industry 4.0 Innovation},
    journal = {Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation, ICE/ITMC 2019},
    year = {2019},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85071507858&doi=10.1109%2fICE.2019.8792680&partnerID=40&md5=67cd4e05f5f54eb38a343065e643d3f9},
    doi = {10.1109/ICE.2019.8792680}
  }
  
Massoud R, Bellotti F, Poslad S, Berta R and De Gloria A (2019), "Towards a reality-enhanced serious game to promote eco-driving in the wild", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 11899 LNCS, pp. 245-255.
Abstract: Reality-enhanced serious games (RESGs) incorporate data from the real world to enact training in the wild. This – with the proper cautions due to safety-can be done also for daily activities, such as driving. We have developed two modules that may be integrated as field user performance evaluators in third-party RESGs, aimed at improving driver’s fuel efficiency. They exploit vehicular signals (throttle position, engine revolutions per minute and car speed), which are easily accessible through the common On-Board Diagnostics-II (OBD-II) interface. The first module detects inefficient and risky driving manoeuvres while driving, in order to suggest improvement actions based upon fuzzy rules, derived from analyzing naturalistic driving data. The second module provides an eco-driving categorization for a drive via two indicators, fuel efficiency and throttle position values. The estimation of fuel efficiency for the whole trip relies on the mentioned signals, plus the OBD-II calculated engine load. Data from ‘enviroCar’ project’s, a naturalistic driving archive, was used in a simulation. The results are promising in terms of accuracy and encourage further steps towards more effective modules to support a better driving performance, for RESGs. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
BibTeX:
  @article{Massoud2019245,
    author = {Massoud, R. and Bellotti, F. and Poslad, S. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Towards a reality-enhanced serious game to promote eco-driving in the wild},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {11899 LNCS},
    pages = {245-255},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082487592&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-34350-7_24&partnerID=40&md5=57bf09794fbbe6efcd7e84e6423c8520},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-34350-7_24}
  }
  
Massoud R, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Poslad S (2019), "Eco-driving profiling and behavioral shifts using IoT vehicular sensors combined with serious games", IEEE Conference on Computatonal Intelligence and Games, CIG. Vol. 2019-August
Abstract: In addition to smarter road vehicles and smarter roads, more smartly human driven vehicles (that are as yet still predominantly more common-place than autonomously driven ones) currently still have a huge potential to improve road safety, fuel efficiency and to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. In this work, we propose a human driving profiling algorithm with the means of Serious Games (SGs) - games for training and learning drivers' trip purpose beyond a behavioral improvement via users' motivation and engagement in a digital environment - to assist the driver in promoting more fuel efficient (low fuel consumption, FC) driving. The game supplies drivers or players with direct feedback when more inefficient, and riskier, driving manoeuvres are detectable, via sensing and analysing the changes of throttle position, engine revolutions per minute (RPM), car speed and jerks (changes in acceleration with respect to time). Such manoeuvres derived from the On-Board Diagnostic-II interface to the vehicle sensors complemented by additional sensors such as GPS location, e.g., from a mobile phone or inbuilt vehicle sensor, can be regarded as eco-driving events. Providing eco-driving feedback via the user interface of a SG, keeps the driver aware of the fuel economy and safety. We also argue that evaluating the driving style for the whole trip allows us to take into account how the dynamic driving behavior is sometimes affected by other factors (e.g., traffic congestion). In addition, this quantitative evaluation is important as a gaming mechanism, i.e., an updated score can facilitate reaching a higher gaming level, etc. In contrast to existing studies, we combine fuel efficiency with the throttle position values in the eco-driving classification module. We have done some initial analysis for this, using the naturalistic historical driving data from the enviroCar project's open data initiative. We reason that throttle position is the most powerful indicator of fuel efficiency and driving style among the other studied parameters. © 2019 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Massoud2019,
    author = {Massoud, R. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Poslad, S.},
    title = {Eco-driving profiling and behavioral shifts using IoT vehicular sensors combined with serious games},
    journal = {IEEE Conference on Computatonal Intelligence and Games, CIG},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {2019-August},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85073098958&doi=10.1109%2fCIG.2019.8847992&partnerID=40&md5=7c4c1fe346a962848cd2c026cb2e495d},
    doi = {10.1109/CIG.2019.8847992}
  }
  
Kobeissi A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2019), "Towards an IoT-enabled dynamic wireless charging metering service for electrical vehicles", 2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive, AEIT AUTOMOTIVE 2019.
Abstract: As dynamic wireless charging (DWC) is emerging as a promising technology for electrical vehicles (EVs), solutions need to be researched for effective deployment in authentic contexts of use (i.e., road lanes with several different vehicles). This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT) edge-to-cloud service exploiting data collected from the electrical vehicle station equipment (EVSE) to support new electro-mobility services (e.g., billing, energy-aware car navigation). On-site and in-lab tests were performed, and results have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the system. © 2019 AEIT.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Kobeissi2019,
    author = {Kobeissi, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Towards an IoT-enabled dynamic wireless charging metering service for electrical vehicles},
    journal = {2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive, AEIT AUTOMOTIVE 2019},
    year = {2019},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85072055949&doi=10.23919%2fEETA.2019.8804571&partnerID=40&md5=3cb914569acd3916ce56f273a56abdb2},
    doi = {10.23919/EETA.2019.8804571}
  }
  
Kobeissi A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2019), "Raspberry pi 3 performance characterization in an artificial vision automotive application", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 550(9783030119720), pp. 3-10.
Abstract: Artificial vision is a key factor for new generation automotive systems. This paper focuses on a module aimed at maximizing the energy flow between the transmitting and receiving grids, in the context of dynamic wireless charging of electrical vehicles. The output of the module helps the driver to keep a precise alignment between the vehicle and the charging grids in the road. The module was developed using low cost and open hardware and software components. This paper provides a characterization of the embedded system from a performance point of view, considering various parameters, such as CPU load, memory footprint, and energy consumption, in view of assessing the Raspberry Pi as a platform for embedded rapid prototyping and computing in automotive environment. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Kobeissi20193,
    author = {Kobeissi, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Raspberry pi 3 performance characterization in an artificial vision automotive application},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {550},
    number = {9783030119720},
    pages = {3-10},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85066891773&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-11973-7_1&partnerID=40&md5=a270118d7c44ceef20bc14fddbc90f55},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11973-7_1}
  }
  
DeGloria A, Chirico M, Launo C, Berta R, Bellotti F, Gioco G and Carmosino I (2019), "3D software simulator for primary care training", 8th International Workshop on Innovative Simulation for Health Care, IWISH 2019. , pp. 114-119.
Abstract: Medical software simulators are used to teach specific procedures that allow the user to follow only a strict sequence of steps without the possibility of alternative, avoiding considering the consequence of an error and then potentially admitting its tolerance. Usually these applications are a state machine implementation where learners must make a specific action to obtain a specific result. In our work we propose a brand-new approach with a "Open world" serious game medical simulator, based on Agent Based Model Paradigm. Starting by these concepts, a user can learn and test his skills in a dynamic environment that changes in real time based on his actions. We provide a configurable starting set of conditions (patient heath state, available medical instruments and drugs) to create, potentially, infinite scenarios; alongside these boundary values the game permits to configure real time events that influence patient in an unpredictable way by the user side. © Innovative Simulation for Health Care, IWISH 2019.All Rights Reserved.
BibTeX:
  @conference{DeGloria2019114,
    author = {DeGloria, A. and Chirico, M. and Launo, C. and Berta, R. and Bellotti, F. and Gioco, G. and Carmosino, I.},
    title = {3D software simulator for primary care training},
    journal = {8th International Workshop on Innovative Simulation for Health Care, IWISH 2019},
    year = {2019},
    pages = {114-119},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85074189664&partnerID=40&md5=04b713457ed6627976f90c165b7ebe34}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Kopetzki S, Berta R, Paranthaman P, Dange G, Lytrivis P, Amditis A, Raffero M, Aittoniemi E, Basso R, Radusch I and De Gloria A (2019), "TEAM Applications for Collaborative Road Mobility", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. Vol. 15(2), pp. 1105-1119.
Abstract: The tomorrow's elastic adaptive mobility industrial research project developed eleven collaborative mobility apps addressing various traffic issues and scenarios. The apps, involving different aspects and degrees of collaboration (e.g., direct user participation, shared objectives, coordination, etc.), aim at increasing the driver/traveler awareness and support a better behavior. This paper describes the apps and the underlying system architecture shared by the participating car manufacturers. Then, it provides a user acceptance analysis grouping the apps according to the three main types of users and stakeholders: drivers, travelers, and administrators/operators. Data, collected in five European countries, shows that acceptance and expected impact are positive. The actual road-test experience did not diminish the high expectations raised by an initial presentation on paper, showing a good maturity of the prototypes. The Administrator app cluster shows a slightly better assessment, highlighting the importance of considering collaborative mobility as a system, including road, infrastructure, and traffic management. © 2005-2012 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti20191105,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Kopetzki, S. and Berta, R. and Paranthaman, P.K. and Dange, G.R. and Lytrivis, P. and Amditis, A.J. and Raffero, M. and Aittoniemi, E. and Basso, R. and Radusch, I. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {TEAM Applications for Collaborative Road Mobility},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {15},
    number = {2},
    pages = {1105-1119},
    note = {cited By 4},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049063833&doi=10.1109%2fTII.2018.2850005&partnerID=40&md5=160f03af0291548304f18aa3b461778b},
    doi = {10.1109/TII.2018.2850005}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, Kobeissi A, Osman N, Arnold E, Dianati M, Nagy B and De Gloria A (2019), "Designing an IoT framework for automated driving impact analysis", IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings. Vol. 2019-June, pp. 1111-1117.
Abstract: Automated Driving (AD) technology is rapidly advancing and being tested in large-scale pilots. The L3Pilot project will test AD functions at SAE automation level 3 and 4 in 100 cars, from 12 vehicle owners (car manufacturers and suppliers), with 1,000 drivers across 10 different countries in Europe. The project will thus generate a huge amount of data, part of which will be aggregated and shared among project participants and publicly for answering a set of research questions about the evaluation of such aspects as technical and traffic issues, user acceptance, impact, socio-economic impact. This paper investigates the design of an Internet of Things (IoT) framework aimed at storing data collected from the prototype vehicles and pre-processed in the various test sites, in order to protect privacy and intellectual property (IP). The framework is expected to make such aggregated information easily available to analysts through a web interface. The framework, of which we present also a pre-pilot lab test, is accessible through a RESTful API and features different user roles to meet the different information access requirements. © 2019 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti20191111,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Kobeissi, A. and Osman, N. and Arnold, E. and Dianati, M. and Nagy, B. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Designing an IoT framework for automated driving impact analysis},
    journal = {IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {2019-June},
    pages = {1111-1117},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85072302848&doi=10.1109%2fIVS.2019.8813989&partnerID=40&md5=92318c880b8f63cb2ed7e9a6f0e1b2ff},
    doi = {10.1109/IVS.2019.8813989}
  }
  
Bajaj N, Bellotti F, Berta R, Requena Carriòn J and De Gloria A (2019), "Auditory attention, implications for serious game design", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 11385 LNCS, pp. 201-209.
Abstract: Auditory attention is fundamental also in serious games. This paper synthetizes the results of a recent statistical analysis of auditory attention of non-native learners and proposes indications for serious game design. We propose a 3-dimensional difficulty level model that can be applied both for designing game levels and adaptivity to keep a player in the flow. The model suggests using background noise level as a prime factor to increase the difficulty of the game, followed by the length of the stimulus and the semantic complexity of the message. We also propose the concept of a mini-game format specifically aimed at training auditory attention and performance. As a format, it could be easily customized in different context domains and implemented as a service or a game engine plug-in. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bajaj2019201,
    author = {Bajaj, N. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Requena Carriòn, J. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Auditory attention, implications for serious game design},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {11385 LNCS},
    pages = {201-209},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85061353210&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-11548-7_19&partnerID=40&md5=354786314e2757794457d54c7613144b},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-11548-7_19}
  }
  
Monteriù A, Prist M, Frontoni E, Longhi S, Pietroni F, Casaccia S, Scalise L, Cenci A, Romeo L, Berta R, Pescosolido L, Orlandi G and Revel G (2018), "A smart sensing architecture for domestic monitoring: Methodological approach and experimental validation", Sensors (Switzerland). Vol. 18(7)
Abstract: Smart homes play a strategic role for improving life quality of people, enabling to monitor people at home with numerous intelligent devices. Sensors can be installed to provide a continuous assistance without limiting the resident’s daily routine, giving her/him greater comfort, well-being and safety. This paper is based on the development of domestic technological solutions to improve the life quality of citizens and monitor the users and the domestic environment, based on features extracted from the collected data. The proposed smart sensing architecture is based on an integrated sensor network to monitor the user and the environment to derive information about the user’s behavior and her/his health status. The proposed platform includes biomedical, wearable, and unobtrusive sensors for monitoring user’s physiological parameters and home automation sensors to obtain information about her/his environment. The sensor network stores the heterogeneous data both locally and remotely in Cloud, where machine learning algorithms and data mining strategies are used for user behavior identification, classification of user health conditions, classification of the smart home profile, and data analytics to implement services for the community. The proposed solution has been experimentally tested in a pilot study based on the development of both sensors and services for elderly users at home. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
BibTeX:
  @article{Monteriù2018,
    author = {Monteriù, A. and Prist, M.R. and Frontoni, E. and Longhi, S. and Pietroni, F. and Casaccia, S. and Scalise, L. and Cenci, A. and Romeo, L. and Berta, R. and Pescosolido, L. and Orlandi, G. and Revel, G.M.},
    title = {A smart sensing architecture for domestic monitoring: Methodological approach and experimental validation},
    journal = {Sensors (Switzerland)},
    year = {2018},
    volume = {18},
    number = {7},
    note = {cited By 14},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85050306929&doi=10.3390%2fs18072310&partnerID=40&md5=bb7ddedf3fc3db20de601c0929a4761f},
    doi = {10.3390/s18072310}
  }
  
Kobeissi A, Chible H, Berta R, De Gloria A and Bellotti F (2018), "Design and implementation of an IoT system for enhancing proprioception training", Proceedings of the International Conference on Microelectronics, ICM. Vol. 2017-December, pp. 1-4.
Abstract: This paper presents a motion sensing add-on and a graphical user interface for the balance board. Our system adds kinetic sensing to the board in order to record its rotation in the 3D space. A sports game, a 3D video game for ski training, is set to be controlled by the rotation of the balance board. The system thus adds to the balance board IoT capabilities. © 2017 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Kobeissi20181,
    author = {Kobeissi, A.H. and Chible, H. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Bellotti, F.},
    title = {Design and implementation of an IoT system for enhancing proprioception training},
    journal = {Proceedings of the International Conference on Microelectronics, ICM},
    year = {2018},
    volume = {2017-December},
    pages = {1-4},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85045143727&doi=10.1109%2fICM.2017.8268878&partnerID=40&md5=1084e912490f3ac0ee6d40b6bbab4686},
    doi = {10.1109/ICM.2017.8268878}
  }
  
Kobeissi A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2018), "IoT Grid alignment assistant system for dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles", 2018 5th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security, IoTSMS 2018. , pp. 274-279.
Abstract: Several technological solutions are being researched to establish efficient, reliable, and robust wireless vehicular electric charging on a wide scale. We propose an artificial vision system-the Grid Alignment Assistant System (GAAS)- A imed at maximizing the energy flow between the transmitting and receiving goals, by supporting the driver in the task of keeping an alignment between the vehicle and the charging grids in the road. GAAS exploits low cost and open hardware and software components. GAAS supports IoT capabilities as an API cloud service is developed for real-time measurements storage. This paper presents road test results showing that high precision misalignment estimations can be achieved, and presents some challenges imposed by the actual deployment environment. © 2018 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Kobeissi2018274,
    author = {Kobeissi, A.H. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {IoT Grid alignment assistant system for dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles},
    journal = {2018 5th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security, IoTSMS 2018},
    year = {2018},
    pages = {274-279},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85059983010&doi=10.1109%2fIoTSMS.2018.8554902&partnerID=40&md5=9c84302ddc2870abc3d7b317cd8e6c76},
    doi = {10.1109/IoTSMS.2018.8554902}
  }
  
Drakoulis R, Bellotti F, Bakas I, Berta R, Paranthaman P, Dange G, Lytrivis P, Pagle K, De Gloria A and Amditis A (2018), "A Gamified Flexible Transportation Service for On-Demand Public Transport", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. Vol. 19(3), pp. 921-933.
Abstract: Present public transport services still suffer from issues such as time deviations from the static timetable, overcrowded buses, increased on board time, and long wait at bus stops. This work studies the experimental implementation of an on-demand public bus transportation service in Trikala, a medium-sized Greek city. With a view to optimize the service from both the operator's and the citizens' point of view, this paper presents an insertion heuristic solving the static multivehicle dial-a-ride problem with time windows and a fixed fleet of vehicles. Since viability of such a service depends on its ability of involving a significant number of users and getting reliable information, we tested a gamification layer, aimed at motivating public transport users to participate and behave correctly with the system. We present and discuss a novel pervasive computing architecture and various types of serious games designed to achieve these goals. We finally report early usability test results and some simulation-based indications on the design of city-scale deployable serious games to enhance public transport-based mobility. © 2000-2011 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @article{Drakoulis2018921,
    author = {Drakoulis, R. and Bellotti, F. and Bakas, I. and Berta, R. and Paranthaman, P.K. and Dange, G.R. and Lytrivis, P. and Pagle, K. and De Gloria, A. and Amditis, A.},
    title = {A Gamified Flexible Transportation Service for On-Demand Public Transport},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems},
    year = {2018},
    volume = {19},
    number = {3},
    pages = {921-933},
    note = {cited By 5},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85041550362&doi=10.1109%2fTITS.2018.2791643&partnerID=40&md5=c595ec89cebf8822ca41af7ea0817b73},
    doi = {10.1109/TITS.2018.2791643}
  }
  
Terracina A, Mecella M, Berta R, Fabiani F and Litardi D (2017), "Game@School. Teaching through gaming and mobile-based tutoring systems", Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST. Vol. 178, pp. 34-44.
Abstract: In this work, we describe an approach and a conceptual architecture of a supporting teaching tool that takes into account two main objectives in new teaching trends: Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) and Intelligent Pedagogical Agents (IPAs). We additionally present an Android application that uses the IPA as a standalone application as an initial step towards the realization of such an architecture. © ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2017.
BibTeX:
  @article{Terracina201734,
    author = {Terracina, A. and Mecella, M. and Berta, R. and Fabiani, F. and Litardi, D.},
    title = {Game@School. Teaching through gaming and mobile-based tutoring systems},
    journal = {Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {178},
    pages = {34-44},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85000613342&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-49616-0_4&partnerID=40&md5=b756c9926fbd93f51ff4e9c035aafa30},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-49616-0_4}
  }
  
Smiai O, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Winder A, Theodoropoulos T, Damousis Y, Schwartz R, Sayed N, Laporte S and Revilloud M (2017), "Developing ICT solutions for dynamic charging of electric vehicles", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 429, pp. 51-58.
Abstract: Dynamic charging technology has the potential to solve the range anxiety problem of electric vehicles. The FABRIC project is assessing the feasibility of using the dynamic charging technology on a large scale. The project developed the ICT platform to support dynamic charging. This paper presents some ICT systems developed within FABRIC. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018.
BibTeX:
  @article{Smiai201751,
    author = {Smiai, O. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Winder, A. and Theodoropoulos, T. and Damousis, Y. and Schwartz, R.S. and Sayed, N.E. and Laporte, S. and Revilloud, M.},
    title = {Developing ICT solutions for dynamic charging of electric vehicles},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {429},
    pages = {51-58},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85020517468&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-55071-8_7&partnerID=40&md5=5eb7a9d3143377034b9d956e152c33e0},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-55071-8_7}
  }
  
Paranthaman P, Dange G, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Di Zitti E, Massucco S and Sciutto G (2017), "A serious game architecture for green mobility", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 429, pp. 66-76.
Abstract: Good driving behavior is a significant factor for road safety and green mobility. A countermeasure to overcome the coarse driving behavior and a methodology to captivate optimal driving traits are discussed in this work. For which, the serious games concept was exploited to improvise the driver performance by deploying diversified game logics (scores, incentives and live game for performance evolution) on a smartphone-based user interface. The application was tested in ASTA ZERO (Active Safety Test Area) in Sweden. The tests comprised of variations (good and bad driving behavior) in driving pattern for analyzing the impact of the application on the driver performance. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018.
BibTeX:
  @article{Paranthaman201766,
    author = {Paranthaman, P.K. and Dange, G.R. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Di Zitti, E. and Massucco, S. and Sciutto, G.},
    title = {A serious game architecture for green mobility},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {429},
    pages = {66-76},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85020535513&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-55071-8_9&partnerID=40&md5=02e08389acd99ce52d353ba4f1da4da1},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-55071-8_9}
  }
  
Kobeissi A, Sidoti A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2017), "Building a Tangible Serious Game Framework for Elementary Spatial and Geometry Concepts", Proceedings - IEEE 17th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2017. , pp. 173-177.
Abstract: Tangible learning is a promising branch, especially for scientific learning, allowing an enhanced sensorial involvement and participation by children. While a lot is being done on the side of programming, less has been investigated on elementary spatial and geometric concepts. The paper presents i-Vertex, an open-hardware framework for tangible serious games on geometry concepts for primary school pupils. The framework targets spatial reasoning and includes music as a related and complementary feature, which should add value also for usability. i-Vertex supports collaboration between kids and the key role of a teacher as an adult that interacts with the children in different ways, introducing them to the discovery and understanding of basic geometric concepts and physical phenomenon. At present, we have built a prototype, featuring a very limited number of vertices, and functionally tested it in lab, in two main scenarios covering topics such as lines and triangles. Based on the successful feedback of this experiment, we intend to proceed further, upgrading the platform with a more powerful and product oriented micro-controller and board. © 2017 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Kobeissi2017173,
    author = {Kobeissi, A.H. and Sidoti, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Building a Tangible Serious Game Framework for Elementary Spatial and Geometry Concepts},
    journal = {Proceedings - IEEE 17th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2017},
    year = {2017},
    pages = {173-177},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85030237163&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2017.131&partnerID=40&md5=111e6800bb37a69aa3ebebac5ced193d},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2017.131}
  }
  
Dange G, Paranthaman P, Bellotti F, Samaritani M, Berta R and De gloria A (2017), "Assessment of driver behavior based on machine learning approaches in a social gaming scenario", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 409, pp. 205-218.
Abstract: The estimation of user performance analytics in the area of car driver performance was carried out in this paper. The main focus relies on the descriptive analysis with our approaches emphasizing on educational serious games, in order to improvise the driver's behavior (specifically green driving) in a pleasant and challenging way. We also propose a general Internet of the Things (IoT) social gaming platform (SGP) concept that could be adaptable and deployable to any kind of application domain. The social gaming scenario in this application enables the users to compete with peers based on their physical location. The efficient drivers will be awarded with virtual coins and gained virtual coins can be used in real world applications (such as purchasing travel tickets, reservation of parking lots, etc.). This research work is part of TEAM project co-funded within the EU FP7 ICT research program. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.
BibTeX:
  @article{Dange2017205,
    author = {Dange, G.R. and Paranthaman, P.K. and Bellotti, F. and Samaritani, M. and Berta, R. and De gloria, A.},
    title = {Assessment of driver behavior based on machine learning approaches in a social gaming scenario},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {409},
    pages = {205-218},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85008471421&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-47913-2_24&partnerID=40&md5=1054de830af7701a3993f9e8ef6c59d9},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-47913-2_24}
  }
  
Dange G, Paranthaman P, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Raffero M and Neumeier S (2017), "Deployment of serious gaming approach for safe and sustainable mobility", IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings. , pp. 1222-1227.
Abstract: The transportation sector is expanding its trends in accessibility, connectivity, and mobility for making the road travel as safe and convenient. Now with Services like car sharing, car pooling and rides there are new effective ways to reach the desired destination. But due to comfort reasons most of the car owners will use their car to navigate from point A to B, without caring about the pollution they produce. In this paper we describe a game based approach for motivating people to drive in a safe and environment-friendly way. The approach of this paper will allow people to measure their driving behavior within a game. The points earned in the game can not only be used for the comparison with peers but also to obtain monetary benefits in different stores. © 2017 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Dange20171222,
    author = {Dange, G.R. and Paranthaman, P.K. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Raffero, M. and Neumeier, S.},
    title = {Deployment of serious gaming approach for safe and sustainable mobility},
    journal = {IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings},
    year = {2017},
    pages = {1222-1227},
    note = {cited By 4},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85028036417&doi=10.1109%2fIVS.2017.7995879&partnerID=40&md5=77f59ce36cdc59228f85341ee5fc878a},
    doi = {10.1109/IVS.2017.7995879}
  }
  
Cirimele V, Smiai O, Guglielmi P, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2017), "Maximizing power transfer for dynamic wireless charging electric vehicles", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 429, pp. 59-65.
Abstract: Dynamic (on the go) wireless electrical charging is a new, challenging frontier for vehicular technologies, as it would allow a dramatic increase in the feasible distance range of electrical vehicles. This paper presents a system under development for optimizing the power transfer for dynamic charging vehicles. The system relies on a coil coupling sensor and a camera. The coupling sensor measures the coupling level between the road and vehicle coils, while the camera detects the distance of the vehicle from the two lines of the lane. A sensor fusion system is needed because, on one hand, the coil sensor is highly accurate but cannot distinguish the direction of the misalignment, while the camera is less precise but can provide information about the position of the lane center, where the centroid of the transmitting coil is expected to be and complete a series of other non-magnetic information needed like the obstacle presence. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018.
BibTeX:
  @article{Cirimele201759,
    author = {Cirimele, V. and Smiai, O. and Guglielmi, P. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Maximizing power transfer for dynamic wireless charging electric vehicles},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {429},
    pages = {59-65},
    note = {cited By 6},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85020542260&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-55071-8_8&partnerID=40&md5=b3c335f7bff70cf4564acf01145f6804},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-55071-8_8}
  }
  
Cimino D, Ferrero A, Queirolo L, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2017), "A low-cost, open-source cyber physical system for automated, remotely controlled precision agriculture", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 409, pp. 191-203.
Abstract: The paper presents a low-cost solution to the problem of remote control in agricultural applications. This choice is due to the growing importance of agriculture in modern times and so to the need of subsidizing this field. Keeping in mind the constraint of low-cost, we propose the design of a flexible embedded system architecture, based on the Arduino and Raspberry platforms, able to support various kinds of remote control tasks in the agricultural field. The goal is to support management of remote cultivations (in greenhouses and/or open-air) by exploiting sensors (e.g., temperature, moisture, radiometers, cameras) and actuators (e.g., motorized windows, irrigators, tools to deploy chemical products) through a mobile app. This approach could improve fertilization and overall planning of the farming activity based on the actual weather and environment conditions. A simple prototype of the proposed system has been successfully tested and results confirm feasibility of the approach both in terms of performance and of costs. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.
BibTeX:
  @article{Cimino2017191,
    author = {Cimino, D. and Ferrero, A. and Queirolo, L. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {A low-cost, open-source cyber physical system for automated, remotely controlled precision agriculture},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {409},
    pages = {191-203},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85008476135&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-47913-2_23&partnerID=40&md5=4c334e0a64920487d6c2fe0f025faf19},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-47913-2_23}
  }
  
Cavallo A, Robaldo A, Bellotti F, Berta R, Carmosino I and De Gloria A (2017), "Towards a virtual reality interactive application for truck traffic access management", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 429, pp. 169-176.
Abstract: This paper presents an ongoing work towards the realization of a virtual reality system providing an advanced visualization of the access of trucks to a critical road segment, such as a tunnel. The systemis currently based on optical and laser sensors, and is able to recognize a truck in a dedicated road lane, and to produce a 3D model of the identified vehicle. The 3D model is then employed inside an interactive 3D application usable in real-time by personnel in a dedicated access/traffic management center. The final goal is to integrate several layers of sensor data (e.g., also including infrared information on the temperature of the truck components) in order to supportmonitoring and control of the critical road segment. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018.
BibTeX:
  @article{Cavallo2017169,
    author = {Cavallo, A. and Robaldo, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Carmosino, I. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Towards a virtual reality interactive application for truck traffic access management},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {429},
    pages = {169-176},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85020538162&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-55071-8_22&partnerID=40&md5=9e73939ab76a5f52201c9205a21e7ed0},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-55071-8_22}
  }
  
Carmosino I, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Secco N (2017), "A game engine plug-in for efficient development of investigation mechanics in serious games", Entertainment Computing. Vol. 19, pp. 1-11.
Abstract: Despite their potential, the market for educational serious games (SGs) is still limited, partly because of the high design and production costs. In this paper, we propose a game-engine plug-in for efficient development of a format of investigation in SGs that we designed in order to support discovery-learning in information-rich virtual environments. After describing the framework, the paper presents its application to the development of “Can's Crime”, a SG teaching industrial production processes. Data from a preliminary pilot have shown that using the new module allows a significant reduction in development time. Moreover, creation of an abstraction level over the game engine allows improving structured content organization, which is in turn expected to enhance maintainability and modularity. We argue that the same approach could be employed to other game formats, especially in the emerging context of developing games as services. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
  @article{Carmosino20171,
    author = {Carmosino, I. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Secco, N.},
    title = {A game engine plug-in for efficient development of investigation mechanics in serious games},
    journal = {Entertainment Computing},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {19},
    pages = {1-11},
    note = {cited By 6},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84996504331&doi=10.1016%2fj.entcom.2016.11.002&partnerID=40&md5=1daca152df5bbed610ee99bbf57e31ce},
    doi = {10.1016/j.entcom.2016.11.002}
  }
  
Terracina A, Berta R, Bordini F, Damilano R and Mecella M (2016), "Teaching STEM through a role-playing serious game and intelligent pedagogical agents", Proceedings - IEEE 16th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2016. , pp. 148-152.
Abstract: Teaching STEM is a promising application domain for game-based instructional methods. In this paper we present a serious game organized as a role playing game: players learn how to inhabit the headspace of someone other than their primary ego identity, offering them the chance to develop a stronger sense of empathy. The same empathy is established between the player and her Intelligent Pedagogical Agent, which should guide the player into the Virtual Learning Environment and trough the game as well. We present the ongoing development of the game, and a preliminary validation of the Intelligent Pedagogical Agent to show its effectiveness with teenager students. © 2016 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Terracina2016148,
    author = {Terracina, A. and Berta, R. and Bordini, F. and Damilano, R. and Mecella, M.},
    title = {Teaching STEM through a role-playing serious game and intelligent pedagogical agents},
    journal = {Proceedings - IEEE 16th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2016},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {148-152},
    note = {cited By 3},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85006957588&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2016.121&partnerID=40&md5=5f5719969b2e607a2a8234b965f4e07e},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2016.121}
  }
  
Pescosolido L, Berta R, Scalise L, Revel G, De Gloria A and Orlandi G (2016), "An IoT-inspired cloud-based web service architecture for e-health applications", IEEE 2nd International Smart Cities Conference: Improving the Citizens Quality of Life, ISC2 2016 - Proceedings.
Abstract: E-Health services can take advantage of the technological achievements in the area of the Internet of Things (IoT), and of the cost reduction and increasing user-friendliness of health monitoring devices. Homes equipped with environmental sensors, physiological parameters monitoring devices, and home automation devices, could become the "hardware" of an "operating system" for application developers and service providers. The system would expose web services through a unique cloud infrastructure for users' data collection and storage, administration and billing, and healthcare service provisioning applications by possibly multiple third parties. We present an instance of a cloud-based web server which relies on a "home system" for the collection of information from an heterogeneous set of devices, providing a high level description of the proposed overall architectural model, of the induced opportunities from the market perspective, and of how it could be used by healthcare applications developers and service providers, including details on how the web server Application Programming Interfaces (API) is implemented in our instance. © 2016 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Pescosolido2016,
    author = {Pescosolido, L. and Berta, R. and Scalise, L. and Revel, G.M. and De Gloria, A. and Orlandi, G.},
    title = {An IoT-inspired cloud-based web service architecture for e-health applications},
    journal = {IEEE 2nd International Smart Cities Conference: Improving the Citizens Quality of Life, ISC2 2016 - Proceedings},
    year = {2016},
    note = {cited By 16},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84994099907&doi=10.1109%2fISC2.2016.07580759&partnerID=40&md5=50dc3a46cc9835bb6e00a461d3f7d903},
    doi = {10.1109/ISC2.2016.07580759}
  }
  
Paranthaman P, Dange G, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2016), "Gamification of car driver performance", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 10056 LNCS, pp. 302-308.
Abstract: The potential of serious games can be used to captivate the road users in exhibiting green driving behavior. Serious games can be an engaging medium in conveying information effectively. We exploited the pervasiveness of smartphone and serious games concept to develop a gamified environment for the road users. Our approach comprises two games that would gamify the driver performance based on the driver performance assessment results. The driver performance will be evaluated using a smartphone-based evaluator and the assessment results will be transmitted through a Bluetooth module to the gamified environment (this happens on real-time basis). The game environment comprises various levels and indicators with the provision of audio feedback on the game status. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.
BibTeX:
  @article{Paranthaman2016302,
    author = {Paranthaman, P.K. and Dange, G.R. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Gamification of car driver performance},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {10056 LNCS},
    pages = {302-308},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85005965420&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-50182-6_27&partnerID=40&md5=0a1e2e4c6a02e227cfe5ef57eeca410d},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-50182-6_27}
  }
  
Mollo L, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2016), "Building arduino-based tangible serious games for elementary mathematics and physics", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 10056 LNCS, pp. 60-69.
Abstract: This paper concerns the development of new tangible game tools for learning basic mathematic concepts. The prototypes can be easily implemented by exploiting new open source electronic hardware technologies, such as Arduino and related sensors and actuators, combing simplicity, wide diffusion and low cost. Two simple proof of concepts are presented. First, a music game, in which children collaborate to create a melody composed by different sounds controllable by changing the hand’s distance in a theremin-like approach. The second project intends addressing the concepts of distance and alignment. In both cases, they are not closed-box fully automatic games, but tools freely usable by an educator (e.g., a teacher or a parent) with children. The experience shows that several alternative configurations are easily implemented, calling for the possibility of developing a hardware/software component library for development/assembly of various types of tangible games also by non experts. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.
BibTeX:
  @article{Mollo201660,
    author = {Mollo, L. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Building arduino-based tangible serious games for elementary mathematics and physics},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {10056 LNCS},
    pages = {60-69},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85006041124&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-50182-6_6&partnerID=40&md5=b6497f515d9fb4ebae9d66d93c6c5e01},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-50182-6_6}
  }
  
Dange G, Paranthaman P, Samaritani M, Smiai O, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Marchesoni M, Massucc S and Pontow J (2016), "The absolute and social comparative analysis of driver performance on a simulated road network", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 9599, pp. 375-384.
Abstract: The process of modeling a qualitative evaluation schema to gauge the driver performance is a prominent aspect in enhancing the driving standards. We have implemented a comparative analysis module to estimate the driver performance based on absolute and social comparisons. In this approach we simulated a road network of 40 vehicle users and analyzed the performance of the users by our interlinked system architecture dedicated for simulation, data sharing and representation of the entire information on Map-based user interface. Another key aspect that was performed in this approach was the usage of Map-Matching module to discard the inaccuracies in Geo-references while representing the coordinates on Google Maps. We believe, this evaluation approach will broaden the overview of performance analysis and provide more insight to the user on all grounds in improvising the driving standards. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
BibTeX:
  @article{Dange2016375,
    author = {Dange, G.R. and Paranthaman, P.K. and Samaritani, M. and Smiai, O. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Marchesoni, M. and Massucc, S. and Pontow, J.},
    title = {The absolute and social comparative analysis of driver performance on a simulated road network},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {9599},
    pages = {375-384},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84977143001&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-40216-1_42&partnerID=40&md5=3248b12a1f6573c0ecda3a39b3d578b9},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-40216-1_42}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, Olivieri M, Pace C, Ruo Roch M and Saponara S (2016), "Introduction", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 351, pp. xv-xvi.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2016xv,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Olivieri, M. and Pace, C. and Ruo Roch, M. and Saponara, S.},
    title = {Introduction},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {351},
    pages = {xv-xvi},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84950247891&partnerID=40&md5=e8677ba3bf877a53fe5d57fa3b2ec53e}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Ott M, Popescu M and Baalsrud-Hauge J (2016), "Supporting collaborative serious game studies online", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 9599, pp. 228-237.
Abstract: While a lot of papers have argued for the educational potential of serious games, the field is still young and methods and tools are needed in order to support effective and efficient design. The SG Studies Database is an instrument devised to allow sharing structured information about SGs. This information can be used by scholars and practitioners also to perform comparative analysis and identify components and modules that could be used in different games. The SG Studies database, which is freely available online on the site of the Serious Games Society, relies on a SG description model, that has been defined in order to allow a structured description of SGs, considering the perspectives of different stakeholders and contexts of use, and spurring the identification of SG components and their relationship with pedagogical theories and expected outcomes. The SG Studies database has already been used as a tool to support identification of reusable patterns and components in SGs, in order to identify best practices and favor module re-use. Other meta studies are possible in the future on the database by any parties. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2016228,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Ott, M. and Popescu, M.M. and Baalsrud-Hauge, J.},
    title = {Supporting collaborative serious game studies online},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {9599},
    pages = {228-237},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84977140496&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-40216-1_24&partnerID=40&md5=6c17fe581c77b8e88228528ea0a5affd},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-40216-1_24}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Dange G, Paranthaman P, Curatelli F, Martinengo C, Barabino G, Sciutto G, Demirtzis E and Hausler F (2016), "A smart mobility serious game concept and business development study", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 9599, pp. 385-392.
Abstract: The paper presents the concept of a serious game aimed at creating an ecosystem for connected, collaborative and green mobility. The ecosystem is based on rewarding proper user behavior through virtual and/or real-world incentives. The basis is provided by a seamlessly extensible set of apps allowing assessment of user behavior according to criteria related to green and collaborative mobility. The ecosystem looks particularly suited to the promotion of new mobility services. Users could be rewarded through incentives such as discounts from public authorities, mobility service providers, insurances. This is particularly interesting for companies willing to stay in constant contact with their customers and get data to improve their products and services. While the system has been developed for mobility-based games, the infrastructure is general and may be used in a variety of domains. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2016385,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Dange, G. and Paranthaman, P.K. and Curatelli, F. and Martinengo, C. and Barabino, G. and Sciutto, G. and Demirtzis, E. and Hausler, F.},
    title = {A smart mobility serious game concept and business development study},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {9599},
    pages = {385-392},
    note = {cited By 3},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84977137844&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-40216-1_43&partnerID=40&md5=82c01e9368a8ced2227a32e4e41f7280},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-40216-1_43}
  }
  
Bajaj N, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2016), "A neuroscience based approach to game based learning design", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 10056 LNCS, pp. 444-454.
Abstract: In recent years designing a game for education has become very popular. Neuroscience has developed many theories of learning, based on how brain learns. We discuss a design approach for conventional teaching methods. The proposed approach illustrates the opportunities to exploit the concept of neuroscience and combine it with game for educational purpose. The pedagogies based on neuroscience and psychology have been adapted in teaching very well and the same is expected to work well with Game Based Learning (GBL). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bajaj2016444,
    author = {Bajaj, N. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {A neuroscience based approach to game based learning design},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {10056 LNCS},
    pages = {444-454},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85005942629&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-50182-6_41&partnerID=40&md5=776c7507b34aaa55997b7e3d820bf4b5},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-50182-6_41}
  }
  
Smiai O, Bellotti F, Gloria A, Berta R, Amditis A, Damousis Y and Winder A (2015), "Information and communication technology research opportunities in dynamic charging for electric vehicle", Proceedings - 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015. , pp. 297-300.
Abstract: Dynamic charging of electric vehicle technology aims to deploy the use of electric vehicle on a large scale. In order to realize and achieve an effective and reliable system, the information and communication solutions (ICT) need to be developed. The ICT solutions look particularly to assess areas such as routing, booking of the charging lane, billing, vehicle identification, guidance to charging lane and assistance while charging. In this paper, we review the state of the art of ICT solutions and provide indications for the future research. © 2015 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Smiai2015297,
    author = {Smiai, O. and Bellotti, F. and Gloria, A.D. and Berta, R. and Amditis, A. and Damousis, Y. and Winder, A.},
    title = {Information and communication technology research opportunities in dynamic charging for electric vehicle},
    journal = {Proceedings - 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {297-300},
    note = {cited By 9},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84958191568&doi=10.1109%2fDSD.2015.111&partnerID=40&md5=ea7ce8a6a8e7c8b323a6fc193de053b7},
    doi = {10.1109/DSD.2015.111}
  }
  
Pranantha D, Van Der Spek E, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Rauterberg M (2015), "Game design and development for learning physics using the flow framework", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 9221, pp. 142-151.
Abstract: Instruction, in several knowledge domains, aims at achieving two goals: acquisition of a body of knowledge and of problem solving skills in the field. In physics, this requires students to connect physical phenomena, physics principles, and physics symbols. This can be learned on paper, but interactive tools may increase the learner’s ability to contextualize the problem. Computer simulations provide students with graphical models that join phenomena and principles in physics. However, a minimally guided approach may make learning difficult, since it overburdens the working memory. In particular, for developing problem solving skills, students need to be guided and exercise with a variety of physics problems. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) can be a useful tool to fill this gap. Thus, we have developed a physics game to support inquiry learning and retrieval practicing using simulation and knowledge based tutorship (QTut), and implemented as a puzzle game that uses driving questions to encourage students to explore the simulation. To address scalability and reusability, the game features different difficulty levels atop of a customizable format. This allows us to explore in-game adaptivity, exploiting task and user models that rely on the flow framework. User tests are being executed to evaluate the usefulness of the game. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
BibTeX:
  @article{Pranantha2015142,
    author = {Pranantha, D. and Van Der Spek, E. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Rauterberg, M.},
    title = {Game design and development for learning physics using the flow framework},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {9221},
    pages = {142-151},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84945895736&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-22960-7_14&partnerID=40&md5=dc1458e1b20aedc49b6f1abfd84ea263},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-22960-7_14}
  }
  
Gongsook P, Peijnenborgh J, van der Spek E, Hu J, Bellotti F, Berta R, de Gloria A, Curatelli F, Martinengo C, Rauterberg M and Hendriksen J (2015), "Designing a serious game as a diagnostic tool", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 9221, pp. 63-72.
Abstract: Serious games offer the potential to not only entertain and educate, but can also operate as a diagnostic tool. While designing a game with the goal of a diagnostic tool, we faced many challenges. In this paper, we share our experiences in dealing with these challenges in the iterations of designing, implementing, and evaluating such a tool. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
BibTeX:
  @article{Gongsook201563,
    author = {Gongsook, P. and Peijnenborgh, J. and van der Spek, E. and Hu, J. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and de Gloria, A. and Curatelli, F. and Martinengo, C. and Rauterberg, M. and Hendriksen, J.},
    title = {Designing a serious game as a diagnostic tool},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {9221},
    pages = {63-72},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84945945294&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-22960-7_7&partnerID=40&md5=45e6b2c30e5d699989911ead3bdc1785},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-22960-7_7}
  }
  
Dellacqua P, Bellotti F, Berta R, Gloria A, Dange G, Paranthaman P, Massow K and Thiele F (2015), "Safe drive map concept for road curve monitoring", Proceedings - 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015. , pp. 293-296.
Abstract: We present a technique for dangerous curve monitoring relying on the innovative concept of Safe Driving Map (SDM), a geo-referenced database with data about safe vehicle behavior in the monitored area, also considering different weather conditions. A vehicle's data are compared with the SDM reference and the driver is warned in case of danger. A road-side unit can also be set-up, collecting information from vehicles, thus signaling possible dangers (e.g., a vehicle stopped in the curve). A preliminary evaluation was performed by developing a scenario using the PHABMACS (Physics Aware Behavior Modelling Advanced Car Simulator) driving simulator. © 2015 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Dellacqua2015293,
    author = {Dellacqua, P. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Gloria, A.D. and Dange, G. and Paranthaman, P. and Massow, K. and Thiele, F.M.},
    title = {Safe drive map concept for road curve monitoring},
    journal = {Proceedings - 18th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2015},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {293-296},
    note = {cited By 3},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84958174917&doi=10.1109%2fDSD.2015.112&partnerID=40&md5=3d6058e8533a436974d3489bcf5150a6},
    doi = {10.1109/DSD.2015.112}
  }
  
Dell'acqua P, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2015), "Time-Aware Multivariate Nearest Neighbor Regression Methods for Traffic Flow Prediction", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. Vol. 16(6), pp. 3393-3402.
Abstract: Traffic flow prediction is a fundamental functionality of intelligent transportation systems. After presenting the state of the art, we focus on nearest neighbor regression methods, which are data-driven algorithms that are effective yet simple to implement. We try to strengthen their efficacy in two ways that are little explored in literature, i.e., by adopting a multivariate approach and by adding awareness of the time of the day. The combination of these two refinements, which represents a novelty, leads to the definition of a new class of methods that we call time-aware multivariate nearest neighbor regression (TaM-NNR) algorithms. To assess this class, we have used publicly available traffic data from a California highway. Computational results show the effectiveness of such algorithms in comparison with state-of-the-art parametric and non-parametric methods. In particular, they consistently perform better than their corresponding standard univariate versions. These facts highlight the importance of context elements in traffic prediction. The ideas presented here may be further investigated considering more context elements (e.g., weather conditions), more complex road topologies (e.g., urban networks), and different types of prediction methods. © 2015 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @article{Dell'acqua20153393,
    author = {Dell'acqua, P. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Time-Aware Multivariate Nearest Neighbor Regression Methods for Traffic Flow Prediction},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {16},
    number = {6},
    pages = {3393-3402},
    note = {cited By 39},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84960124861&doi=10.1109%2fTITS.2015.2453116&partnerID=40&md5=6f9b3b20be140826cad78587d6bacdd4},
    doi = {10.1109/TITS.2015.2453116}
  }
  
Dagnino F, Antonaci A, Ott M, Lavagnino E, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2015), "The eSG project: A blended learning model for teaching entrepreneurship through Serious Games", Proceedings of the European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, ECIE. Vol. 2015-January, pp. 147-156.
Abstract: The paper presents a case study in ICT-enhanced entrepreneurship education. It draws on the Entrepreneurship through Serious Games (eSG) EU project, co-funded by EACEA in the framework of the lifelong learning programme (LLP) in 2011. The collaborative project was carried out in three EU countries (Italy, Spain and the Netherlands), where three different courses in Entrepreneurship for higher education students were designed, delivered and evaluated. This paper focuses on the Italian experience and devotes specific attention to the two courses (one for each of the two years of the project) carried out at the University of Genoa (UNIGE), involving students of non-business faculties (engineering). The two courses were based on a blended-learning model, used gamification techniques and adopted innovative ICT tools, such as Serious Games (SGs). In the paper, the learning/teaching methodology adopted in the Italian courses is described and the overall potential of the blended strategy is highlighted. Actually, following Pankin et al. (2012) the two courses can correctly be classified as blended, as they adopted a learning/teaching strategy based on: different learning or instructional methods (lecture, discussion, guided practice, reading, games, case study, simulation), different delivery methods (live classroom or computer mediated), different scheduling (synchronous or asynchronous) and different levels of guidance (individual, instructor or expert led, or group/social learning) (Pankin, Roberts, and July, 2012). As a matter of fact, one of the key elements of the two UNIGE courses was the integration of gaming sessions with both theoretical lectures and talks with entrepreneurs and experts in the field; in addition some parts of the courses required attendance of classroom lectures while other parts only required online presence and related activities. Different levels of guidance were also experienced by participants during the courses: they were invited to work both individually and in groups and the learning process was both guided (by teachers, experts in the field and real entrepreneurs) and self-regulated. As to the tools adopted in the project, the experimental courses showed that Serious Games represent a suitable tool for sustaining Entrepreneurship Education. Besides, the appropriateness and effectiveness of the use of Serious Games for the intended purposes, the experiments conducted also demonstrated the suitability of the adopted blended learning/teaching methodology for sustaining student motivation and ultimately for improving learning.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Dagnino2015147,
    author = {Dagnino, F.M. and Antonaci, A. and Ott, M. and Lavagnino, E. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {The eSG project: A blended learning model for teaching entrepreneurship through Serious Games},
    journal = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, ECIE},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {2015-January},
    pages = {147-156},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84994071543&partnerID=40&md5=cb5743ab5e57cb88b5a7d1f5f9cbe75d}
  }
  
Carvalho M, Bellotti F, Hu J, Hauge J, Berta R, Gloria A and Rauterberg M (2015), "Towards a service-oriented architecture framework for educational serious games", Proceedings - IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies: Advanced Technologies for Supporting Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning, ICALT 2015. , pp. 147-151.
Abstract: Producing educational serious games can be costly and time-consuming. The Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach of software development can offer a solution to reduce costs and foment serious games development. In this work, we apply a model called Activity Theory-based Model of Serious Games (ATMSG) for identifying existing relevant components that can be reused for different educational serious games. We apply the derived structure to classify the elements of an existing game and to identify how it can be refactored and expanded following the SOA paradigm. © 2015 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Carvalho2015147,
    author = {Carvalho, M.B. and Bellotti, F. and Hu, J. and Hauge, J.B. and Berta, R. and Gloria, A.D. and Rauterberg, M.},
    title = {Towards a service-oriented architecture framework for educational serious games},
    journal = {Proceedings - IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies: Advanced Technologies for Supporting Open Access to Formal and Informal Learning, ICALT 2015},
    year = {2015},
    pages = {147-151},
    note = {cited By 12},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84961721929&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2015.145&partnerID=40&md5=3c888c20ddf1f1823467e89d570aa951},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2015.145}
  }
  
Carvalho M, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Sedano C, Hauge J, Hu J and Rauterberg M (2015), "An activity theory-based model for serious games analysis and conceptual design", Computers and Education. Vol. 87, pp. 166-181.
Abstract: There are currently a number of models, frameworks and methodologies for serious games analysis and design that provide useful interpretations of the possibilities and limitations offered by serious games. However, these tools focus mostly on high-level aspects and requirements and do not help understand how such high-level requirements can be concretely satisfied. In this paper, we present a conceptual model, called Activity Theory-based Model of Serious Games (ATMSG), that aims to fill this gap. ATMSG supports a systematic and detailed representation of educational serious games, depicting the ways that game elements are connected to each other throughout the game, and how these elements contribute to the achievement of the desired pedagogical goals. Three evaluation studies indicate that ATMSG helped participants, particularly those with gaming experience, identify and understand the roles of each component in the game and recognize the game's educational objectives. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
BibTeX:
  @article{Carvalho2015166,
    author = {Carvalho, M.B. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Sedano, C.I. and Hauge, J.B. and Hu, J. and Rauterberg, M.},
    title = {An activity theory-based model for serious games analysis and conceptual design},
    journal = {Computers and Education},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {87},
    pages = {166-181},
    note = {cited By 103},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84929160438&doi=10.1016%2fj.compedu.2015.03.023&partnerID=40&md5=6a2ae6416857fbaaac50c3f20c5de230},
    doi = {10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.023}
  }
  
Carvalho M, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Gazzarata G, Hu J and Kickmeier-Rust M (2015), "A case study on Service-Oriented Architecture for Serious Games", Entertainment Computing. Vol. 6, pp. 1-10.
Abstract: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a set of practices for architectural design of software that exploits services as loosely coupled components orchestrated to deliver various functionalities. The SOA paradigm is not well established in the Serious Games (SG) domain, but it is expected to provide benefits, particularly in reducing the conceptual and technological complexity of the development. In this paper, we propose and study the application of a SOA approach to SG development. We have used the SOA approach to develop an adaptive Serious Game for teaching basic elements of probability to high school and entry-level university students, called The Journey. Details of the architecture implementation are offered, as well as the results of an evaluation of the system using the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM). Based on our experience, we argue that the SOA approach can make SG development shorter, more flexible and more focused. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
  @article{Carvalho20151,
    author = {Carvalho, M.B. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Gazzarata, G. and Hu, J. and Kickmeier-Rust, M.},
    title = {A case study on Service-Oriented Architecture for Serious Games},
    journal = {Entertainment Computing},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {6},
    pages = {1-10},
    note = {cited By 23},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84916941402&doi=10.1016%2fj.entcom.2014.11.001&partnerID=40&md5=97ebfd1c4310c1661baad42793afbd07},
    doi = {10.1016/j.entcom.2014.11.001}
  }
  
Carvalho M, Bellotti F, Berta R, Curatelli F, De Gloria A, Gazzarata G, Hu J, Kickmeier-Rust M and Martinengo C (2015), "The journey: A service-based adaptive serious game on probability", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 9221, pp. 97-106.
Abstract: Serious Games (SGs) have a lot of potential in education, possibly making learning more engaging and satisfying. Adaptive Games strive to keep the challenges presented by the game balanced with the player’s abilities, as to keep the player in the “flow” state. We have used a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach to develop a simple adaptive SG for teaching basic elements of probability to high school and entry-level university students, called The Journey. The game performs continuously the updating of a user model with the competences of the student and presents the new challenges according to the student’s current level. This paper presents details of the educational aspects of the game, as well as of its implementation. It also presents a preliminary validation study and discusses future work. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
BibTeX:
  @article{Carvalho201597,
    author = {Carvalho, M.B. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Curatelli, F. and De Gloria, A. and Gazzarata, G. and Hu, J. and Kickmeier-Rust, M. and Martinengo, C.},
    title = {The journey: A service-based adaptive serious game on probability},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {9221},
    pages = {97-106},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84945950110&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-22960-7_10&partnerID=40&md5=b8b5dbb7bd4c2600f2f4663ba1dcb8ce},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-22960-7_10}
  }
  
Arnab S, Lim T, Carvalho M, Bellotti F, De Freitas S, Louchart S, Suttie N, Berta R and De Gloria A (2015), "Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysis", British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 46(2), pp. 391-411.
Abstract: Although there is a consensus on the instructional potential of Serious Games (SGs), there is still a lack of methodologies and tools not only for design but also to support analysis and assessment. Filling this gap is one of the main aims of the Games and Learning Alliance (http://www.galanoe.eu) European Network of Excellence on Serious Games, which has a focus upon pedagogy-driven SGs. This paper relies on the assumption that the fundamental aspect of SG design consists in the translation of learning goals/practices into mechanical element of gameplay, serving to an instructional purpose beside that of play and fun. This paper proposes the Learning Mechanics-Game Mechanics (LM-GM) model, which supports SG analysis and design by allowing reflection on the various pedagogical and game elements in an SG. The LM-GM model includes a set of pre-defined game mechanics and pedagogical elements that we have abstracted from literature on game studies and learning theories. Designers and analysts can exploit these mechanics to draw the LM-GM map for a game, so as to identify and highlight its main pedagogical and entertainment features, and their interrelations. The tool may also be useful for teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of a given game and better understand how to implement it in educational settings. A case study is reported to illustrate the framework's support in determining how gameplay and pedagogy intertwine in an SG. Finally, the paper presents the results of two comparative user tests demonstrating the advantages of the proposed model with respect to a similar state-of-the-art framework. © 2014 British Educational Research Association.
BibTeX:
  @article{Arnab2015391,
    author = {Arnab, S. and Lim, T. and Carvalho, M.B. and Bellotti, F. and De Freitas, S. and Louchart, S. and Suttie, N. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Mapping learning and game mechanics for serious games analysis},
    journal = {British Journal of Educational Technology},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {46},
    number = {2},
    pages = {391-411},
    note = {cited By 240},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84891645879&doi=10.1111%2fbjet.12113&partnerID=40&md5=90ca12679cc280bc405d7ba439eb6f47},
    doi = {10.1111/bjet.12113}
  }
  
Antonaci A, Dagnino F, Ott M, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Lavagnino E, Romero M, Usart M and Mayer I (2015), "A gamified collaborative course in entrepreneurship: Focus on objectives and tools", Computers in Human Behavior. Vol. 51, pp. 1276-1283.
Abstract: The paper deals with the hot issue of entrepreneurship education and describes the rationale behind the gamified and collaborative courses for university students conceived, developed and deployed in the framework of the eSG (stimulating entrepreneurship through Serious Games) project, funded under the EU lifelong learning (LLP) Programme. The project aims to help students becoming familiar, mainly through practice, with basic concepts of entrepreneurship and company management and to stimulate the emergence of their entrepreneurial attitudes. In the framework of the project specific courses mainly grounded on the concepts of gamification and collaboration were designed and carried out in three different partner countries: Italy, Spain and the Netherlands. The main objectives of the courses are presented in this paper and a theoretical model supporting the choice of Serious Games is shown which keeps into account usability, pedagogy and the entrepreneurship skills expressed by state of the art models. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
  @article{Antonaci20151276,
    author = {Antonaci, A. and Dagnino, F.M. and Ott, M. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Lavagnino, E. and Romero, M. and Usart, M. and Mayer, I.},
    title = {A gamified collaborative course in entrepreneurship: Focus on objectives and tools},
    journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {51},
    pages = {1276-1283},
    note = {cited By 16},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85027929243&doi=10.1016%2fj.chb.2014.11.082&partnerID=40&md5=9dbbf1c80d22beef1c375a1c42167871},
    doi = {10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.082}
  }
  
Ninaus M, Kober S, Friedrich E, Dunwell I, De Freitas S, Arnab S, Ott M, Kravcik M, Lim T, Louchart S, Bellotti F, Hannemann A, Thin A, Berta R, Wood G and Neuper C (2014), "Neurophysiological methods for monitoring brain activity in serious games and virtual environments: A review", International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning. Vol. 6(1), pp. 78-103.
Abstract: The use of serious games and virtual environments for learning is increasing worldwide. These technologies have the potential to collect live data from users through game play and can be combined with neuroscientific methods such as EEG, fNIRS and fMRI. The several learning processes triggered by serious games are associated with specific patterns of activation that distributed in time and space over different neural networks. This paper explores the opportunities offered and challenges posed by neuroscientific methods when capturing user feedback and using the data to create greater user adaptivity in game. Existing neuroscientific studies examining cortical correlates of game-based learning do not form a common or homogenous field. In contrast, they often have disparate research questions and are represented through a broad range of study designs and game genres. In this paper, the range of studies and applications of neuroscientific methods in game-based learning are reviewed. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
BibTeX:
  @article{Ninaus201478,
    author = {Ninaus, M. and Kober, S.E. and Friedrich, E.V.C. and Dunwell, I. and De Freitas, S. and Arnab, S. and Ott, M. and Kravcik, M. and Lim, T. and Louchart, S. and Bellotti, F. and Hannemann, A. and Thin, A.G. and Berta, R. and Wood, G. and Neuper, C.},
    title = {Neurophysiological methods for monitoring brain activity in serious games and virtual environments: A review},
    journal = {International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {6},
    number = {1},
    pages = {78-103},
    note = {cited By 15},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84897558945&doi=10.1504%2fIJTEL.2014.060022&partnerID=40&md5=7e18dc01f51a33c0170c35efab592bcd},
    doi = {10.1504/IJTEL.2014.060022}
  }
  
Lim T, Louchart S, Suttie N, Hauge J, Stanescu I, Ortiz I, Moreno-Ger P, Bellotti F, Carvalho M, Earp J, Ott M, Arnab S and Berta R (2014), "Narrative Serious Game Mechanics (NSGM) - Insights into the narrative-pedagogical mechanism", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 8395 LNCS, pp. 23-34.
Abstract: Narratives are used to construct and deconstruct the time and space of events. In games, as in real life, narratives add layers of meaning and engage players by enhancing or clarifying content. From an educational perspective, narratives are a semiotic conduit for evoking critical thinking skills and promoting knowledge discovery/acquisition. While narrative is central to Serious Games (SG), the relationships between gameplay, narrative and pedagogy in SG design remain unclear, and narrative's elemental influence on learning outcomes is not fully understood yet. This paper presents a purpose-processing methodology that aims to support the mapping of SG design patterns and pedagogical practices, allowing designers to create more meaningful SGs. In the case of narrative, the intention is to establish whether Narrative Serious Game Mechanics (NSGM) can provide players with opportunities for reasoning and reflective analysis that may even transcend the game-based learning environment. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.
BibTeX:
  @article{Lim201423,
    author = {Lim, T. and Louchart, S. and Suttie, N. and Hauge, J.B. and Stanescu, I.A. and Ortiz, I.M. and Moreno-Ger, P. and Bellotti, F. and Carvalho, M.B. and Earp, J. and Ott, M. and Arnab, S. and Berta, R.},
    title = {Narrative Serious Game Mechanics (NSGM) - Insights into the narrative-pedagogical mechanism},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {8395 LNCS},
    pages = {23-34},
    note = {cited By 11},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84901680200&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-05972-3_4&partnerID=40&md5=a10ca966b0f32f65c17d6cd7cced23f7},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-05972-3_4}
  }
  
Hauge J, Berta R, Fiucci G, Manjon B, Padron-Napoles C, Westra W and Nadolski R (2014), "Implications of learning analytics for serious game design", Proceedings - IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2014. , pp. 230-232.
Abstract: This paper addresses the implications of combining learning analytics and serious games for improving game quality, monitoring and assessment of player behavior, gaming performance, game progression, learning goals achievement, and user's appreciation. We introduce two modes of serious games analytics: in-game (real time) analytics, and post-game (off-line) analytics. We also explain the GLEANER framework for in-game analytics and describe a practical example for off-line analytics. We conclude with a brief outlook on future work, highlighting opportunities and challenges towards a solid uptake of SGs in authentic educational and training settings. © 2014 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Hauge2014230,
    author = {Hauge, J.B. and Berta, R. and Fiucci, G. and Manjon, B.F. and Padron-Napoles, C. and Westra, W. and Nadolski, R.},
    title = {Implications of learning analytics for serious game design},
    journal = {Proceedings - IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2014},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {230-232},
    note = {cited By 18},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84910050968&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2014.73&partnerID=40&md5=0f0915ce8a81a7d43d37b4d9d3a94883},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2014.73}
  }
  
Curatelli F, Martinengo C, Bellotti F and Berta R (2014), "Paths for cognitive rehabilitation: From reality to educational software, To serious games, To reality again", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 8605, pp. 172-186.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a learning path for cognitive rehabilitation in the use of money, and of the basic activities in the economic field. Starting from the mathematical learning difficulties of kids with cognitive disabilities, we describe the educational theories and methods used, and outline a set of educational programs that we have specifically designed and implemented for cognitive rehabilitation. The achievements obtained with this learning path, presented with some case studies, make it possible the use of serious games to further strengthen the acquired theoretical and practical knowledge also in multidisciplinary contexts, and to obtain a further enhancement of the cognitive and metacognitive skills. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.
BibTeX:
  @article{Curatelli2014172,
    author = {Curatelli, F. and Martinengo, C. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R.},
    title = {Paths for cognitive rehabilitation: From reality to educational software, To serious games, To reality again},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {8605},
    pages = {172-186},
    note = {cited By 9},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84909641817&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-12157-4_14&partnerID=40&md5=4b55bda1f6d9608b094d02f22be64f8e},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-12157-4_14}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Lavagnino E, Antonaci A, Dagnino F, Ott M, Romero M, Usart M and Mayer I (2014), "Serious games and the development of an entrepreneurial mindset in higher education engineering students", Entertainment Computing. Vol. 5(4), pp. 357-366.
Abstract: The paper draws a comprehensive overview of relevant.•The paper critically analyzes the state of the art, indicating directions for future research. The paper discusses adoption of Serious Games (SGs) for supporting development of an entrepreneurial mindset in university students of technical and scientific universities. The paper relies on the authors experience in the eSG project, which aims at introducing students, mainly through practice, to basic concepts of entrepreneurship and company management. In the framework of the project, courses have been designed and carried out in three different countries: Italy, Spain and the Netherlands.The paper discusses the main requirements for the courses and presents a table template, based on state of the art models for entrepreneurship education, that we have used for the scouting of the most suited SGs and defining the most appropriate mix for their use in the courses, keeping into account targeted competences and skills, usability and pedagogical effectiveness.Using the template, the paper draws a comprehensive overview of relevant SGs available on the market and identifies, through an expert analysis, key benefits and issues concerning their adoption in teaching entrepreneurship for the target students. Finally, the paper critically analyzes the state of the art, indicating directions for future research that should lead to development of more effective SGs for entrepreneurship education. © 2014.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2014357,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Lavagnino, E. and Antonaci, A. and Dagnino, F. and Ott, M. and Romero, M. and Usart, M. and Mayer, I.S.},
    title = {Serious games and the development of an entrepreneurial mindset in higher education engineering students},
    journal = {Entertainment Computing},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {357-366},
    note = {cited By 28},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84912567209&doi=10.1016%2fj.entcom.2014.07.003&partnerID=40&md5=6d847ca65b9dc1ce51bfd0072440923a},
    doi = {10.1016/j.entcom.2014.07.003}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2014), "A social serious game concept for green, fluid and collaborative driving", Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 289, pp. 163-170.
Abstract: People spend daily a significant amount of time in cars, and vehicular mobility has remarkable social implications (in particular traffic and pollution). In this context, there is room for drivers can improve their own behavior, also in a common good perspective. This position paper presents a newtype of serious gaming application based on the cloud. The serious game processes vehicular data in order to reward and coach the driver. Scores and analytics are computed, and displayed on the automotive dashboard and on smartphone screens, keeping into account the simultaneous presence of various vehicles and stimulating behavior enhancement. The SG has been specified and its development has started both on the client and server side. In a user-centered design perspective, the next steps of development of the application will involve early simulations and user tests in lab in order to check fulfilment of requirements and verification of end-user acceptance. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2014163,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {A social serious game concept for green, fluid and collaborative driving},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {289},
    pages = {163-170},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84927749045&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-04370-8_15&partnerID=40&md5=9a2d935ad11be56033ba2b4a10b5d55a},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-04370-8_15}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2014), "Special issue on Serious Games", Entertainment Computing. Vol. 5(4), pp. 295-296.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2014295,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Special issue on Serious Games},
    journal = {Entertainment Computing},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {295-296},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84912574965&doi=10.1016%2fj.entcom.2014.07.001&partnerID=40&md5=07df0af962d5ca579a83c199985f4762},
    doi = {10.1016/j.entcom.2014.07.001}
  }
  
Baalsrud Hauge J, Kalverkamp M, Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Barabino G (2014), "Requirements on learning analytics for facilitated and non facilitated games", IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON. , pp. 1126-1132.
Abstract: Several engineering schools offer game based learning either as a supplementary to lecturers or as an integrated part of their curriculum. Most of the games are used in a workshop setting, and much of the learning outcome is achieved through the debriefing part of the workshop, i.e. not as an integrated part of the game. One reason is that many of the games do not offer stealth assessment, and thus need interpretation of a very well skilled facilitator. In additions games only used for one specific course are costly to develop, maintain and improve and in addition facilitated games put limitations on the class size and make it costly to integrate. Thus, this article looks at under which circumstances an on-line game produced for a different course could be integrated in a facilitated and notfacilitated way. © 2014 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{BaalsrudHauge20141126,
    author = {Baalsrud Hauge, J. and Kalverkamp, M. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Barabino, G.},
    title = {Requirements on learning analytics for facilitated and non facilitated games},
    journal = {IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {1126-1132},
    note = {cited By 4},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84903461449&doi=10.1109%2fEDUCON.2014.6826251&partnerID=40&md5=fd53e79be6d1824f1b155bff4047f964},
    doi = {10.1109/EDUCON.2014.6826251}
  }
  
Azadegan A, Hauge J, Bellotti F, Berta R, Bidarra R, Harteveld C, Riedel J and Stanescu I (2014), "The Move Beyond Edutainment: Have We Learnt Our Lessons from Entertainment Games?", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 8605, pp. 77-89.
Abstract: Serious games (SGs) have been used in the education of students and professionals for decades, but still have not reached their full potential, despite the large consensus they have gained recently. The entertainment game industry is a rapidly developing phenomenon, with a high market potential, enabled and enhanced by technological innovation. The question examined in this paper is: Did serious game designers learn from Entertainment Game (EG) designers in building a successful game? This paper presents three case study examples of games that have good learning outcomes to explore this question. This paper discusses the salient aspects and the differences between the examples and suggests how SGs could learn more from successful EGs. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.
BibTeX:
  @article{Azadegan201477,
    author = {Azadegan, A. and Hauge, J.B. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Bidarra, R. and Harteveld, C. and Riedel, J.C.K.H. and Stanescu, I.A.},
    title = {The Move Beyond Edutainment: Have We Learnt Our Lessons from Entertainment Games?},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {8605},
    pages = {77-89},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84909585237&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-319-12157-4_7&partnerID=40&md5=ec0fc1636d2590a1aee84c16b50c4a43},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-12157-4_7}
  }
  
Mori D, Berta R, De Gloria A, Fiore V and Magnani L (2013), "An easy to author dialogue management system for serious games", Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage. Vol. 6(2)
Abstract: This article describes an architecture for a dialogue management system to be employed in serious games for natural language interaction with nonplayer characters. The aim of this work is to improve the learning experience by enhancing the immersiveness felt by the player. The system is implemented in a Service Oriented Architecture perspective and it exposes its functionalities through Web services. It also provides an easy to use authoring tool, which allows cultural heritage experts to define the character's knowledge without the need for learning a scripting language. We tested the system by embedding it in a simple serious game, where the user could interact with the virtual representation of a XVI century Geneoese artist, Luca Cambiaso, in order to acquire knowledge about his life and artworks. These early lab test results showed a high level of appreciation for the usability of the system and for the user engagement. Tests also showed that the system is a good didactic tool, since players demonstrated a similar level of knowledge acquisition to that achieved by reading a text. © 2013 ACM.
BibTeX:
  @article{Mori2013,
    author = {Mori, D. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Fiore, V. and Magnani, L.},
    title = {An easy to author dialogue management system for serious games},
    journal = {Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {6},
    number = {2},
    note = {cited By 15},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84979834521&doi=10.1145%2f2460376.2460381&partnerID=40&md5=9fc5b6979ecb9f1ea05533645c1feb1f},
    doi = {10.1145/2460376.2460381}
  }
  
Berta R, Bellotti F, De Gloria A, Pranantha D and Schatten C (2013), "Electroencephalogram and physiological signal analysis for assessing flow in games", IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. Vol. 5(2), pp. 164-175.
Abstract: Passive brain-computer interaction (BCI) can provide useful information to understand a user's state and anticipate intentions, which is needed to support adaptivity and personalization. Given the huge variety of audiences, a game's capability of adapting to different user profiles-in particular to keep the player in flow-is crucial to make it ever more enjoyable and satisfying. We have performed a user experiment exploiting a four-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) tool similar to the ones that are soon likely to appear in the market for game control. We have performed a spectral characterization of the video-gaming experience, also in comparison with other tasks. Results show that the most informative frequency bands for discriminating among gaming conditions are around low beta. Simple signals from the peripheral nervous system add marginal information. Classification of three levels of user states is possible, with good accuracy, using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A user-independent classification performs worse than a user-dependent approach (50.1% versus 66.4% rate). Personalized SVM training and validation time is reasonable (7-8 min). Thus, we argue that a personalized system could be implemented in a consumer context and research should aim at improving classifiers that can be trained online by end users. © 2013 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @article{Berta2013164,
    author = {Berta, R. and Bellotti, F. and De Gloria, A. and Pranantha, D. and Schatten, C.},
    title = {Electroencephalogram and physiological signal analysis for assessing flow in games},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    pages = {164-175},
    note = {cited By 52},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84879357199&doi=10.1109%2fTCIAIG.2013.2260340&partnerID=40&md5=2180800697d8176b1b56b8128a6eb6ae},
    doi = {10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2260340}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Kapralos B, Lee K, Moreno-Ger P and Berta R (2013), "Assessment in and of serious games: An overview", Advances in Human-Computer Interaction. Vol. 2013
Abstract: There is a consensus that serious games have a significant potential as a tool for instruction. However, their effectiveness in terms of learning outcomes is still understudied mainly due to the complexity involved in assessing intangible measures. A systematic approach - based on established principles and guidelines - is necessary to enhance the design of serious games, and many studies lack a rigorous assessment. An important aspect in the evaluation of serious games, like other educational tools, is user performance assessment. This is an important area of exploration because serious games are intended to evaluate the learning progress as well as the outcomes. This also emphasizes the importance of providing appropriate feedback to the player. Moreover, performance assessment enables adaptivity and personalization to meet individual needs in various aspects, such as learning styles, information provision rates, feedback, and so forth. This paper first reviews related literature regarding the educational effectiveness of serious games. It then discusses how to assess the learning impact of serious games and methods for competence and skill assessment. Finally, it suggests two major directions for future research: characterization of the player's activity and better integration of assessment in games. Copyright © 2013 Francesco Bellotti et al.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2013,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Kapralos, B. and Lee, K. and Moreno-Ger, P. and Berta, R.},
    title = {Assessment in and of serious games: An overview},
    journal = {Advances in Human-Computer Interaction},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2013},
    note = {cited By 223},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84875498804&doi=10.1155%2f2013%2f136864&partnerID=40&md5=aa0cf437549f79049a8e5194a14abf22},
    doi = {10.1155/2013/136864}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Lavagnino E, Antonaci A, Dagnino F and Ott M (2013), "A gamified short course for promoting entrepreneurship among ICT engineering students", Proceedings - 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2013. , pp. 31-32.
Abstract: Gamification is gaining an increasing interest, also in the field of instruction and training, thanks to its promise of engaging and motivating users. This paper presents the experience of a gamified short course on promotion of entrepreneurship that we have designed and executed for Electronic Engineering students. The short course relied on an extensive use of serious games for business and featured a team competition rewarding students' gaming and written/oral reporting activities, assigning a cumulative score to define the team ranking for the final day playoff matches. The course experience was positive, and able to meet the goals in terms of engagement, learning and promotion of interest towards entrepreneurship. The presence of teachers was very important, introducing and explaining topics and giving indications and discussing the experience with students. It is important to balance extrinsic motivation with development of intrinsic motivation, in view of promoting real education. © 2013 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti201331,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Lavagnino, E. and Antonaci, A. and Dagnino, F.M. and Ott, M.},
    title = {A gamified short course for promoting entrepreneurship among ICT engineering students},
    journal = {Proceedings - 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2013},
    year = {2013},
    pages = {31-32},
    note = {cited By 23},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84885194083&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2013.14&partnerID=40&md5=642f322aced35dfa5dea8d58231a55ed},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2013.14}
  }
  
Baalsrud Hauge J, Bellotti F, Nadolski R, Kickmeier-Rust M, Berta R and Carvalho M (2013), "Deploying serious games for management in higher education: Lessons learned and good practices", 7th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2013. Vol. 1, pp. 225-234.
Abstract: The deployment rate of serious games (SGs) in higher education (HE) and their proper insertion in meaningful curricula isstill quite low. There is a lack of papers in literature describing deployment of SGs for HE in detail, critically showing educational benefits, and providing guidelines and best practices on their use. With the present work, we intend to make a first step in this direction, by reporting our experience in using state of the art managerial SGs in MSc Engineering/business courses in four different European universities. In order to describe and analyse the educational characteristics and effectiveness of each game, we propose to use two models that we have straightforwardly extracted from two major pedagogical paradigms: the Bloom's revised cognitive learning goals taxonomy and the Kolb's experiential learning cycle. Based on our experience in developing the SG-based courses, we also propose a set of lessons and practices that we believe could be of interest to incentivize and better support deployment of SGs in HE courses.
BibTeX:
  @conference{BaalsrudHauge2013225,
    author = {Baalsrud Hauge, J. and Bellotti, F. and Nadolski, R. and Kickmeier-Rust, M. and Berta, R. and Carvalho, M.},
    title = {Deploying serious games for management in higher education: Lessons learned and good practices},
    journal = {7th European Conference on Games Based Learning, ECGBL 2013},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {1},
    pages = {225-234},
    note = {cited By 11},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84893691533&partnerID=40&md5=793bf8038fbef4311be8537677d115ad}
  }
  
Pranantha D, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2012), "A format of serious games for higher technology education topics: A case study in a digital electronic system course", Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012. , pp. 13-17.
Abstract: Learning is frequently seen as an awkward activity. This problem becomes worse in technology and science topics, since they are often perceived as cold and difficult subjects to learn. On the other hand, playing is considered funny and engaging, which gives motives to people to do it voluntarily. Moreover, the current increasing use of social networks can represent an opportunity for knowledge and skill development, in particular by enabling students' collaboration and competition. This has led to the idea of exploiting and investigating the appeal and educational potential of serious games in a higher education context, in particular for technology and science topics. This paper proposes mini-games based serious game format targeting in particular higher education technology and science topics, and exploiting advanced web-based and social networking technologies, able to support easy diffusion and user competition/collaboration. We have set-up a client-server based architecture for the implementation of a prototype for a Digital Electronic System BSc course. Preliminary test results show that users have a positive attitude towards the games, as they give an average rating of 4/5 in terms of desirability. Furthermore, it takes 3 times of replays, on average, for users to achieve good scores. Usability issues are also presented and discussed. © 2012 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Pranantha201213,
    author = {Pranantha, D. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {A format of serious games for higher technology education topics: A case study in a digital electronic system course},
    journal = {Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {13-17},
    note = {cited By 7},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84867005793&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2012.52&partnerID=40&md5=dacf97b447a9f0aee2d419c8179f651d},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2012.52}
  }
  
Pranantha D, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2012), "Puzzle-it: An HTML5 serious games platform for education - Puzzle based serious games for education", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 7516 LNCS, pp. 134-143.
Abstract: Serious games as learning medium have advanced in the past few years. They have been applied to support learning in various fields such as security, health-care, and education. Serious games can scale from low budget games up to high budget games depends on the games' objectives and features. For instance, military may utilize games with 3D simulation, live characters, and extensive scenario for combat training due to its critical mission. Nonetheless, in a classroom or remote set-up learning environment, most of these high level games are impractical to be adopted due to the amount of costs they may induce. This is most of the case in educational games which main objective is to motivate the student to learn. However, a game development remains as a time consuming, complex, and laborious process. In order to simplify and shorten this process, it is highly attractive to create a platform to produce educational games. Therefore, this paper, based on our previous work, proposes a platform for authoring HTML5 serious games intended in particular, but not limited to create lightweight serious games for educational purpose using the upcoming HTML5 standard playable in common web browsers. This platform, puzzle-it, divides the work of game development into two distinct layers i.e. contents authoring and core engine development. Both readily and work in progress components of the platform are presented and discussed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
BibTeX:
  @article{Pranantha2012134,
    author = {Pranantha, D. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Puzzle-it: An HTML5 serious games platform for education - Puzzle based serious games for education},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {7516 LNCS},
    pages = {134-143},
    note = {cited By 4},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84871413303&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-642-33466-5_15&partnerID=40&md5=96891ee8b3add132637609fce15e826e},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-33466-5_15}
  }
  
Plotnikov A, Stakheika N, Schatten C, Bellotti F, Pranantha D, Berta R and De Gloria A (2012), "Measuring enjoyment in games through electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis", Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning.
Abstract: Awareness is growing that neuroscientific knowledge can offer a significant contribution to improve education. This paper reports the research work we are conducting in investigating the in-game player's enjoyment state through a simple commercial electroencephalogram. In particular, we focus on three consequential research questions: is it possible to statistically distinguish a flow from a boredom condition? Which wavelengths are significant for such a classification? Can different levels of boredom and flow be identified? This work gives initial positive answers. Results, even if limited because of the small size of the test, are promising and enable further research. New, more extensive experiments are needed to better interpret some results of the wave spectrum analysis, also exploiting a better characterization of the actual activities and conditions of the user during the tests. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification achieved significant accuracy results in the 2-level analysis case, in particular with personalized training (81% average accuracy).
BibTeX:
  @conference{Plotnikov2012,
    author = {Plotnikov, A. and Stakheika, N. and Schatten, C. and Bellotti, F. and Pranantha, D. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Measuring enjoyment in games through electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis},
    journal = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning},
    year = {2012},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84897814635&partnerID=40&md5=7b3eb72375d45c160a21a95338758c56}
  }
  
Plotnikov A, Stakheika N, De Gloria A, Schatten C, Bellotti F, Berta R, Fiorini C and Ansovini F (2012), "Exploiting real-time EEG analysis for assessing flow in games", Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012. , pp. 688-689.
Abstract: Ability of adapting to different users is considered key to maximize the impact and effectiveness of Serious Games (SGs). Advances in neurosciences are making it possible to continuously monitor the player status. This paper reports the research work on the monitoring of the player flow status with a simple (4 electrode) commercial electroencephalogram (EEG). In particular, we focus on three consequential research questions: is it possible to statistically distinguish a flow from a boredom condition? For which wavelengths? Can different levels of boredom and flow be identified? Results - even if limited because of the small size of the test, are promising and enable further research. Statistically significant differences could be observed for brainwaves under various conditions. A machine learning classifier (SVM) was successful in the 2-level distinction case, in particular with personalized training. © 2012 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Plotnikov2012688,
    author = {Plotnikov, A. and Stakheika, N. and De Gloria, A. and Schatten, C. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Fiorini, C. and Ansovini, F.},
    title = {Exploiting real-time EEG analysis for assessing flow in games},
    journal = {Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {688-689},
    note = {cited By 13},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84867025918&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2012.144&partnerID=40&md5=a70b42e21ec0e33e6a1e1cac0f6e3ee0},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2012.144}
  }
  
Ling Y, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2012), "Embodied conversational human-machine interface with wearable body sensors for improving geography teaching", Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012. , pp. 686-687.
Abstract: This paper introduces a suit of advanced human-machine interface (HMI) with gesture interaction. Related hardware component of the system and used signal processing methods are illustrated. The design of embodied conversational geography teaching system which applies this HMI system to game-based learning is described. Finally, the advantages and meanings of the usage of this geography teaching system with gesture interaction are analyzed and presented. © 2012 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Ling2012686,
    author = {Ling, Y. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Embodied conversational human-machine interface with wearable body sensors for improving geography teaching},
    journal = {Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {686-687},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84867026156&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2012.100&partnerID=40&md5=f5382ce7fd870dba90d7e79bb53eca7d},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2012.100}
  }
  
De Gloria A, Bellotti F and Berta R (2012), "Building a comprehensive R&D community on serious games", Procedia Computer Science. Vol. 15, pp. 1-3.
Abstract: There is a wide consensus in the scientific community about the educational potential of Serious Games (SGs). However, most authors highlight that more extensive tests need to be performed in order to provide valid and reliable evidence for effectiveness of SGs as educational tools. An effective application of SGs for education and training demands appropriate metrics, analytics, tools, and techniques for in-game user assessment, in order to allow meeting the educational goals, provide proper user feedback and support adaptivity. These are the major requirements that have inspired our approach in organizing the VS-Games 2012 conference. This short paper describes the aims and scope of the conference and provides an explanation of its program and future plans. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
  @conference{DeGloria20121,
    author = {De Gloria, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R.},
    title = {Building a comprehensive R&D community on serious games},
    journal = {Procedia Computer Science},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {15},
    pages = {1-3},
    note = {cited By 14},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84886591134&doi=10.1016%2fj.procs.2012.10.051&partnerID=40&md5=a2810dddb6837c5d78c3298ec7e57b9e},
    doi = {10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.051}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Lavagnino E, Dagnino F, Ott M, Romero M, Usart M and Mayer I (2012), "Designing a course for stimulating entrepreneurship in higher education through serious games", Procedia Computer Science. Vol. 15, pp. 174-186.
Abstract: Enhancing the offer for entrepreneurship education is an important challenge for the nowadays knowledge societies. The eSG project is addressing this issue by analysing the added value that could be contributed by employing serious games (SGs) as a tool for allowing students in particular technology students - To become familiar, mainly through practice, with basic concepts of entrepreneurship and company management. This paper presents the main requirements for the course and SGs obtained by surveying literature, entrepreneurs, students and teachers. We represented the requirements in a table template keeping into account usability, pedagogy, the entrepreneurship skills expressed by state of the art models and three major axes for entrepreneurship education at universities. These table descriptors were then used to assess validity of SGs and choose an appropriate mix for the courses. We have also defined a set of metrics to evaluate the advancement of students during the course. Based on these tools and knowledge, the next steps of the project will involve extensive user testing in the actual courses that are being performed in Genoa, Delft and Barcelona. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti2012174,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Lavagnino, E. and Dagnino, F. and Ott, M. and Romero, M. and Usart, M. and Mayer, I.S.},
    title = {Designing a course for stimulating entrepreneurship in higher education through serious games},
    journal = {Procedia Computer Science},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {15},
    pages = {174-186},
    note = {cited By 36},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84893749415&doi=10.1016%2fj.procs.2012.10.069&partnerID=40&md5=547786626b6a60bf41914f270376ad84},
    doi = {10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.069}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, D'Ursi A and Fiore V (2012), "A serious game model for cultural heritage", Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage. Vol. 5(4)
Abstract: Serious games present a promising opportunity for learning, but the genre still lacks methodologies and tools for efficient and low-cost production, particularly for teacher and domain experts. This article gives an authoring framework that aims to provide structured support, from content design to final implementation. In particular, we have abstracted a conceptual model-the SandBox Serious Game - which relies on a generalization of task-based learning theory. The model invites players to perform cognitive tasks contextually while exploring information-rich virtual environments.We consider it particularly suited for cultural heritage entertainment applications. The model defines games that are set in realistic virtual worlds enriched with embedded educational tasks, which we have implemented as minigames. This approach simplifies the authoring work, which can easily be supported by visual authoring tools for ontology-based urban 3D modeling and implementation tasks, thus allowing an approach similar to the mind-maps concept. We propose a top-down methodology for content preparation, starting from a citylevel analysis down to the single points of interest and associated tasks, which are instances of simple predefined minigame/quiz typologies. We provide examples and discuss criteria for selecting task typologies according to the authors' cognitive targets. Finally, we discuss the results of a user test, which took place in a lab, aimed at verifying the acquisition of cultural heritage knowledge in a pleasant and engaging way. Games appear particularly suited for supporting the study of images, especially of iconography. Compared to reading text, a game forces the player to focus more strongly on problems, which favors knowledge acquisition and retention. Learning complex concepts requires an investigative attitude, which can be spurred by well-designed games. Good design involves usability, graphic appeal, appropriate content, and the presence of connections which a player must discover in the content. Players should be asked to pay attention to and reason about their whole game activity - including the relationships between the game content, the brief introduction, and concluding texts. More comprehensive tests are needed to better investigate the educational effectiveness-however, the first results are promising, especially in terms of user motivation and creation of new opportunities for learning about CH. © 2012 ACM.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2012,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and D'Ursi, A. and Fiore, V.},
    title = {A serious game model for cultural heritage},
    journal = {Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    note = {cited By 85},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84979824728&doi=10.1145%2f2399180.2399185&partnerID=40&md5=ae14260e039349912c996214da945d52},
    doi = {10.1145/2399180.2399185}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2012), "Games and Learning Alliance (GaLA) supporting education and training through hi-tech gaming", Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012. , pp. 740-741.
Abstract: Games and Learning Alliance (GaLA) is the EU Network of Excellence on serious games (SG). The main expected outcome is the set-up a Virtual Research Centre (VRC) aimed at integrating, harmonizing and coordinating research on SGs and disseminating knowledge, best practices and tools as a reference point at an international level. The other two key focuses of the project are (1) the support to deployment in the actual educational and training settings and (2) the fostering of innovation and knowledge transfer through research-business dialogue. The NoE is composed of organizations that aim to integrate their activities and resources in a long-term view. A long-term perspective is systematically pursued as GaLA sets-up an infrastucture and aims at making it viable and sustainable. The major expected outcomes include: the European Society on Serious Games; the European conference on Serious Games; journal special issues; the Virtual Research Environment (VRE); the SG Living Labs (SG LLs); a MSc programme on SGs, with the relevant didactic tools; PhD projects on SGs; the schools (alignment and summer) on SGs. © 2012 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti2012740,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Games and Learning Alliance (GaLA) supporting education and training through hi-tech gaming},
    journal = {Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {740-741},
    note = {cited By 8},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84867027691&doi=10.1109%2fICALT.2012.146&partnerID=40&md5=ace68d9f086b54fc2867831caf6f7127},
    doi = {10.1109/ICALT.2012.146}
  }
  
Arnab S, Berta R, Earp J, de Sara F, Popescu M, Romero M, Stanescu I and Usart M (2012), "Framing the adoption of serious games in formal education", Electronic Journal of e-Learning. Vol. 10(2), pp. 159-171.
Abstract: Nowadays formal education systems are under increasing pressure to respond and adapt to rapid technological innovation and associated changes in the way we work and live. As well as accommodation of technology in its ever-diversifying forms, there is a fundamental need to enhance learning processes through evolution in pedagogical approaches, so as to make learning in formal education more engaging and, it is hoped, more effective. One opportunity attracting particularly close attention is Serious Games (SG), which offer considerable potential for facilitating both informal and formal learning. SG appear to offer the chance to "hook" today's (largely) digital-native generation of young learners, who are at risk of falling into an ever-widening gap between "networked" lifestyles and the relative stagnant environment they experience in school and university. However, there are a number of inhibitors preventing wider SG take-up in mainstream education. This paper investigates SG in formal education, initially by concentrating on pedagogical issues from two different but complementary perspectives, game design and game deployment. It then goes on to examine game based practice in formal settings and focuses on the pivotal role of the educator within the emerging panorama. This is followed by a brief look at some specific implementation strategies, collaboration and game building, which are opening up new possibilities. Finally some points for further consideration are offered. ©Academic Conferences Ltd.
BibTeX:
  @article{Arnab2012159,
    author = {Arnab, S. and Berta, R. and Earp, J. and de Sara, F. and Popescu, M. and Romero, M. and Stanescu, I. and Usart, M.},
    title = {Framing the adoption of serious games in formal education},
    journal = {Electronic Journal of e-Learning},
    year = {2012},
    volume = {10},
    number = {2},
    pages = {159-171},
    note = {cited By 47},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84865605805&partnerID=40&md5=2e6c641fe3a23d7020d0fca80723a140}
  }
  
Popescu M, Arnab S, Berta R, Earp J, De Freitas S, Romero M, Stanescu I and Usart M (2011), "Serious games in formal education: Discussing some critical aspects", Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning. Vol. 2011-January, pp. 486-493.
Abstract: Innovation in technology together with evolution in pedagogical approaches is encouraging increased integration of technology-supported interventions in mainstream teaching practices. One area attracting particularly close attention in this respect is Serious Games (SGs), which offer considerable potential for facilitating both formal and informal learning experiences in supported and standalone contexts. Advances in technology and in technology enhanced learning are raising learners' expectations for immersive and engaging game-based experiences. This trend is underpinned by the emergence of young learners adept at using digital technologies and the internet; there is an attendant risk that, as students, they may be alienated by traditional education and its failure to engage them fully in a lifelong learning process and prepare them adequately for the challenges of the 21st Century. SGs would appear to offer an attractive solution in this regard. However, there are a number of inhibitors preventing their wider take-up in mainstream education, with the result that the considerable potential on offer has yet to be fully exploited. This situation is the background for the joint efforts of partners in the Games and Learning Alliance (GALA), an EC-funded Network of Excellence on SGs, especially the sub-group dedicated to the pedagogical dimension of SGs. In its discussions on the key challenges for more wide-scale and effective SG use, the group has focused in particular on aspects related to the central role played by the educator in formal education settings. Specifically, discussion has focused on the challenges posed when educators are called on to modify their practice, adopting the new roles and approaches demanded for effective SG deployment. This paper presents the outcome of the group's exploration. It frames the question of the educator's central role by drawing on research work that, in the view of the different authors, embodies the major references for shedding light on this multi-faceted aspect. As well as the new role that the educator assumes in games-based learning environments, particular attention is also dedicated to the innovative pedagogical approaches that can be applied to SG deployment, especially those inspired by peer collaboration.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Popescu2011486,
    author = {Popescu, M. and Arnab, S. and Berta, R. and Earp, J. and De Freitas, S. and Romero, M. and Stanescu, I. and Usart, M.},
    title = {Serious games in formal education: Discussing some critical aspects},
    journal = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning},
    year = {2011},
    volume = {2011-January},
    pages = {486-493},
    note = {cited By 10},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84938591678&partnerID=40&md5=8df7ede53030356bbf0f3480307d231e}
  }
  
Jurgelionis A, Nap H, Gajadhar B, Bellotti F, Wang A and Berta R (2011), "Player experience and technical performance prospects for distributed 3D gaming in private and public settings", Computers in Entertainment. Vol. 9(3)
Abstract: Distributed gaming enables access to interactive media from devices based on different platforms. It facilitates users to enjoy video games in various environments without the need for using a single device or operating system. Understanding the potential and limitations of such gaming-on-demand systems is key for their adoption and further growth in public places. This paper presents an in-depth, quantitative study performed with the Games@Large (GaL) distributed-gaming system and its potential users at an Internet café in Genoa, Italy. The approach of the study was multilevel, covering the player experience and user acceptance aspects as well as technical performance peculiarities. Results show that the GaL system has a high potential at Internet cafes, in particular when playing a casual genre game. Furthermore, results provide recommendations for deploying such systems in terms of social setting and technical aspects. The methodology and findings of the GaL system tests can be applied to similar game streaming systems and used as input for theories on social digital game play. © 2011 ACM.
BibTeX:
  @article{Jurgelionis2011,
    author = {Jurgelionis, A. and Nap, H.H. and Gajadhar, B.J. and Bellotti, F. and Wang, A.I. and Berta, R.},
    title = {Player experience and technical performance prospects for distributed 3D gaming in private and public settings},
    journal = {Computers in Entertainment},
    year = {2011},
    volume = {9},
    number = {3},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855223287&doi=10.1145%2f2027456.2027462&partnerID=40&md5=4c2f1865f6bba8da089b3ba2dad98c14},
    doi = {10.1145/2027456.2027462}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Ott M, Arnab S, Berta R, De Freitas S, Kiili K and De Gloria A (2011), "Designing serious games for education: From pedagogical principles to game mechanisms", Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning. Vol. 2011-January, pp. 26-34.
Abstract: Serious Games represent an important opportunity for improving education thanks to their ability to compel players and to present realistic simulations of real-life situations. The scientific community is aware that we are just at the beginning of a proper use of gaming technologies for education and training and, in particular, there is a need for scientific and engineering methods for building games not only as more realistic simulations of the physical world, but as means that provide effective learning experiences. This requires an ever closer cooperation among the various actors involved in the overall SG life-chain, putting pedagogy in a central role, given the educational target of the SGs. This paper addresses the till-now inadequate integration of educational and game design principles and proposes techniques, methods and mechanisms that allow designers with different background to dialogue among each other and to define games that are able to integrate - by design - entertainment and educational features. In particular, the paper follows a design path that starts from the definition of reference frameworks and then analyses the typical categories of design patterns, before focusing on the user-interaction modalities - seen from a pedagogical point of view - given their relevance for the end-users. In the end, we discuss the sandbox serious game model, that looks suited to implement joint pedagogical and entertainment features. We believe that the indications provided in this paper can be useful for researchers and stakeholders to understand the typical issues in SG design and to get inspiration about possible solutions that take into account the need to implement tools that are effective both as an entertainment medium and as an education tool.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti201126,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Ott, M. and Arnab, S. and Berta, R. and De Freitas, S. and Kiili, K. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Designing serious games for education: From pedagogical principles to game mechanisms},
    journal = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning},
    year = {2011},
    volume = {2011-January},
    pages = {26-34},
    note = {cited By 18},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84938574502&partnerID=40&md5=66515373766ddf8dba56cdcc599f8b52}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Ozolina A (2011), "Investigating the added value of interactivity and serious gaming for educational TV", Computers and Education. Vol. 57(1), pp. 1137-1148.
Abstract: TV is a medium with high penetration rates and has been suited to deliver informal education in several aspects since years. Thus, interactive TV may play a significant role in the current Life-Long Learning challenges, provided that meaningful applications are implemented. In this research work, we have explored the added value of interactivity in digital TV, with a particular focus on Serious Games (SGs), given their growing relevance in technology-enhanced learning. We have followed an evolutionary rather than revolutionary approach, in particular given the still traditional use of TV by a large audience. The approach preserves a media-driven strategy and the role of the author/director in proposing contents (storytelling), as in the TV tradition. We argue that interactive SGs may help the viewer to better contextualize/understand the video stream and go more in depth about the touched items at the end of the stream. This also enables new iTV applications, in particular to support weaker users (i.e. users that could not view the video without a help). This paper presents the results from user tests based on an interactive enhancement of a clip from the Disney's Snow White movie, that challenged the authors in addressing a dynamic, high-value document. Qualitative and quantitative results show the potential of the system for informal education. The tests also stress the importance of good solutions (e.g., development languages, display modalities, metaphors) for synchronizing video and overlaid interactive elements. To the best of our knowledge, this research work is the first one discussing user test results about the usefulness of a class of iTV SG applications that can be instantiated serially in several different contexts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti20111137,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Ozolina, A.},
    title = {Investigating the added value of interactivity and serious gaming for educational TV},
    journal = {Computers and Education},
    year = {2011},
    volume = {57},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1137-1148},
    note = {cited By 9},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79151470066&doi=10.1016%2fj.compedu.2010.11.013&partnerID=40&md5=dd75910762564ab6e8a8faaf195c9389},
    doi = {10.1016/j.compedu.2010.11.013}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Lavagnino E (2011), "Towards a Conversational Agent architecture to favor knowledge discovery in serious games", ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.
Abstract: "Conversational Agents" (CAs) are virtual characters controlled by the computer and able to dialogue with users in natural language. CAs are usually employed in virtual world applications, such as for training, gaming or advertising, in order to increase the situation realism and user involvement. We are implementing a natural language interaction system with a clear focus on instructional dialogues aimed at favoring a player's acquisition of knowledge on specific topics through interaction with specialized NPC. Another key requirement for the system is easy and efficient writing and maintenance of the texts, also by author with no specific expertise on computational language technology. The system we propose includes a strategy and a tactical level. The former is responsible for managing the high-level aspects of the conversation, while the latter responds to the player's queries by relying on an original combination of an essential syntactical analysis and an ITF-IDF-based procedure. The technique specifically targets a (educational) gaming application domain. However, we believe that the technique could be extended to meet the requirements of other application domains. Copyright 2011 ACM.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti2011,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Lavagnino, E.},
    title = {Towards a Conversational Agent architecture to favor knowledge discovery in serious games},
    journal = {ACM International Conference Proceeding Series},
    year = {2011},
    note = {cited By 3},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84855402661&doi=10.1145%2f2071423.2071444&partnerID=40&md5=d433dae8b4de026b5cd9ddd4becbd155},
    doi = {10.1145/2071423.2071444}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, Cardona R and De Gloria A (2011), "An architectural approach to efficient 3D urban modeling", Computers and Graphics (Pergamon). Vol. 35(5), pp. 1001-1012.
Abstract: A 3D reconstruction of an urban area for Virtual Worlds (VWs) or Serious Games (SGs) requires a careful trade-off among the 3D models realism, weight and development time. This has led us to the definition of an algorithm the Architectonic Style Area (ASA) algorithm for procedural generation of buildings in an urban area, based on the concept of architectonic likelihood, that intends to give players the sense of being in a particular city or even specific area of a city. This has a cognitive foundation in the fact that, after a visit, a tourist typically does not remember every single palace of a city, but remembers beside the most important monuments and buildings its general features and its architectonic styles. The algorithm extrudes 2D maps and composes façades by statistically assembling sample images of architectonic components from the target city. Components are classified in an ontology based on the classic principles of architecture. The algorithm relies on rules that encode the semantics of the ontology. The paper describes the algorithm and the related easy-to-use visual authoring tool. It also shows the results in two different projects: a SG for the promotion of the cultural heritage and a 3D movie. Results show that the approach allows keeping the realism of every single building at good detail and of the overall scene, while dropping a huge work of image collection and processing for the textures. Comparisons are investigated with regard to state of the art urban modeling methods, highlighting the differences and possible synergies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti20111001,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Cardona, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {An architectural approach to efficient 3D urban modeling},
    journal = {Computers and Graphics (Pergamon)},
    year = {2011},
    volume = {35},
    number = {5},
    pages = {1001-1012},
    note = {cited By 18},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-80051622376&doi=10.1016%2fj.cag.2011.07.004&partnerID=40&md5=53d1dcd681b53381ee4627b5a1c3751c},
    doi = {10.1016/j.cag.2011.07.004}
  }
  
Bardini M, Bellotti F, Berta R and Gloria A (2011), "Enabling dynamic generation of levels for RTS serious games", Entertainment Computing. Vol. 2(2), pp. 123-131.
Abstract: This paper proposes a new family of Real Time Strategy (RTS) serious games that exploit a dynamic insertion of aerial/satellite images in games, in order to allow covering any target geographic area on user demand and automatically implementing several different gaming sessions. The approach intends to combine the possibility for the user of practicing decision strategies with the development of knowledge about specific geographical areas, which is important in particular to enhance the training of field operation personnel.This target requires that the system correctly interprets the terrain features - in particular roads - in order to build a semantic correspondence between the game's logic and the background image.RealPath, a new solution for automatic definition of paths on aerial and satellite images, which reduces the cost for the creation of new game maps. The algorithm exploits the image's pixel values and extracts information on the terrain in order to identify possible paths in the area. A parallel version of the algorithm has been implemented, exploiting multi-resolution pyramidal image processing, in order to allow better exploiting the power of current multicore processing architectures (CPUs and GPUs). The algorithm has been successfully tested on several real-world images, in real-time.As a proof of concept, we present a RealPath-based RTS serious game that we are developing for training military and civil protection personnel in field operations. Exploitation of the algorithm in 3D virtual environments is also shown. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bardini2011123,
    author = {Bardini, M. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Gloria, A.D.},
    title = {Enabling dynamic generation of levels for RTS serious games},
    journal = {Entertainment Computing},
    year = {2011},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {123-131},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79960018116&doi=10.1016%2fj.entcom.2010.12.005&partnerID=40&md5=63f7a67ab23bcaa4d9c74080b4cd446a},
    doi = {10.1016/j.entcom.2010.12.005}
  }
  
Fominykh M, Prasolova-Førland E, Morozov M, Gerasimov A, Bellotti F, Berta R, Cardona S and De Gloria A (2010), "Universcity: Towards a holistic approach to educational virtual city design", 2010 16th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2010. , pp. 371-374.
Abstract: In this paper, we seek to develop a holistic approach to educational virtual cities, introducing a concept of 'Universcity' as a framework for a wide range of social, cultural and educational activities, a city for students, researchers and other learners to live and work in. The metaphor of a city is widely used in the design of virtual worlds. However, a systematic approach to learning support in virtual cities is not fully developed yet. To fill the gap, we consider a city as a place for lifelong learning, with a broad spectrum of disciplines and areas of knowledge. We have investigated these aspects in the implementation of two projects where virtual reality was used for the contextualization of educational activities. Based on the experiences from these projects and related work, we propose an initial design of 'Universcity'. ©2010 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Fominykh2010371,
    author = {Fominykh, M. and Prasolova-Førland, E. and Morozov, M. and Gerasimov, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Cardona, S. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Universcity: Towards a holistic approach to educational virtual city design},
    journal = {2010 16th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2010},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {371-374},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-78651441574&doi=10.1109%2fVSMM.2010.5665929&partnerID=40&md5=477ee1fb529cc37d79981e1d6921b644},
    doi = {10.1109/VSMM.2010.5665929}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2010), "Erratum: Development of task-based learning in serious virtual world (British Journal of Educational Technology (2010) 41:1 (86-107))", British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 41(4), pp. 538.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2010538,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Erratum: Development of task-based learning in serious virtual world (British Journal of Educational Technology (2010) 41:1 (86-107))},
    journal = {British Journal of Educational Technology},
    year = {2010},
    volume = {41},
    number = {4},
    pages = {538},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-77953567248&doi=10.1111%2fj.1467-8535.2010.01100-2.x&partnerID=40&md5=adb3a72d0bcc3bacd320818d1932dec7},
    doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01100-2.x}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2010), "Supporting authors in the development of task-based learning in serious virtual worlds", British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 41(1), pp. 86-107.
Abstract: Serious virtual worlds (SVWs) represent a great opportunity for learning and should embed a lot of high-quality contextualised information so that the player can take the most from his or her exploration of the environment. This requires defining new methodologies and tools for effective production. We have investigated this issue in implementing a couple of SVWs and abstracted a conceptual framework relying on the task-based learning pedagogical theory. The model defines games set in realistic SVWs enriched with embedded educational tasks. Tasks are simple trial activities that embody units of knowledge. The player can discover them in his or her SVW exploration and interact with them in order to construct meaning, build lasting memories and deepen understanding of the featured item(s). The model involves pedagogical task annotation - which allows decoupling the tasks, which can be reused in different VWs from the definition of their delivery strategy in the context of a specific VW, which is specified by the VW designer and automatically managed by the run-time engine. This approach simplifies the authoring work. The visual Creative Toolkit (CT) we have developed is being used for producing contents for the 15 reconstructed cultural cities that will be featured in the first version of the Travel in Europe VW. The paper described the overall framework and the details of the CT. It also presented an implemented example, briefly discussing the methodology we have followed for developing cultural heritage content. © 2009 Becta.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti201086,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Supporting authors in the development of task-based learning in serious virtual worlds},
    journal = {British Journal of Educational Technology},
    year = {2010},
    volume = {41},
    number = {1},
    pages = {86-107},
    note = {cited By 31},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-73149101859&doi=10.1111%2fj.1467-8535.2009.01039.x&partnerID=40&md5=0ae5a61d391bbc14ebc35ebd5a1df12e},
    doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01039.x}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2010), "Designing effective serious games: Opportunities and challenges for research", International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. Vol. 5(SPECIAL ISSUE 2), pp. 22-35.
Abstract: Serious Games represent an acknowledged potential for instruction, because they are able to strongly motivate learners. They can also provide immersive environments where advanced users can practice knowledge and skills, also exploiting multimodal interaction. They can combine the effectiveness of computer processing and data storage, with high levels of attractiveness. Our work has investigated the state of the art research on SGs, starting from the cognitive aspects, that are necessary in order to root technological development and applications in sound theoretical foundations. The paper discusses some key aspects about SG design and exploitation: choice of components-off-the-shelf or from-scratch design, tools and methodologies for development or adaptation, intelligent tutoring, virtual coaches and affective learning, living worlds, game mechanics, Human-Computer Interaction. While several SGs have been developed, still the literature stresses a lack of significant, extensive user tests. Further research is necessary to investigate in greater detail the real effectiveness of the various types of SGs. The paper proposes several research questions - that range from requirements elicitation to design and from deployment to use and evaluation - to be answered in order to avoid technology pushing and drive technological research according to the requirements of the end-users and stakeholders. We believe that deepening the analysis about these issues is key to strengthen the foundations of SG research, for which we identify four major directions: definition of metrics and learning progress evaluation tools; methodologies and tools for designing games from various topics and for various users; computing and communication architectures; technologies that can enhance the overall system performance.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti201022,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Designing effective serious games: Opportunities and challenges for research},
    journal = {International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning},
    year = {2010},
    volume = {5},
    number = {SPECIAL ISSUE 2},
    pages = {22-35},
    note = {cited By 79},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84865606015&doi=10.3991%2fijet.v5s3.1500&partnerID=40&md5=956842f607d2376a6a0ade0d00bfe709},
    doi = {10.3991/ijet.v5s3.1500}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2009), "Enhancing the educational value of video games", Computers in Entertainment. Vol. 7(2)
Abstract: Lowering the barrier between education and real entertainment is an important challenge in order to better exploit the potential of computers and reach a demographic that is traditionally averse to learning. To this end, it is important to investigate how to exploit the appeal of video games (VGs) to also favor and induce learning via playing video games. Achieving this goal is not only a matter of content, since simply "superimposed" educational content risks being perceived as boring. Hence we believe that the game should feature mechanisms for acquiring knowledge and skill that are smoothly embedded in a meaningful, homogeneous, and compelling whole. Thus, there is a need to compartmentalize components of a game engine so that it becomes easy and efficient to integrate the graphics/interface which has already been done very well by state-of-the-art successful video games and the educational aspect which is typically poor in those same games. Hence we have defined a general set of mechanisms and modules that can be inserted in state-of-the-art VG environments and are aimed at promoting various kinds of knowledge and procedural skill acquisition. In order to investigate and validate this concept, we have built an educational game, SeaGame, using a state-of-the-art commercial game development approach, and enriched the environment with instances of developed educational modules. Analyzing user test results, we conclude that SeaGame is perceived quite similarly to commercial VGs, which suggests that the proposed mechanisms do not compromise the overall enjoyability of the game, which is key to attracting a wide demographic that is not currently involved in educational activities during their leisure time. The results of this research can be generalized, since the standards of commercial games and the proposed educational enhancements can be instantiated in a variety of educational contexts and applied to different types of content.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2009,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Enhancing the educational value of video games},
    journal = {Computers in Entertainment},
    year = {2009},
    volume = {7},
    number = {2},
    note = {cited By 50},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-68049105384&doi=10.1145%2f1541895.1541903&partnerID=40&md5=788794ad354aef635821127ef8b8194b},
    doi = {10.1145/1541895.1541903}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2009), "Player experience evaluation: An approach based on the personal construct theory", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 5709 LNCS, pp. 120-131.
Abstract: The scientific and industrial community related to the videogame (VG) research and business is ever more concerned about the need for proper evaluation and assessment of games. This paper proposes an assessment methodology based on the Personal Construct Theory (PCT). The PCT allows identifying constructs can be processed to define a space where domain-relevant items - VGs, in our case - can be positioned. The main praise of PCT is that the test-leading researcher does not supply users with a predefined set of constructs, which may bias the evaluation process. Moreover, PCT joins qualitative aspects with a quantitative evaluation of their relevance, which is particularly useful for an operational approach also to game design. In this paper, we study the application of the PCT to the particular case of the evaluation of whole typologies of VGs. Discussing the results, we draw and highlight that VGs are perceived as engaging challenges where personal abilities are continuously put to the test. This stresses the reactive nature of VGs and the fact that players like being stimulated and developing and testing their reaction capabilities. © 2009 Springer.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2009120,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Player experience evaluation: An approach based on the personal construct theory},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2009},
    volume = {5709 LNCS},
    pages = {120-131},
    note = {cited By 7},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70350596726&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-642-04052-8_11&partnerID=40&md5=b40cb377923f4218ef215c5f13760e5f},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-04052-8_11}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2009), "Developing web3D tools for promoting the european heritage", Tourism Informatics: Visual Travel Recommender Systems, Social Communities, and User Interface Design. , pp. 194-208.
Abstract: Virtual reality environments are ever more going online. This trend, opened by videogames, will open new important opportunities to enhance cultural tourism, given the possibility of creating compelling virtual adventures set in the context of artistic and natural beauties. The authors are exploring these challenges in the context of the Travel in Europe (TiE) project, and developing tools to build enriched virtual environments where the player could explore faithfully reconstructed places and live there information-rich, contextualized experiences. The TiE architecture is based on a state-of-the-art commercial game engine, with massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) facilities that support access to multiple concurrent users, plus ad-hoc designed modules. The 3D model is completely geo-referenced. In each covered area, a few points-of-interest (POIs) are implemented. These buildings are rigorously reconstructed at a high level of detail. The textures for the rest of the palaces are built dynamically by the TiE system using a statistical template-based algorithm that exploits local characterizations of common architectonic elements. The TiE virtual world is enriched by geo-localized, contextualized MicroGames (mGs). mGs are simple, short games that focus the player's attention on a particular item that is found during exploration of the 3D world. mGs are typically taken from well known simple game models, such as Puzzle, MemoryGame, and FindTheWrongDetails. The main concept that underpins mGs is that, they should be intuitive and easy to play, so that the player can focus on the contents rather than on learning how to play. Preliminary informal tests have suggested that the approach is valid and that the enriched 3D environment supports the contextualized promotion of artifacts, products and services, which is an important growing demand from institutions and enterprises that want to valorize the resources of a territory. © 2010, IGI Global.
BibTeX:
  @book{Bellotti2009194,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Developing web3D tools for promoting the european heritage},
    journal = {Tourism Informatics: Visual Travel Recommender Systems, Social Communities, and User Interface Design},
    year = {2009},
    pages = {194-208},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84900122389&doi=10.4018%2f978-1-60566-818-5.ch012&partnerID=40&md5=a4697f39fc0072face1b20269436f446},
    doi = {10.4018/978-1-60566-818-5.ch012}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2009), "A task annotation model for SandBox Serious Games", CIG2009 - 2009 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. , pp. 233-240.
Abstract: SGs represent a great potential for education since they can join an instructional value with the appealing language of digital natives. Searching for methodologies to support effective authoring of Serious Games (SGs), we have abstracted a model consisting of a 3D geo-referenced Virtual World (VW) where knowledge is implemented also through tasks that are disseminated across the environment. The model is designed to support authors to focus on defining the tasks' content and annotation (e.g. relevance to various topics, difficulty, position in the VW, typology of supported learning styles, interrelation with other tasks and events, etc.), without being asked to do game scripting, which typically involves hard-coding events, actions, locations and contents of a specific game. Task annotation allows reusing tasks also in different games. Moreover, different game designers can exploit repositories of tasks and build educational games specifying a VW, and its missions as sequences of tasks that meet learning strategy criteria that can be expressed through the proposed framework. This model opens new perspectives to pedagogical experts and game designers to develop runtime game engines able to provide players with adaptive contents. The paper presents the user, task and learning strategy models in detail and an example of application. ©2009 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti2009233,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {A task annotation model for SandBox Serious Games},
    journal = {CIG2009 - 2009 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games},
    year = {2009},
    pages = {233-240},
    note = {cited By 9},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-71549116088&doi=10.1109%2fCIG.2009.5286471&partnerID=40&md5=e46e573d4991644d73f1b8b7714374cd},
    doi = {10.1109/CIG.2009.5286471}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Primavera L (2009), "Adaptive experience engine for serious games", IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. Vol. 1(4), pp. 264-280.
Abstract: Designing games that support knowledge and skill acquisition has become a promising frontier of education techniques, since games are able to capture the user concentration for long periods and can present users with realistic and compelling challenges. In this scenario, there is a need for scientific and engineering methods to build games not only as more realistic simulations of the physical world but as means to provide effective learning experiences. Abstracting state of the art serious games' (SGs) features, we propose a new design methodology for the sand box serious games (SBSGs) class, decoupling content from the delivery strategy during the gameplay. This methodology aims at making design more efficient and standardized in order to meet the growing demand for interactive learning. The methodology consists in modeling an SBSG as a hierarchy of tasks (e.g., missions) and specifies the requirements for a runtime scheduling policy that maximizes learning objectives in a full entertainment context. The policy is learned by an experience engine (EE) based on computational intelligence. In this approach, the domain-expert author focuses on the creation and semantic annotation of tasks. Tasks are put in a repository and can then be exploited by game designers who define the expected learning curve and other requirements about education and entertainment for the game. The task sequencing that aims at matching such specifications with the real user profile is then presented to the EE. The EE can operate also in absence of the specification of the learning curve, continuously adapting the game flow without aiming at the achievement of target knowledge levels predefined by the author.We have implemented an EE module based on genetic computation and reinforcement learning (RL) atop of a state-of-the-art game engine. Test results show that the EE is able to define in real-time missions that meet the requirements expressed by the author.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2009264,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Adaptive experience engine for serious games},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games},
    year = {2009},
    volume = {1},
    number = {4},
    pages = {264-280},
    note = {cited By 60},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-77955666872&doi=10.1109%2fTCIAIG.2009.2035923&partnerID=40&md5=a938e799638e297b8e5d62fb0442abd8},
    doi = {10.1109/TCIAIG.2009.2035923}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Panizza G and Primavera L (2009), "Designing cultural heritage contents for serious virtual worlds", VSMM 2009 - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia. , pp. 227-231.
Abstract: This paper discusses a Virtual World (VW) environment, called Travel in Europe (TiE), aimed at promoting a meaningful interaction with artistic heritage. TiE is based on contents collected by cultural experts, which are offered to the user through an online 3D VW. In TiE users live challenging and compelling experiences by interacting with virtual representations of the European heritage. The paper present the main concept of TiE and come lessons learned useful for cultural experts interested in developing contents for VWs. © 2009 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti2009227,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Panizza, G. and Primavera, L.},
    title = {Designing cultural heritage contents for serious virtual worlds},
    journal = {VSMM 2009 - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia},
    year = {2009},
    pages = {227-231},
    note = {cited By 3},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-70450240872&doi=10.1109%2fVSMM.2009.41&partnerID=40&md5=f8619ed675b38cbb53c86febe31918e9},
    doi = {10.1109/VSMM.2009.41}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, Margarone M and De Gloria A (2008), "oDect: an RFID-based object detection API to support applications development on mobile devices", Software - Practice and Experience. Vol. 38(12), pp. 1241-1259.
Abstract: The RFID technology is becoming ever more popular in the development of ubiquitous computing applications. A full exploitation of the RFID potential requires the study and implementation of human-computer interaction (HCI) modalities to be able to support wide usability by the target audience. This implies the need for programming methodologies specifically dedicated to support the easy and efficient prototyping of applications to have feedback from early tests with users. On the basis of our field-working experience, we have designed oDect, a high-level language and platform-independent application programming interface (API), ad hoc designed to meet the needs of typical applications for mobile devices (smart phones and PDAs). oDect aims at allowing application developers to create their prototypes focusing on the needs of the final users, without having to care about the low-level software that interacts with the RFID hardware. Further, in an end-user developing (EUD) approach, oDect provides specific support for the application end-user herself to cope with typical problems of RFID applications in detecting objects. We describe in detail the features of the API and discuss the findings of a test with four programmers, where we analyse and evaluate the use of the API in four sample applications. We also present results of an end-user test, which investigated strengths and weaknesses of the territorial agenda (TA) concept. The TA is an RFID-based citizen guide that aids-through time- and location-based reminders-users in their daily activities in a city. The TA directly exploits EUD features of oDect, in particular concerning the possibility of linking detected objects with custom actions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti20081241,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Margarone, M. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {oDect: an RFID-based object detection API to support applications development on mobile devices},
    journal = {Software - Practice and Experience},
    year = {2008},
    volume = {38},
    number = {12},
    pages = {1241-1259},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-54949096954&doi=10.1002%2fspe.864&partnerID=40&md5=ee00e23a3bfa8a1246ee4b29ed235219},
    doi = {10.1002/spe.864}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Zappi V (2008), "Exploring gaming mechanisms to enhance knowledge acquisition in virtual worlds", Proceedings - 3rd International Conference on Digital Interactive Media in Entertainment and Arts, DIMEA 2008. , pp. 77-84.
Abstract: 3D environments are very popular among gamers and ever more used for simulations and serious games. The educational value of setting an adventure/simulation in a Virtual World (VW) is significant, in particular when training a workforce in performing dangerous/special tasks. However, when it comes to the exploration of a world to learn from it - as it happens in several real-life experiences - there is the risk that a lot of "knowledge in the world" is wasted because of a lack of appropriate guidance and the difficulty of providing more in-depth information about some items without interrupting the flow of the game. This paper discusses a Virtual Reality (VR) environment - aimed at promoting a meaningful interaction with artistic heritage - that has been enhanced with embedded microGames (mGs). mGs challenge the player to discover/investigate historical/artistic details related to a reconstructed area and virtually interact with pieces of the heritage in their context. mGs can be thought of as sort of 1-level links in the "hypertext" represented by the 3D environment where the player lives her/his cultural adventure. Preliminary informal tests have suggested that the approach is valid and also provided some guidelines about how to properly and smoothly integrate mGs in a 3D environment, which is an important requirement in order not to startle/distract the player. Copyright 2008 ACM.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti200877,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Zappi, V.},
    title = {Exploring gaming mechanisms to enhance knowledge acquisition in virtual worlds},
    journal = {Proceedings - 3rd International Conference on Digital Interactive Media in Entertainment and Arts, DIMEA 2008},
    year = {2008},
    pages = {77-84},
    note = {cited By 42},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-62849124687&doi=10.1145%2f1413634.1413653&partnerID=40&md5=5c99b881d6658366e4a1e6b6fa90b8e0},
    doi = {10.1145/1413634.1413653}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, Robertson P, Kompfner P and Amditis A (2005), "Integrating nomadic devices in an adaptive driver-vehicle environment", IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline). Vol. 38(1), pp. 127-132.
Abstract: Nomadic devices such as mobile phones and PDAs are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and essential for daily use in modern society, see (EU Communication). At the same time the automotive vehicle is benefiting from an increasing range of new technologies to provide the driver with more information and driving aids. But little work has been carried out to explore and analyse the interaction between these nomad devices and the automotive systems, and their impact on safety. The AIDE project plans to safely integrate these into a seamless and safe automotive environment to benefit the driver and society at large. Copyright © 2005 IFAC.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Bellotti2005127,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and Robertson, P. and Kompfner, P. and Amditis, A.},
    title = {Integrating nomadic devices in an adaptive driver-vehicle environment},
    journal = {IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline)},
    year = {2005},
    volume = {38},
    number = {1},
    pages = {127-132},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-79960743410&partnerID=40&md5=ae9520ec8ad45799596003c0dccec6c3}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Margarone M (2005), "Implementing tour guides for travelers", Human Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing. Vol. 15(4), pp. 461-476.
Abstract: The impending "intelligent car" scenario can have a great impact on improving the quality of life of a number of citizens by reducing wasted time and enhancing interaction with the environment. In this article, the authors describe their development of tour guides on palmtop computers that present tourists with high-quality multimedia information and services. An important added value of tour guides on palmtop computers is that they can assist the user in the real-time event (e.g., in a museum or while walking in a city) and during the in-car trip as well. However, the overall surrounding environment and the contextual tasks performed by the user are different. In-car use is challenging because it requires adapting the interaction modes of the user to the strict safety constraints of driving. The authors have explored these issues in the development of a tour guide for the Castellon region of Spain. In this article, they present ideas and discuss preliminary findings on their interface design. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2005461,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {Implementing tour guides for travelers},
    journal = {Human Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing},
    year = {2005},
    volume = {15},
    number = {4},
    pages = {461-476},
    note = {cited By 7},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-28044456511&doi=10.1002%2fhfm.20038&partnerID=40&md5=e77d22e758bdb4b15d1141e0f79cfcf6},
    doi = {10.1002/hfm.20038}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Ferretti E and Margarone M (2004), "Designing mobile games for a challenging experience of the urban heritage", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 2790, pp. 1129-1136.
Abstract: Ubiquitous gaming is a new emerging research area, that is gaining focus from industry and academy as smart wireless devices are becoming ever more widespread. We have explored this field implementing a treasure hunt game aimed at enhancing the visitor's experience of the heritage in a city area, such as Venice. The game relies on standard, commercially available hardware and middleware systems. The paper describes the pedagogical principles that inspire the game and the corresponding structure of VeGame. We also discuss how combining mobile gaming and an educational focus may deliver to the player a challenging and engaging experience of the heritage, as shown by early user tests. Extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation will start in June 2003. © Springer-Verlag 2003.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti20041129,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Ferretti, E. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {Designing mobile games for a challenging experience of the urban heritage},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2004},
    volume = {2790},
    pages = {1129-1136},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-35048838121&partnerID=40&md5=2f4c7568c4f33b7a9f165e9d36cc85df}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2004), "Evaluation and optimization of method calls in Java", Software - Practice and Experience. Vol. 34(4), pp. 395-431.
Abstract: Recent advances in Virtual Machine's technology have led to the diffusion of Java execution environments which provide performance levels comparable to those of traditional languages such as C/C++ and Fortran. This paper's focus is on method calls, a well researched area of compilers' optimization. In particular, we evaluate the impact on the performance of the Java virtual call mechanism and the advantages which can be obtained through the inlining optimization. Moreover, we propose a new heuristic methodology which allows us to consider whole sequences of methods for the inlining decision and not only simple couples of caller-callee methods. The proposed methodology operates at bytecode level and is applicable only to the calls that can be resolved at compile time. Thus, we execute a devirtualization algorithm before the inlining decision, in order to enlarge the basis for the optimization. We made empirical measures on three major platforms (Unix, Windows and Linux) by using the SPEC JVM98 benchmark suite. Results reveal an average performance improvement of 1.9% with devirtualization and 5.5% with inlining. We discuss the different behaviour of single benchmarks and virtual machines, arguing that dynamic compilers are not yet able to fully exploit the wider scope for intraprocedural optimization offered by eliminating the calls. Finally, we show that taking into consideration whole sequences of calls - instead of single calls - is effective only on a few benchmarks where hotspots of execution involve cycles of nested methods. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2004395,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Evaluation and optimization of method calls in Java},
    journal = {Software - Practice and Experience},
    year = {2004},
    volume = {34},
    number = {4},
    pages = {395-431},
    note = {cited By 0},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-1842765489&doi=10.1002%2fspe.570&partnerID=40&md5=3506f9daf7b19dc2791c343d86f78eec},
    doi = {10.1002/spe.570}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Margarone M (2003), "Supporting efficient design of mobile HCI", Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Vol. 2795, pp. 241-255.
Abstract: Recent advances in mobile computing and communication technologies have spurred nomadic use of computers. In order to support HCI design for new mobile services, we have developed the MADE (Mobile Applications Development Environment) software development kit. MADE includes M3P (MicroMultiMedia Player), a network-enabled multimedia player easily programmable through the Micromultimedia Services Language (MSL). MSL provides high-level components encapsulating advanced services (e.g. positioning, database query, path search, games, etc.), that can be easily integrated in multimedia presentations. This allows building modular applications that provide information-rich services to the general public through a coherent and homogeneous multimedia HCI, that can be learned with low mental workload. On the other hand, MADE hides the low-level aspects of multimedia and service management, allowing designers to focus on the modalities of presentation of information and on user interaction. The paper describes MADE and briefly sketches some tour guide applications we developed using the tool. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2003241,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {Supporting efficient design of mobile HCI},
    journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)},
    year = {2003},
    volume = {2795},
    pages = {241-255},
    note = {cited By 5},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-33746084225&partnerID=40&md5=e69832cb65a93d05c5120b3746b69e88}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Margarone M (2003), "MADE: Developing edutainment applications on mobile computers", Computers and Graphics (Pergamon). Vol. 27(4), pp. 617-634.
Abstract: Recent advances in mobile computing and communication technologies have engendered and spurred a nomadic use of computers. In order to support the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design for new mobile services, we have developed the MADE (Mobile Applications Development Environment) software development kit. MADE includes M3P (MicroMultiMedia Player), a network-enabled multimedia player easily programmable through the Micromultimedia Services Language (MSL). MSL provides high-level components, which encapsulate advanced services (e.g. positioning, database query, path search, etc.) that can be easily integrated in multimedia presentations. This allows developers to build modular applications, which can give richly informative services to the general public through a coherent and homogeneous multimedia HCI, that can be learned with a low mental workload. On the other hand, MADE hides the low-level aspects of multimedia and service management, allowing designers to focus on the modalities of presentation of information and on the user interaction. Our tests have revealed that MADE supports a sort of constructive approach to applications' development, which is particularly suitable for novice programmers. Moreover, MSL allows an integration of advanced services in multimedia interfaces without increasing the complexity of code writing. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2003617,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {MADE: Developing edutainment applications on mobile computers},
    journal = {Computers and Graphics (Pergamon)},
    year = {2003},
    volume = {27},
    number = {4},
    pages = {617-634},
    note = {cited By 14},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0041698199&doi=10.1016%2fS0097-8493%2803%2900105-5&partnerID=40&md5=c1efb1b941e75ebaba1454fa2d5f10ef},
    doi = {10.1016/S0097-8493(03)00105-5}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Ferretti E and Margarone M (2003), "VeGame: Exploring Art and History in Venice", Computer. Vol. 36(9), pp. 48-55.
Abstract: An overview of the VeGame that explores the art and history of Venice is presented. VeGame is a computer-based game which uses a handheld platform and educational software for leveraging video game techniques. In regard with it, an account of VeGame's architecture and its characteristics is also presented.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti200348,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Ferretti, E. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {VeGame: Exploring Art and History in Venice},
    journal = {Computer},
    year = {2003},
    volume = {36},
    number = {9},
    pages = {48-55},
    note = {cited By 23},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0141494335&doi=10.1109%2fMC.2003.1231194&partnerID=40&md5=1b27dfde818153eec9861ba28b869d33},
    doi = {10.1109/MC.2003.1231194}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Margarone M (2002), "User testing a hypermedia tour guide", IEEE Distributed Systems Online. Vol. 3(6)
Abstract: Evaluation of hypermedia guides on palmtop computers at Genoa's Costa Aquarium was performed. The experimental framework at the aquarium, as well as design issues and the guides' interface structure were also discussed. Extensive testing was performed in all phases of design, development, deployment, and redesign, including early tests with experts, questionnaires, think-aloud sessions, and ethnographic observations of user behavior. The results show that the tour guide supports better knowledge acquisition.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2002,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {User testing a hypermedia tour guide},
    journal = {IEEE Distributed Systems Online},
    year = {2002},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    note = {cited By 2},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-9644262287&partnerID=40&md5=24b9ec1066b1e91aa071151767baf027}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Margarone M (2002), "Using 3D sound to improve the effectiveness of the advanced driver assistance systems", Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. Vol. 6(3), pp. 155-163.
Abstract: Future generation cars will be characterized by a wide range of Information Technology (IT) services providing safety and infotainment. This makes the car an information intensive environment where the visual channel is overloaded, putting the safety of drivers and passengers in jeopardy. We propose the use of a 3D auditory display to provide information from the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. This reduces the eye-off-road time, exploiting the human capability to associate sounds with positions in space. Preliminary lab tests reveal the suitability of this approach. The system still has to be carefully tuned and personalized to achieve usability and reliability, but we think that it provides a complementary channel that is specially useful in low visibility conditions. © 2002 Springer-Verlag London Ltd.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2002155,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {Using 3D sound to improve the effectiveness of the advanced driver assistance systems},
    journal = {Personal and Ubiquitous Computing},
    year = {2002},
    volume = {6},
    number = {3},
    pages = {155-163},
    note = {cited By 22},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-67650538305&doi=10.1007%2fs007790200016&partnerID=40&md5=3345c8be829202c503909ad2006a4305},
    doi = {10.1007/s007790200016}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Margarone M (2002), "User testing a hypermedia tour guide", IEEE Pervasive Computing. Vol. 1(2), pp. 33-41.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti200233,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Margarone, M.},
    title = {User testing a hypermedia tour guide},
    journal = {IEEE Pervasive Computing},
    year = {2002},
    volume = {1},
    number = {2},
    pages = {33-41},
    note = {cited By 66},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-28044473977&doi=10.1109%2fMPRV.2002.1012335&partnerID=40&md5=e3def6dff54ed670526dfe56b37272d0},
    doi = {10.1109/MPRV.2002.1012335}
  }
  
Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A and Poggi A (2001), "DirectJ: Java APIs for optimized 2D graphics", Software - Practice and Experience. Vol. 31(3), pp. 259-275.
Abstract: The ever more widespread diffusion of Java interfaces and animations has highlighted the performance problems of the Java graphics environment. We have analyzed the bottleneck and created a set of APIs that support direct access to platform specific hardware resources for graphics acceleration. We have also re-implemented standard APIs in order to allow transparent direct access also by programs using standard JFC. The improvement in performance of about one order of magnitude encourages the utilization of Java for realizing fluid animations on large windows.
BibTeX:
  @article{Bellotti2001259,
    author = {Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A. and Poggi, A.},
    title = {DirectJ: Java APIs for optimized 2D graphics},
    journal = {Software - Practice and Experience},
    year = {2001},
    volume = {31},
    number = {3},
    pages = {259-275},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0035280653&doi=10.1002%2fspe.365&partnerID=40&md5=e8a590fbc1fa0987ad6b660814d47eac},
    doi = {10.1002/spe.365}
  }
  
Barisone A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2001), "JSBricks: A suite of microbenchmarks for the evaluation of Java as a scientific execution environment", Future Generation Computer Systems. Vol. 18(2), pp. 293-306.
Abstract: The widely recognized praises of the Java technology have made it appealing also for the development of computation-intensive scientific and engineering programs. However, the software layers necessary to execute Java code on different platforms impose a performance pay-off that is often too costly. In order to evaluate at low level detail the support provided by the different execution environments, we have developed JSBricks (Java Scientific Bricks), a suite of microbenchmarks that implement basic algorithms which are largely used in complex scientific applications. In this paper we analyse the performance of JSBricks benchmarks on different execution environments, also providing insights into aspects that could be optimized with a view to enhancing the quality of Java code execution. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
  @article{Barisone2001293,
    author = {Barisone, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {JSBricks: A suite of microbenchmarks for the evaluation of Java as a scientific execution environment},
    journal = {Future Generation Computer Systems},
    year = {2001},
    volume = {18},
    number = {2},
    pages = {293-306},
    note = {cited By 5},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0035478413&doi=10.1016%2fS0167-739X%2800%2900097-2&partnerID=40&md5=81d07744c953a1aacabc0d43a6cb37d0},
    doi = {10.1016/S0167-739X(00)00097-2}
  }
  
Barisone A, Bellotti F, Berta R and De Gloria A (2000), "Invocation profile characterization of Java applications", 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software, ISPASS 2000. , pp. 116-122.
Abstract: Low performance of Java code execution (J. Gosling et al., 1996) has risen in the computer science community the awareness of the need for reengineering. This is mainly due to the software layer called Java Virtual Machine (T. Lindholm and F. Yellin, 1997), which allows Java applications to be multiplatform, but also to object oriented languages features, that impose a higher performance cost than procedural languages (B. Calder et al., 1994). Dynamic message dispatching (also called virtual invocation), for instance, is the mechanism that allows polymorphism, one of the most interesting features of object oriented technology. Comparing this mechanism with a statically resolved function call, two kinds of overhead can be singled out (a direct cost and an indirect cost) (K. Driesen and U. Holzle, 1996), that make the utilization of virtual invocations time-consuming. The authors present an analysis of the invocation profile of Java applications, assessing the actual necessity for dynamic dispatching, analyzing the related performance costs and determining rules for an algorithm for the automatic inlining of methods. © 2000 IEEE.
BibTeX:
  @conference{Barisone2000116,
    author = {Barisone, A. and Bellotti, F. and Berta, R. and De Gloria, A.},
    title = {Invocation profile characterization of Java applications},
    journal = {2000 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software, ISPASS 2000},
    year = {2000},
    pages = {116-122},
    note = {cited By 1},
    url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84962176482&doi=10.1109%2fISPASS.2000.842290&partnerID=40&md5=1f2aaacf707523a54a7ac5eecb7c33d7},
    doi = {10.1109/ISPASS.2000.842290}
  }